The current approach in automation of palm oil mills has one inherent weakness : the emphasis is more on process control than overall plant reliability. No matter how sophisticated the process control system adopted, mechanical failures of critical machines bring the plant to a standstill. Predictive maintenance can virtually eliminate unexpected breakdowns, i.e. increases reliability anc1 therefore productivity. Unexpected breakdowns are especially critical during peak months and downtime can result in substantial financial losses. In this series, the authors will discuss their experiences in the introduction of predictive maintenance in palm oil mills based on the Bruel and Kjaer range of equipment. Practical examples will be provided to illustrate various possible applications of predictive maintenance on palm oil mill machinery.