Energy has always played an important role, be it for survival or the continued development of mankind. Biomass has long been utilised in supplying energy since the beginning of civilisation and still so in prospering the economies of developing countries. It has received renewed attention recently mainly as a consequence of high and volatile oil prices and climate change caused by increased fossil fuel consumption. The focus now is on producing biomass energy as an alternative renewable energy source using matured and readily applicable conversion technologies. Oil palm biomass from the Malaysian palm oil industry poses great potential for energy application, which is abundantly available from the palm oil milling activities (e.g. empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fibres) and oil palm pruning/replanting activities from the plantations (e.g. oil palm frond (OPF) and oil palm trunk (OPT)). Thus, oil palm biomass is advantageous to be converted into useful and profitable bioproducts (e.g. fuel, chemical and material).