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No: 73 (November 2016) p13-14
MPOB News
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MPOB News

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No: 73 (November 2016) p10-12
Identification of Etiolated Palms for Thinning via IFSAR
Hardi Hadiali*; Siti Nuruljannah A Majid**; Ganesan Nallan* and Lee Teck Fah±

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Identification of Etiolated Palms for Thinning via IFSAR

Remote Sensing (RS) technology has come a long way in assisting the oil palm plantations to increase productivity while simplifying tedious and laborious field work. Utilising the highly accurate RS data like Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) is one of those ways. In this paper, the IFSAR data is used to assist in the identification of etiolated areas on desktop computer level before proceeding to the field for verification. Identification of etiolated palms for thinning is tedious and can be inaccurate if the personnel assigned to the task are not experienced enough. The complexity of selecting the etiolated palms to be thinned is further compounded if the area of interest is on a hilly terrain. Selection and thinning of etiolated palms on hilly terrain is not bounded by any system compared to the hexagonal “1 in 7 ’’ method which is generally adopted in oil palms planted on flat terrain. The IFSAR image enables the GIS team to identify areas where palms are closely planted via the desktop. A single GIS operator can cover up to 200 to 250 hectares per day for this task. This information is then translated in map formats into mobile GPS devices such as the Android Androzic application on smartphones or tablets. With this information, the operation team can zoom into the close planting areas where etiolation will most likely happen. By utilising this extra information, the team can save time and does not have to cover an entire block to identify the etiolated areas. On the ground, the team can then verify and mark out the etiolated palms for thinning. Based on experience, the verification on the ground is crucial as only up to 20% of the palms selected are suitable for thinning. The utilisation of such technology is helpful as it improves productivity and accuracy of the palms selected for thinning.

Teknologi Penderiaan Jauh (PJ) telah lama digunakan bagi membantu ladang-ladang sawit untuk meningkatkan produktiviti dan juga memudahkan kerja lapangan yang agak rumit dan payah. Salah satu cara adalah dengan menggunakan data PJ yang jitu seperti Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR). Dalam artikel ini, data IFSAR telah digunakan untuk membantu dalam mengenalpasti kawasan sawit beretiolasi dengan menggunakan komputer sebelum membuat pengesahan di lapangan. Pengenalpastian pokok sawit etiolasi untuk penjarangan adalah agak rumit dan boleh menjadi tidak tepat jika pegawai yang ditugaskan tidak berpengalaman. Tugas ini menjadi lebih rumit di kawasan berbukit. Pemilihan dan penjarangan pokok sawit etiolasi di kawasan berbukit tidak terikat dengan mana-mana sistem, berbanding dengan kaedah heksagon “1 dalam 7‘’ yang biasanya diterima pakai di kawasan yang rata. Imej IFSAR membolehkan pasukan GIS untuk mengenalpasti kawasan di mana pokok sawit yang ditanam rapat melalui komputer. Seorang pengendali GIS boleh menjalankan tugas ini meliputi sehingga 200 hingga 250 hektar sehari. Maklumat ini kemudian diterjemahkan dalam format peta ke dalam peranti GPS mudah alih seperti aplikasi Android Androzic pada telefon pintar atau tablet. Dengan maklumat ini juga, pasukan operasi boleh memberi tumpuan kepada kawasan penanaman rapat di mana kemungkinan besar akan berlaku etiolasi. Maklumat tambahan ini membolehkan petugas menjimatkan masa kerana tidak perlu meneliti keseluruhan blok untuk mengenalpasti kawasan sawit beretiolasi. Mereka kemudiannya boleh mengesahkan dan menandakan pokok sawit etiolasi di lapangan untuk penjarangan. Berdasarkan pengalaman, pengesahan di lapangan adalah penting kerana hanya 20% sahaja daripada pokok sawit yang dipilih adalah sesuai untuk penjarangan. Penggunaan teknologi ini dapat membantu untuk meningkatkan produktiviti dan pemilihan tepat pokok sawit untuk penjarangan.



