Search
LIST OF ARTICLES

PDF of individual article can be purchased from Palm Information Centre, MPOB
Tel: 603-8769 4928 Fax: 603-8925 4213 Email: palmoils@mpob.gov.my

Article Info

No: 77 (November 2018) p19-25
The Potentials of Laser Cutting Technologies for Oil Palm Harvesting
Mohd Ikmal Hafizi Azaman*; Mohd Adzir Mahdi**; Abdul Razak Jelani*; Mohd Rizal Ahmad* and Abd Rahim Shuib*

Download PDF

Abstract


The Potentials of Laser Cutting Technologies for Oil Palm Harvesting

Malaysia is currently experiencing a labour shortage of labours in oil palm plantations, estimated to account for 46% of the total industrial workforce. At present, efforts are being made to increase the productivity of workers by utilising a wide range of intensive mechanisation technologies. Laser technology is a new approach as a tool for oil palm harvesting. Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) and Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) researchers are now focusing on the possibility of cutting frond and oil palm bunches stalk using fibre-pulsed lasers based on their high efficiency, small size and low divergence beams. The pulse regime can also be manipulated to produce high energy pulses, which enables the cutting operation to be conducted effectively. This paper reports the preliminary results of the potential use of laser technology in oil palm harvesting.

Malaysia pada ketika ini sedang mengalami kekurangan tenaga buruh di sektor perladangan sawit yang dianggarkan sebanyak 46% daripada jumlah tersebut. Pada masa ini usaha untuk meningkatkan produktiviti pekerja dengan menggunakan pelbagai teknologi mekanisasi sedang diperluaskan. Teknologi laser merupakan satu pendekatan baru sebagai alat penuaian sawit. Penyelidik MPOB dan UPM kini memberi tumpuan kepada kemungkinan penggunaan fibrepulse laser untuk memotong pelepah dan tandan sawit berdasarkan kecekapannya yang tinggi, saiznya yang kecil, dan lencongan cahaya yang rendah. Rejim nadi boleh dimanipulasikan untuk menghasilkan denyutan tenaga tinggi yang membolehkan operasi pemotongan dijalankan dengan berkesan. Kertas kerja ini melaporkan keputusan awal potensi penggunaan teknologi laser ini dalam penuaian sawit.



Keyword(s): oil palm, harvesting technology, laser cutting.

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 77 (November 2018) p14-18
The Importance of Sustainable Management for Common Oil Palm Insect Pests
Peter A C Ooi* and Norman Kamarudin**

Download PDF

Abstract


The Importance of Sustainable Management for Common Oil Palm Insect Pests

The oil palm is an exotic plant from Africa that has contributed vastly to the national economy and development. Many of the insect pests on oil palm come from other native palms, in particular coconut palm. The outbreak of pests in coconuts is rare because the pests are usually controlled by their natural enemies. In recent times, the emergence of bagworms and the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, in oil palm has raised concerns of growers. Recent studies have shown that both bagworms and rhinoceros beetle can be managed by native microbials, including Bacillus thuringiensis, nudivirus and Metarrhizium sp. The current state of oil palm pest control requires the expansion and use of the pest management control and tactics in order to ensure long term control of insect pests to sustain the profitability of oil palm.

Sawit adalah tumbuhan eksotik dari Afrika yang telah banyak menyumbang kepada ekonomi dan pembangunan negara. Terdapat serangga perosak tanaman kelapa yang boleh merosakkan tanaman sawit. Serangan yang menyebabkan perosak merebak bagi perosak kelapa amat jarang berlaku kerana dikawal oleh musuh semulajadinya. Pada masa ini, ulat bungkus dan kumbang badak, menjadi perosak penting yang menimbulkan kebimbangan penanam sawit. Kajian terbaru menunjukkan bahawa ulat bungkus dan kumbang badak ini boleh diurus dengan mikrob asli seperti Bacillus thuringiensis, nudivirus dan kulat, Metarrhizium sp. Kawalan perosak tanaman sawit perlu diperluaskan dan taktik kawalan secara biologi haruslah dieksploitasi untuk memastikan kawalan jangka panjang serangga perosak demi kesinambungan tanaman sawit yang mapan.



