Animal fats have been singled out as the cause of dietary diseases due to the saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids content. However, animal fat is one of the major ingredients in processed meat formulations. In order to reduce the consumption of animal fats in daily intakes, fat substitution can be done. This is applied in many vegetarian food formulations.
Tofu, tempeh and seitan have been used in various vegetarian dishes. Tofu is made by coagulating fresh soya milk to form curds which then are pressed to remove excess liquid. It is a rich source of protein and calcium. Tempeh is a widely consumed fermented food in Asia. It is high in protein, fibre and vitamin B12. Seitan is made of wheat gluten and has been exploited in products such as bakery products, soups, extruded products and ready-to-eat snacks.
Main Research: Rafidah Abd Hamid