TT No. 528: Best Management Practices For Oil Palm Cultivation On Peat: Using Zeolite as Soil Conditioner

Oil palm cultivation on peat in Malaysia was estimated at 0.67 million hectares (Wahid et al., 2010). The poor physical and chemical properties of peat need amelioration for successful cultivation on peat such as land preparation, planting technique, water management, fertiliser requirements and mechanisation have been documented (Gurmit et al., 1987; Hasnol et al., 2007;2010; Mohd Tayeb, […]

TS No. 129: Barrier Effect Efficacy Testing for Skin Protection

Skin is the largest organ of the human body. It is our first line of defense against external dirt, infections and other irritants that could potentially affect our health. Barrier protective products have been developed for skin protection that can ward off external harmful elements, which can penetrate the epidermis and cause untold damage to […]

TS No. 128: Oleochemical Process Incubator : Soap Manufacturing

Soap is the product of the reaction between a fatty acid and an alkali. Fatty acids are obtained from the triglycerides (fats and oils) of either animal or plant origin such as palm oil. There are three ways to make soap: saponification of oils/fats; neutralisation of fatty acids; and saponification of methyl esters of fatty […]

TS No. 127: Oleochemical Process Incubator : Falling Film Reactor for Sulphonation

In 2010, about 13.1 million tonnes of surfactants were used globally, where 56% were anionic surfactants. Almost 49% of the surfactant produced was used in the household product category. Sulphonation plants which mainly produce anionic surfactants are scattered around the globe with capacities varying from 3000 to 50 000 t yr-1. It is estimated that […]

TS No. 126: Oil Palm Synthetic Seeds

An artificial or synthetic seed (SS) is defined as a somatic (SE) or other selected tissue within a coating of a specific material, resembling a zygotic seed. The synthetic coating serves as an endosperm, consisting of among others, carbon sources, nutrients, growth hormones and anti-microbial agents. The synthetic coating and the embryo seed may be […]