Keyword(s):

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 77 (November 2018) p8-13
Profiling of Metabolites Present in Ethyl Acetate Fractionation of Trichoderma virens 7b
Lee Pei Lee Angel*; Shamala Sundram*; Bonnie Tay Yen Ping*; Mohd Termizi Yusof** and Intan Safinar Ismail**

Download PDF

Abstract


Profiling of Metabolites Present in Ethyl Acetate Fractionation of Trichoderma virens 7b

Endophytic Trichoderma virens 7b isolated from oil palm roots has been extensively studied to determine its potential against the oil palm pathogen, Ganoderma. The activities of its nonpolar metabolites were previously reported to show the highest inhibition on G. boninense PER71 growth compared to other extracts. Nevertheless, it is also important to understand the activity of its semipolar metabolites towards G. boninense. Therefore, this study aims to reveal the list of metabolites in T. virens 7b extracted using ethyl acetate and the effect of extracts on G. boninense PER71. The ethyl acetate extract led to a significant decrease in the growth rate of G. boninense PER71 from 6.7 mm day-1 to 2.9 mm day-1. This resulted in a percentage inhibition of radial growth (PIRG) of 59.63% ± 9.13. Coiling and clumping of the G. boninense’s hyphae observed by scanning electron microscope subjected to ethyl acetate extract explain the growth inhibition. The metabolite profiles showed the presence of potential antifungal compounds which may contribute to the inhibition. These include succinimide and isolongifolene, 4,5,9,10-dehydro.

Trichoderma virens 7b endofitik yang dipencil daripada akar pokok sawit telah dikaji untuk menentukan potensinya dalam menentang patogen sawit, Ganoderma. Aktiviti metabolit bukan polar yang dilaporkan sebelum ini telah menunjukkan perencatan pertumbuhan paling tinggi terhadap G. boninense PER71 berbanding ekstrak lain. Walau bagaimanapun, aktiviti metabolit semi-polar terhadap G. boninense adalah penting untuk dikaji. Oleh itu, kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil metabolit dalam T. virens 7b yang diekstrak menggunakan etil asetat dan kesan ekstrak terhadap G. boninense PER71. Ekstrak etil asetat berjaya mengurangkan kadar pertumbuhan G. boninense PER71 dari 6.7 mm hari-1 kepada 2.9 mm hari-1. Hasilnya, peratus perencatan pertumbuhan G. boninense PER71 adalah sebanyak 59.63% ± 9.13. Cerapan mikroskop elektron imbasan (SEM) menunjukkan bahawa ekstrak etil asetat telah menyebabkan penggelungan dan pembentukan ketulan hifa G. boninense PER71, menjelaskan perencatan pertumbuhan G. boninense PER71. Profil metabolit menunjukkan kehadiran sebatian antifungal iaitu succinimide dan isolongifolene, 4,5,9,10-dehydro yang boleh menyumbang kepada perencatan G. boninense PER71.



Keyword(s): biological control agent, Trichoderma virens, ethyl acetate, antifungal compounds

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 77 (November 2018) p1-7
Biochar as Soil’s Best Friend – A Review
Nurzuhaili, H A Z A*; Zuraidah, Y*; Hasnol, O* and Afandi, A M*

Download PDF

Abstract


Biochar as Soil’s Best Friend – A Review

In order to deal with environmental sustainability issues such as global climate change, food and energy crisis as well as environmental pollution, biochar had been widely used as a tool to combat these problems. It might act as soil carbon sink to restore soil organic carbon (SOC) larger than its inherent capacity, thus reducing the emission of greenhouse gasses (GHGs). The high soil carbon storage, available nutrient elemental composition, high aromatic structure, high porosity, and high alkalinity of biochar are factors for it to act ideally as potential soil improver. Studies thus far have shown the properties of biochar and its effect on crops and ecosystems vary, mainly because of differences in biomass sources and production processes. The aim of this review paper is to summarise the benefits of applying the biochar from various sources in soil in order to overcome climate change and improve soil properties thereby increasing crop productivity.