Keyword(s): Remote Sensing, oil palm, productivity, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, etiolated palms, thinning, map formats

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No: 73 (November 2016) p6-9
Reduced Fertiliser Rounds Trial: Comparison between Compound and Mixture Fertilisers in High Rainfall Environment
Lee Teck Fah*; Alexander Aban**; Phor Kok Beng± and Haniff Salleh**

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Reduced Fertiliser Rounds Trial: Comparison between Compound and Mixture Fertilisers in High Rainfall Environment

The choice of fertiliser recommended and applied in the oil palm estates has significant impact on the production of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). While it has been established that more application rounds at lower dosages is more efficient for nutrient uptake for the oil palms, it is not practical on the ground for the planters to be recommended with 7 to 8 rounds of fertiliser application annually. In most parts of Sabah where annual rainfall averages between 3500 mm to 4000 mm, it is even more challenging for estates to have high number of application rounds due to the shorter window (about 8 months) for fertiliser application and labour shortage constraints. Hence, incomplete fertiliser application can be detrimental to the oil palm yields in the long term. In this trial, Genting Plantations Berhad (GENP) evaluated a compound fertiliser regime at 4 application rounds against two mixture fertiliser regimes at 5 and 6 application rounds respectively. The trial started in 2011 and was conducted on 1998 planting with undulating to rolling terrain. Fertiliser applied at the trial site is based on best oil palm management practices and is fully supervised by the estate and research team. In terms of FFB yield, there is no significant difference between the compound fertiliser treatment and best performing mixture treatment (6 rounds application) after 48 months. No significant difference was also observed in the leaf nutrient levels between the compound and mixture fertiliser treatments. Comparison between the two mixture fertiliser treatments which were applied at 5 and 6 rounds respectively reaffirms previous research findings that the increase in frequency of application improves the fertiliser uptake efficiency as FFB yield for the mixture fertiliser treatment with 6 rounds application was 8% higher than the mixture fertilizer treatment with 5 rounds application. Between these two treatments, average bunch weight (ABW) was higher by 6% and average bunch number was higher by 2%. Application of compound fertilizers at a reduced fertiliser rounds regime can produce similar FFB yields to mixture fertiliser regimes. The usage of compound fertilisers can address the issue of incomplete fertiliser application in areas of high rainfall which usually has less good months for fertiliser application.

Pilihan baja yang betul dan diaplikasi mengikut pengesyoran di ladang sawit mempunyai kesan yang signifikan ke atas hasil buah tandan segar (BTS). Walaupun telah diketahui bahawa lebih kerap pusingan pembajaan dengan dos yang lebih rendah membolehkan pokok sawit mengambil nutrien dengan lebih cekap, tetapi ianya tidak praktikal kepada pekebun untuk melakukan 7-8 pusingan pembajaan setiap tahun. Purata hujan tahunan antara 3500 mm hingga 4000 mm di kebanyakan tempat di Sabah, adalah cabaran bagi ladang-ladang untuk mempunyai bilangan pusingan pembajaan yang tinggi kerana kekangan masa aplikasi yang lebih pendek (kira-kira 8 bulan) dan juga kekurangan tenaga kerja. Oleh itu, aplikasi baja yang tidak lengkap boleh menjejaskan hasil sawit dalam jangka masa panjang. Dalam kajian ini, Genting Plantations Berhad (GENP) menilai rejim baja sebatian pada 4 pusingan pembajaan terhadap dua rejim baja campuran masing-masing pada 5 dan 6 pusingan pembajaan. Kajian bermula pada tahun 2011 dan telah dijalankan keatas pokok yang ditanam pada tahun 1998 di kawasan mukabumi tidak rata dan beralun. Pembajaan yang dilakukan berdasarkan kepada amalan pengurusan sawit terbaik dan diselia sepenuhnya oleh ladang tersebut dan sekumpulan penyelidik. Selepas 48 bulan, tiada perbezaan signifikan pada hasil BTS di antara rawatan baja sebatian dan baja campuran (6 pusingan pembajaan). Tiada perbezaan yang signifikan juga diperhatikan pada kandungan nutrien daun antara pokok yang dirawat dengan rawatan baja sebatian dan campuran. Perbandingan antara kedua-dua rawatan baja campuran yang telah digunakan masing-masing pada 5 dan 6 pusingan pembajaan menyokong penemuan penyelidikan sebelum ini bahawa aplikasi baja yang lebih kerap akan meningkatkan kecekapan pengambilan baja dan akan meningkatkan hasil BTS. Rawatan baja campuran dengan 6 pusingan pembajaan memperolehi hasil TBS 8% lebih tinggi daripada rawatan 5 pusingan pembajaan. Manakala, berat dan bilangan tandan adalah masing-masing 6% dan 2% lebih tinggi. Penggunaan baja sebatian dengan rejim pusingan pembajaan yang dikurangkan boleh memberikan hasil BTS yang sama dengan rejim baja campuran. Dengan itu penggunaan baja sebatian boleh menangani isu aplikasi baja yang tidak lengkap di kawasan yang menerima hujan yang tinggi yang biasanya mempunyai masa yang terhad untuk pembajaan.



