TS No. 125: Oil Palm Haploid Technology : Screening for Naturally Occurring Haploids

Haploids are individuals with gametic chromosome number (n) or having a single set of chromosomes. Knowledge of the haploid number is useful in breeding and genetic studies. Haploids are used to produce double haploids (2n) where the chromosom number is doubled using chemicals. Chemicals such as colchicine or oryzalin interfere with tubulin formation during mitosis. […]

TS No. 124: Carbon and Nitrogen Analyses in Microbiol Samples

Several researchers have reported the importance of total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon (TOC) and carbon per nitrogen ratios (C/N) in microbial cultures. These information are useful in understanding the metabolism of microbes and may be used to select the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for cultivation. In wastewater and stream water, […]

TS No. 123: Gas Chromatopgraphy-flame lonisation Detection Method for Determination of 1,4-dioxane in Palm-based Fatty Alcohol Ethoxylate

The compund 1,4-dioxane can be formed as a by-product during the polymerisation of ethylene oxide (EO) to produce a polyethoxylate surfactant such as fatty alcohol ethoxylates (FAEO) and polysorbates, as a result of the combination and rearrangement of EO. Polyethoxylated raw materials are widely used in cosmetic and personal care (CPC) products as surfactants, emulsifiers, […]