Dalam usaha untuk menangani isu-isu berkaitan kelestarian alam sekitar seperti perubahan iklim global, bio-arang telah diberi pendekatan secara meluas sebagai satu kaedah untuk mengatasi perubahan iklim. Ia mampu bertindak sebagai penyimpan/penyerap karbon tanah secara lebih banyak daripada secara semulajadi bagi memulihkan karbon organic tanah (SOC), sekaligus dapat mengurangkan pelepasan gas rumah hijau (GHG). Sifat-sifat bio-arang termasuk penyimpan karbon tanah yang tinggi, terdapat komposisi unsur nutrien yang tersedia, terdapat struktur aromatik, tahap keliangan dan tahap kealkalian yang tinggi adalah antara faktor-faktor yang membolehkan bioarang sesuai bertindak sebagai pembaik tanah yang berpotensi. Kajian-kajian sepanjang masa ini telah menunjukkan keputusan yang berbeza terhadap sifatsifat bio-arang serta implikasinya terhadap tanaman dan ekosistem, sebahagian besarnya berpunca daripada sumber biojisim dan proses penghasilan yang berbeza. Oleh itu, tujuan rencana ini adalah untuk merumuskan kelebihan penggunaan bioarang daripada pelbagai sumber dalam tanah untuk mengatasi perubahan iklim, memperbaiki sifat-sifat tanah di samping meningkatkan produktiviti.



Keyword(s): biochar, climate change, soil fertility, carbon storage

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 76 (May 2018) p22-27
The Use of Indigenous Trichoderma in Controlling Phytophthora palmivora – An In Vitro Investigation
S Sundram* and M A Intan Nur Ainni*

Download PDF

Abstract


The Use of Indigenous Trichoderma in Controlling Phytophthora palmivora – An In Vitro Investigation

Oil palm bud rot is a disease that destroys the young tissues of palms, and Phytophthora palmivora has been identified as the causal pathogen. The disease is devastating the South American oil palm industry. The pathogen is also known to be responsible for a number of serious diseases in cocoa, durian, jackfruit and coconut. A biosecurity threat is imminent in Malaysia due to the fact that P. palmivora is an indigenous pathogen affecting local commodity crops. Various research activities have been initiated to assess the potential threat imposed by the pathogen on oil palm. These include an investigation into one of the three components of biosecurity, i.e. developing long-term approaches for reducing and managing the effects of a potential outbreak. Four candidates of Trichoderma virens (PP9, PP29, T7b and T159c) that control Ganoderma effectively were selected for further investigation. An in vitro assessment subjected on 11 strains of P. palmivora to these Trichoderma isolates. Endophytic T. virens isolates T7b and T159c recorded good mycelial inhibition, ranging from 54%-77%, compared with the non-endophytic isolates of T. virens PP9 and PP29. The efficacy of extracellular metabolites of these four T. virens isolates was also tested on the two most aggressive strains representative of P. palmivora (P3 and P7). The study demonstrates the potential use of local Trichoderma isolates in controlling P. palmivora, and warrants further investigations to be conducted in the nursery and in the field.