Keyword(s): fertiliser, oil palm, FFB, application rounds, nutrient uptake, rainfall

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Article Info

No: 73 (November 2016) p1-5
Quality Testing Laboratory for the Oil Palm Motorised Cutter
Abdul Razak Jelani*; Mohd Ikmal Hafizi Azaman*; Mohd Rizal Ahmad*; Zahara Mohamed*; Syahmin Sukawai*; Asyraf Aziz*; Asyraf Aduka*; Yosri Gono* and Abd Rahim Shuib*

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Abstract


Quality Testing Laboratory for the Oil Palm Motorised Cutter

Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) has developed a hand-held motorised harvesting tool called Cantas for fresh fruit bunches (FFB) harvesting. Several local and foreign companies have been licensed to manufacture and market the technology. It is crucial that the machine complies with the industry standard in terms of performance, durability and safety. In fulfilling this, MPOB has established a Quality Testing Laboratory to carry out vigorous quality and safety tests. These include physical test, engine’s performance, fatigue, functional, vibration and drop tests. Upon successful completion of the tests, manufacturers are awarded the certificate of quality. Services offered by the Quality Testing Laboratory benefits manufacturers of oil palm motorised cutter to ensure the products meet the industry standards for performance, durability and safety.

Lembaga Minyak Sawit Malaysia (MPOB) telah membangunkan alat penuaian bermotor yang dipanggil Cantas untuk menuai buah tandan segar (BTS). Beberapa syarikat tempatan dan juga asing telah mempunyai lesen untuk mengeluar dan memasarkan teknologi ini. Mesin ini perlu mematuhi piawaian industri dari segi prestasi, ketahanan dan keselamatan. Untuk memenuhi piawaian ini, MPOB telah menubuhkan Makmal Ujian Kualiti untuk menjalankan ujian kualiti dan keselamatan. Ini termasuk ujian fizikal, prestasi enjin, kelesuan, fungsi, getaran dan ujian kejatuhan. Pengeluar akan dianugerahkan sijil kualiti setelah berjaya melalui ujian tersebut. Perkhidmatan yang ditawarkan oleh Makmal Ujian Kualiti memberi manfaat kepada pengeluar alat penuaian bermotor bagi memastikan produk tersebut memenuhi piawaian industri untuk prestasi, ketahanan dan keselamatan.