Reput umbut sawit adalah penyakit yang merosakkan tisu-tisu muda pokok sawit dan Phytophthora palmivora telah dikenalpasti sebagai patogen penyakit tersebut. Penyakit ini kini menghancurkan industri sawit di Amerika Selatan. Patogen ini juga menyebabkan beberapa penyakit serius pada koko, durian, nangka dan kelapa. Ancaman biosekuriti dikhuatiri di Malaysia kerana P. palmivora adalah patogen yang menjangkiti tanaman komoditi tempatan. Pelbagai aktiviti penyelidikan sedang dilakukan untuk menilai potensi ancaman oleh patogen ini terhadap sawit. Ini termasuk siasatan pada salah satu komponen biosekuriti, iaitu pendekatan jangka panjang untuk mengurangkan dan mengurus kesan wabak yang berpotensi. Empat agen kawalan Trichoderma (PP9, PP29, T7b dan T159c telah dikenalpasti dapat mengawal Ganoderma dengan berkesan dipilih untuk siasatan lanjut. Penilaian in vitro terhadap keberkesanan empat isolat tersebut dilakukan pada 11 isolat P. palmivora. Isolat T. virens endofitik T7b dan T159c mencatatkan perencatan miselium yang baik (antara 54% dan 77%) berbanding dengan isolat T. virens bukan endofitik PP9 dan PP29. Keberkesanan metabolit ekstraselular daripada empat isolat T. virens ini juga diuji pada dua strain P. palmivora yang paling agresif (P3 dan P7). Kajian ini menunjukkan potensi penggunaan isolat Trichoderma tempatan untuk mengawal P. palmivora, dan juga menunjukkan siasatan lanjut di tapak semaian dan ladang perlu dilakukan.



Keyword(s): oil palm, bud rot, Phytophthora palmivora, biosecurity, Trichoderma

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 76 (May 2018) p15-21
Consumptive Water Use Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment-based Water Footprint for Palm Oil
Vijaya Subramaniam*; Zulkifli Hashim*; Soh Kheang Loh* and Astimar Abdul Aziz*

Download PDF

Abstract


Consumptive Water Use Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment-based Water Footprint for Palm Oil

Water scarcity and climate change are serious issues facing our planet. This study evaluates the impacts caused by water consumption of oil palm, from seedling until the production of crude palm oil, based on a full tlife cycle assessment. The consumptive water use evaluation for direct water was based on the local water stress index (WSI). The system boundary included the oil palm nursery, plantation (with land use change from oil palm to oil palm, and from logged-over forest to oil palm) and palm oil mill (in a biogas capture scenario). The findings show that direct water used by the palms and for processes is low. This is valid as most oil palm plantations are not irrigated but rather rain-fed, coupled with Malaysia’s climate that is characterised by high rainfall, leading to a very low WSI for the country. The main potential impacts within the system boundary are dominated by land conversion, production and use of fertilisers and pesticides. These findings contradict the general perception of any agriculture system, i.e. the notion assuming that water used during crop cultivation will have a major potential impact. It is recommended that oil palm plantations implement Good Agricultural Practices that help address the key elements of land and water management, as well as fertiliser and integrated pest management to obtain a favourable water footprint.

Kekurangan air dan perubahan iklim merupakan isu serius yang dihadapi oleh planet kita. Kajian ini mengkaji impak yang disebabkan oleh penggunaan air oleh pokok sawit, daripada peringkat anak benih sehingga pengeluaran minyak sawit mentah, berasaskan penilaian kitar hayat lengkap. Kajian penggunaan air secara langsung adalah berdasarkan indeks tekanan air tempatan (WSI). Sempadan kajian termasuk tapak semaian sawit, perladangan (dengan perubahan penggunaan tanah daripada sawit kepada sawit, dan daripada pembalakan hutan kepada sawit) dan kilang minyak sawit (dengan senario penangkapan biogas). Hasil kajian menunjukkan penggunan air yang digunakan secara lansung oleh pokok dan pemprosesan adalah rendah. Ini disebabkan kebanyakan ladang sawit tidak menggunakan sistem pengairan sebaliknya ladang hanya bergantung kepada air hujan, kerana cuaca Malaysia dicirikan dengan taburan hujan yang tinggi dan menghasilkan WSI yang sangat rendah untuk negara ini. Impak utama dalam sempadan kajian dipengaruhi oleh penukaran tanah, pengeluaran dan penggunaan baja dan racun perosak. Penemuan ini bercanggah dengan persepsi umum tentang sistem pertanian yang mempunyai tanggapan bahawa air yang digunakan untuk penanaman tanaman memberi impak besar. Adalah disyorkan ladang sawit patut melaksanakan amalan pertanian baik bagi membantu menangani unsur-unsur utama pengurusan tanah dan air selain pengurusan baja dan pengurusan serangga bersepadu, untuk mendapatkan kadar penggunaan air yang berpatutan.



Keyword(s): water footprint, life cycle assessment, crude palm oil, FFB, oil palm seedlings

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 76 (May 2018) p8-14
Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, Kluang, Johor
Bettycopa Amit*; Andrew Alek Tuen#; Pui Yong Ming# and Mohd Haniff Harun*

Download PDF

Abstract


Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, Kluang, Johor

A rapid assessment survey of the amphibians and reptiles found at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) Research Station in Kluang, Johor, was carried out from 7-10 June 2013. Visual encounter surveys (VES) were used to identify the species of amphibians and reptiles encountered along the six sampling trails. A total of 12 amphibian species from six families and seven reptilian species from five families were discovered and identified in the research station. In terms of amphibians, the most common and widely distributed species were the cricket frog, Hylarana nicobariensis, and the four lined tree frog, Polypedates leucomystax, with both species observed in all of the survey sites. Calls from high numbers of amphibian species were heard in the swampy riparian areas and along the small drains. In terms of reptiles, the clouded monitor lizard, Varanus nebulosus, was observed in all of the survey sites, including along the plantation’s main roads. Maintaining and protecting small streams and swampy areas in the plantation is crucial to preserve amphibian and reptile species and their populations.

Tinjauan terhadap spesies amfibia dan reptilia di Stesen Penyelidikan Minyak Sawit Malaysia (MPOB), Kluang, Johor telah dijalankan pada 7-10 Jun 2013. Survey Encounter Visual (VES) digunakan untuk mengenalpasti spesies amfibia dan reptilia pada enam tapak persampelan. Sejumlah 12 spesies amfibia dari enam famili dan tujuh spesies reptilia dari lima famili telah dikenalpasti hadir di Stesen Penyelidikan MPOB, Kluang. Dari segi amfibia, spesies yang paling umum adalah ‘criket frog’ Hylarana nicobariensis dan ‘four line tree frog’ Polypedates leucomystax, kedua-dua spesies diperhatikan di semua tapak persempelan. Jumlah spesies amfibia yang banyak ditemui di kawasan paya dan saliran parit atau sungai yang kecil. Dari segi reptilia, biawak Varanus nebulosus diperhatikan di semua tapak persampelan termasuk di sepanjang jalan utama perladangan. Dengan mengekalkan dan melindungi kawasan sungai dan paya yang kecil di ladang sawit adalah penting untuk mengekalkan spesies dan populasi amfibia dan reptilia.



Keyword(s): amphibian, reptile, oil palm plantation

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 76 (May 2018) p1-7
Classification of Tropical Peat in Malaysia
Siti Khadijah Hajon*; Hasimah Mos*; Nurmaisarah Jantan* and Haniff MH*

Download PDF

Abstract


Classification of Tropical Peat in Malaysia

Classifying tropical peat is crucial for the oil palm industry, especially studying the effects of different peat types on the agricultural sector in Malaysia. The different defined criteria used for grouping peat lead to different classification systems for temperate and tropical peats. In Malaysia, a better understanding of the differences in the classification systems for tropical peats is needed because the systems are varied further based on the three different regions of Malaysia, namely Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. Very few studies have been carried out to categorise tropical peats using suitable classification systems. These include international schemes for classifying peats, such as Soil Taxonomy, Eleventh Edition (USDA) and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). However, it has been claimed that these international schemes are unsatisfactory for classifying tropical peats. Hence, the local conditions so that it can be applied to most tropical lowland peats. Thus, this paper highlights an improved of tropical peat classification based on several different defined criteria. However, further work is still needed to understand the relationships among peat classification, greenhouse gas emissions and oil palm yield performance.