Keyword(s): motorised harvesting tool / cutter, FFB, industry standard, quality testing laboratory, performance

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Article Info

No: 72 (May 2016) p38-39
MPOB News
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MPOB News

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No: 72 (May 2016) p32-37
Harvesting Practices for Maximum Yield in Oil Palm: Results from a Re-Assessment at IJM Plantations, Sabah
Mohanaraj, S N* and Donough, C R**

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Harvesting Practices for Maximum Yield in Oil Palm: Results from a Re-Assessment at IJM Plantations, Sabah

Recoverable yield of fresh fruit bunches (FFB), palm oil (PO, or oil) and palm kernel (PK, or kernel) are determined during harvesting. After harvest, losses occur as harvested FFB lose weight with time and loose fruits (LF) of harvested bunches are not all collected; and oil quality starts to deteriorate as free fatty acid (FFA) content rises. The quantum of loss and the degree of oil quality deterioration depend on the efficiency of harvesting practices which must balance maximum oil yield and acceptable oil quality. Harvesting involves teams of workers visiting blocks of palms at regular intervals to cut and recover ripe bunches. Field managers determine the minimum ripeness standard and manage the harvesting interval, the combination of both factors determines the overall ripeness composition of the harvested crop. In practice, the minimum ripeness standard (MRS) may be difficult to enforce but with adequate resources the harvesting interval (HI) can be controlled. Bunch analysis (BA) shows that oil content of harvested bunches vary greatly, with a poor relation to the number of LF per bunch, thus a low MRS can be implemented without much impact on the potential oil extraction rate (OER) of the harvested crop. High FFB yield is a prerequisite for high oil yield but not necessarily high OER; on the other hand, high OER does not necessarily mean high oil yield. The definition of ‘under-ripe’ bunches used in crop grading should be consistent with field practice, i.e. the adopted MRS, to avoid mismatch between plantations and mills.

Hasil yang diperolehi dari buah tandan segar (BTS), minyak sawit (PO, atau minyak) dan isirong sawit (PK, atau isirong) ditentukan oleh penuaian. Semasa penuaian, kerugian boleh berlaku apabila berat BTS yang dituai akan berkurangan dengan peredaran masa dan tidak semua buah relai (LF) dikumpulkan; dan kualiti minyak mula merosot apabila kandungan asid bebas lemak (FFA) meningkat. Kuantum kerugian dan tahap kemerosotan kualiti minyak bergantung pada kecekapan amalan penuaian yang mesti mengimbangi antara memaksimumkan hasil minyak dan kualiti minyak yang boleh diterima. Penuaian melibatkan sekumpulan pekerja yang memasuki ladang mengikut jadual yang ditetapkan untuk memotong dan menuai tandan masak. Pengurus ladang menentukan piawai minimum kematangan tandan (MRS) dan kekerapan menuai, gabungan kedua-dua faktor tersebut menentukan komposisi kematangan keseluruhan tandan yang dituai. Kebiasaannya, piawai minimum kematangan tandan mungkin sukar untuk dikuatkuasakan tetapi dengan sumber yang mencukupi, selangan tuaian (HI) boleh dikawal. Analisis tandan (BA) menunjukkan bahawa kandungan minyak amat berbeza antara tandan yang dituai, serta perkaitan yang lemah dengan bilangan buah relai setiap tandan. Oleh itu, MRS yang rendah boleh diamalkan tanpa memberi kesan yang ketara terhadap potensi kadar perahan minyak (OER). Hasil BTS tinggi diperlukan untuk mengeluarkan hasil minyak yang tinggi tetapi tidak semestinya dapat memperolehi OER yang tinggi; sebaliknya, kadar OER yang tinggi tidak bermakna hasil minyak yang tinggi. Takrif tandan ‘kurang-masak’ yang digunakan dalam penggredan tandan perlu selaras dengan amalan ladang, iaitu penggunaan MRS, untuk mengelakkan ketidaksetaraan antara ladang dan kilang.