Klasifikasi gambut tropika adalah penting untuk industri sawit terutama sekali untuk mengkaji kesan jenis gambut yang berbeza terhadap sektor pertanian di Malaysia. Perbezaan definisi dan pengklasifikasian gambut membawa kepada klasifikasi yang berbeza untuk gambut iklim sederhana dan tropika. Di Malaysia, pemahaman yang lebih baik mengenai perbezaan sistem klasifikasi di kawasan tropika diperlukan kerana klasifikasi tersebut dibahagikan berdasarkan kawasan di Malaysia, seperti Semenanjung Malaysia, Sabah dan Sarawak. Hanya beberapa kajian yang telah dilakukan untuk mengklasifikasikan gambut tropika menggunakan sistem klasifikasi yang sesuai. Ini termasuk skim antarabangsa dalam mengklasifikasikan gambut seperti Soil Taxonomy – Eleventh Edition (USDA) dan World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). Walau bagaimanapun, skim antarabangsa ini dikatakan tidak berjaya untuk klasifikasi di gambut tropika. Oleh itu, sistem klasifikasi gambut Malaysia telah dihasilkan dengan penambahbaikan sistem USDA untuk disesuaikan dengan keadaan tempatan dan dapat diaplikasikan di kebanyakkan gambut tropika. Penulisan ini bertujuan untuk menekankan pemahaman yang lebih baik terhadap klasifikasi gambut tropika berdasarkan beberapa definisi yang berbeza. Kajian yang lebih mendalam diperlukan untuk memahami hubungan antara klasifikasi gambut, pelepasan rumah hijau, dan prestasi hasil sawit.



Keyword(s): Tropical peat, temperate peat, peat types, classification system, oil palm

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 75 (November 2017) p27-36
Biogas Capture – A Means of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Loh, S K*; Nasrin, A B*; Mohamad Azri, S*; Nurul Adela, B*; Muzzammil, N*; Daryl Jay, T* and Stasha Eleanor, R A*

Download PDF

Abstract


Biogas Capture – A Means of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Oil palm – being the economic backbone of Malaysia – provides not just palm oil as the main commodity but also many other forms of by-products, namely oil palm trunks, fronds, palm kernel shell, mesocarp fiber, empty fruit bunches and palm oil mill effluent (POME), all of which can be transformed into valueadded products for energy and non-energy uses. POME has been exploited as a renewable energy source under the Entry Point Project (EPP) 5 of the Palm Oil National Key Economic Area (NKEA), Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) since 2010. Implementation of EPP5 by building biogas trapping facilities at all palm oil mills across the country is one of the oil palm industry’s renewable energy initiatives towards environmental sustainability. The production of biogas via anaerobic digestion of POME in the conventional treatment system releases ~65% methane into the atmosphere; methane is 25 times more potent than CO2 as a greenhouse gas (GHG). Biogas capture and its various modes of utilisation, plus the more recently adopted methane avoidance from POME, have thus far progressed satisfactorily in lowering the carbon footprint of palm oil production. By fully harnessing biogas from POME, a projected GHG emissions of ~18 million tonnes CO2eq per annum could be mitigated. This could greatly enhance the competitiveness of palm oil in facing more stringent sustainability requirements as stipulated under the EU Renewable Energy Directive and the USA EPA Renewable Fuel Standard 2 Program. The aim of this paper is to relate the Malaysian experiences in strategising and optimising POME management as well as biogas resource recovery, gearing towards accelerating sustainable palm oil production.

Industri sawit merupakan salah satu sumber ekonomi utama negara. Selain menghasilkan minyak sawit mentah sebagai sumber komoditi utama, ia turut menghasilkan produk sampingan seperti batang sawit, pelepah, tempurung, gentian mesokarpa, tandan buah kosong dan air kumbahan kilang sawit (POME). Kesemua sumber ini boleh digunakan bagi penghasilan produk nilai tambah sama ada untuk penggunaan berasaskan tenaga dan bukan tenaga. POME telah dikenalpasti dan digunakan sebagai sumber tenaga diperbaharui di bawah Projek Permulaan No. 5 (EPP5) – Bidang Ekonomi Utama Negara (NKEA), Program Transformasi Ekonomi Negara (ETP) sejak tahun 2010. Pelaksanaan EPP5 yang mensasarkan pembangunan loji pemerangkapan biogas di kilang sawit di seluruh negara merupakan salah satu inisiatif industri sawit negara ke arah pembangunan lestari dan mesra alam. Biogas yang terhasil daripada penguraian anaerobik ke atas POME dalam sistem rawatan kovensional membebaskan 65% gas metana ke atmosfera; metana berpotensi sebagai gas rumah hijau yang 25 kali lebih tinggi kesannya daripada gas karbon dioksida (CO2). Pemerangkapan dan penggunaan biogas dengan pelbagai bentuk penjanaan tenaga, termasuklah perlaksanaan projek berasaskan pengelakan metana menggunakan POME, telah berkembang dengan baik bagi mengurangkan jejak karbon untuk penghasilan minyak sawit mentah. Dianggarkan sebanyak 18 juta tan CO2eq setahun dapat dikurangkan sekiranya kesemua biogas yang dihasilkan di kilang sawit di seluruh negara diperangkap dan digunakan semula. Ini akan meningkatkan daya saing minyak sawit di peringkat global yang kini harus memenuhi pelbagai keperluan dan peraturan kemampanan yang ketat seperti yang termaktub di bawah program ‘EU Renewable Energy Directive’ dan ‘USA EPA Renewable Fuel Standard 2’. Artikel ini membincangkan pengalaman Malaysia dalam usaha dan strategi mengoptimumkan pengurusan POME dan penggunaan sumber biogas ke arah memacu pembangunan mampan dalam penghasilan minyak sawit.



Keyword(s): palm oil mill effluent, greenhouse gas, renewable energy, sustainable development, industry initiative

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 75 (November 2017) p17-26
Effects of Chemical Properties of Different Soils on Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)
Yit Kheng Goh*; Choon Kiat Lim*; Cong Rong Cheng*; Suet Yee Tan*; Li Wen Cheah*; Petronella G Ah Tung*; You Keng Goh* and Kah Joo Goh*

Download PDF

Abstract


Effects of Chemical Properties of Different Soils on Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

Variations in the incidence of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) on different soils had been observed in the field. Notably, acid sulphate coastal soils were observed to have higher Ganoderma incidence compared with inland soils. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to study the effects of four different soils belonging to five soil series, namely Parit Botak* and Jawa** series - acid sulphate coastal soil, Bungor*** series - inland soil, Blenheim series - coastal shell deposit soil (Typic Quartzipsamments), and Kabu series - limestonederived soil, coarse sandy loam (Typic Paleudults), on Ganoderma incidence and severity in oil palm seedlings in the nursery. The results show that the seedlings planted on both samples of acid sulphate coastal soils had the highest Ganoderma incidence and severity whereas those planted on coastal shell deposit soil had the lowest. Total number and weight of fruiting bodies produced at five months postinoculation were exponentially correlated to percent reduction in dry weight of Ganoderma-inoculated rubber wood blocks (RWB). Inoculated RWB from Parit Botak series were the most friable and the softest, followed by those from Jawa and Kabu series. Three sets of symptoms of Ganoderma infection were observed: a) leaf symptoms prior to initiation of Ganoderma fruiting bodies (on Bungor and Jawa series); b) leaf symptoms after initiation of Ganoderma fruiting bodies (on Blenheim and Parit Botak series); and c) a combination of the two sets (on Kabu series). Discriminant analyses elucidated that zinc, copper and calcium were associated with more than 50% disease severity index (DSI) and necrotic bole tissues. In contrast, pH, iron, manganese and nitrogen were associated with less than or 50% of DSI and necrotic bole tissues. This study illustrates the impacts of soils with different chemical compositions on the incidence and severity Ganoderma disease.

Pemerhatian di ladang mendapati bahawa insiden penyakit Ganoderma reput pangkal sawit (Elaeis guineensis) adalah berbeza pada tanah yang berlainan. Tanah asid sulfat pantai telah didapati mengalami insiden jangkitan Ganoderma yang lebih tinggi berbanding di tanah pedalaman. Oleh itu, objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji kemungkinan berlaku insiden jangkitan Ganoderma dan tahap kerosakan ke atas anak benih sawit di tapak semaian menggunakan tanah yang berlainan. Kajian ini menggunakan lima siri tanah dari empat taksonomi berbeza iaitu siri Parit Botak* dan siri Jawa** - tanah sulfat asid pantai, siri Bungor*** - tanah pedalaman, siri Blenheim - tanah mendapan shell pantai (Typic Quartzipsamments), dan siri Kabu - tanah terhasil dari batu kapur, lom berpasir kasar (Typic Paleudults). Keputusan mendapati bahawa anak benih yang ditanam di kedua-dua tanah asid sulfat pantai mengalami insiden jangkitan Ganoderma dan tahap kerosakan tertinggi, manakala yang ditanam di tanah mendapan shell pantai mengalami jangkitan terendah lima bulan selepas diinokulasi, jumlah bilangan dan berat jasad berbuah yang dihasilkan didapati mempunyai korelasi secara eksponensial dengan pengurangan peratus berat kering blok kayu getah terinokulasi. RWB yang diinokulasi dari siri Parit Botak adalah yang paling rapuh dan lembut, diikuti oleh RWB di tanah siri Jawa dan Kabu. Pemerhatian dilakukan ke atas tiga set simptom jangkitan Ganoderma: a) simptom daun sebelum terhasilnya jasad berbuah Ganoderma (pada siri Bungor dan Jawa); b) simptom daun selepas terhasilnya jasad berbuah Ganoderma (pada siri Blenheim dan Parit Botak); dan c) gabungan kedua-dua set (pada siri Kabu). Analisis diskriminasi menunjukkan bahawa zink, kuprum dan kalsium mempunyai kaitan dengan indeks kerosakan penyakit (DSI) dan nekrotik di tisu boleh melebihi 50%. Sebaliknya, pH, ferum, mangan dan nitrogen mempunyai kaitan dengan DSI dan nekrotik tisu bole pada tahap 50% atau kurang. Kajian ini menunjukan bahawa tanah yang mengandungi komposisi kimia yang berlainan akan memberi impak berbeza terhadap insiden dan kerosakan disebabkan penyakit Ganoderma.



Keyword(s): BSR, fruiting body, soil nutrients, disease severity, disease incidence

Download PDF

© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
Page 1 of 36

Menu

Popular Titles

BOOKS e-BOOKS e-JOURNALS
   Updated on 1 September 2018  

Subscribed Resources

e-RESOURCES

e-BOOKS 

 

2018 SUBSCRIBED TITLES

USER GUIDE

Updated on 1 May 2019

Portal Survey

Your opinion about PALMOILIS website?

Daily CPO Prices

Quick Links


                 


      

              
Copyright © 2019 PALMOILIS Portal. All Rights Reserved.
Designed & Developed by Palm Information Centre, MPOB. Contact webmaster

Visitor Counter

080743
TodayToday18
YesterdayYesterday90
This WeekThis Week168
This MonthThis Month1450
All DaysAll Days80743