Keyword(s): oil palm FFB yield, oil quality, harvesting practices, bunch analysis, oil extraction rate

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Article Info

No: 72 (May 2016) p25-31
Leaf Nutrient Status in Relation to Severity of Ganoderma Infection in Oil Palm Seedlings Artificially Infected with Ganoderma Boninense using Root Inoculation Technique
Nuranis, I; Kamaruzaman, S; Khairulmazmi, A; Mohd Shukri, I; Zulkifli, H; and Idris, A S

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Leaf Nutrient Status in Relation to Severity of Ganoderma Infection in Oil Palm Seedlings Artificially Infected with Ganoderma Boninense using Root Inoculation Technique

Basal stem rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma spp., a basidiomycete fungus, is a major devastating disease of oil palm, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Several factors were reported to influence the outbreak of BSR disease which include nutrient status, age of palm, types of soil, previous crop and replanting techniques. Elemental nutrient is known to have some beneficial effects on plant disease control. Over many years, macro- and micronutrient application has been totally overlooked in oil palm fertiliser programmes in relation to outbreak of BSR disease incidence. A study was conducted to determine leaf nutrient concentrations in relation to severity of Ganoderma infection in oil palm seedlings artificially inoculated with G. boninense using root inoculation technique. This study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang which involved a total of 210 Dura x Pisifera (DXP) oil palm seedlings. After inoculation, external and internal symptoms developing on seedlings and disease severity index (DSI, four disease classes of 0, 1, 2 and 3) were recorded. At 15 months of inoculation, leaf samples were collected and macro-nutrient such as Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) and micro-nutrient such as Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe) and Boron (B) were analysed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to test the difference between leaf nutrient concentrations in relation to DSI, followed by comparison means using Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at 0.05 significant levels. A total of 25.0% of inoculated seedlings were dead due to G. boninense infection. Significant difference of leaf nutrient concentration in relation to DSI was observed. Leaf macro-nutrient concentration of N, K, and Ca showed difference (p<0.05) while P and Mg showed no significant difference in relation to BSR disease development. Meanwhile, leaf micro-nutrient concentration of Cu, Mn and B showed significant difference (p<0.05) while Zn and Fe showed no significant difference. Among significant nutrients, Ca and Cu were found higher in healthy seedlings (DSI - 0) compared to infected seedlings (DSI – 1, 2 or 3). This study suggested that formulation of fertiliser consists mainly of Ca and Cu are needed in order to reduce BSR disease incidence in oil palms.

Reput Pangkal Batang (RPB) disebabkan oleh Ganoderma spp. sejenis kulat basidiomycete, adalah penyakit utama yang teruk pada tanaman kelapa sawit, terutama di Malaysia dan Indonesia. Beberapa faktor telah dilaporkan mempengaruhi penyakit RPB iaitu status nutrien, umur sawit, jenis tanah, tanaman sebelumnya dan teknik penanaman. Element nutrien diketahui mempunyai kesan yang baik terhadap kawalan penyakit tumbuhan. Selepas beberapa tahun pembajaan, aplikasi makro- dan mikro-nutrien diabaikan dalam program pembajaan kelapa sawit berhubung dengan penyebaran penyakit RPB. Satu kajian telah dijalankan untuk menentukan kepekatan nutrient daun berhubung ke atas tahap penyakit RPB pada anak pokok sawit yang diinokulasi dengan G. boninense menggunakan teknik inokulasi akar. Kajian ini dijalankan di Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang yang melibatkan sejumlah 210 Dura x Pisifera (DXP) anak pokok sawit. Selepas inokulasi, simptom luaran dan dalaman serta index keterukan penyakit (DSI, 4 kelas 0, 1, 2 dan 3) direkodkan. Selepas 15 bulan inokulasi, sample daun diambil Leaf Nutrient Status in Relation to Severity of Ganoderma Infection in Oil Palm Seedlings Artificially Infected with Ganoderma boninense using Root Inoculation Technique dan makro-nutrien seperti Nitrogen (N), Fosforus (P), Kalium (K), Kalsium (Ca) dan Magnesium (Mg) dan mikro-nutrien seperti Kuprum (Cu), Zink (Zn), Mangan (Mn), Besi (Fe) dan Boron (B) dianalisis. Analisis variance (ANOVA) telah dijalankan untuk menguji perbezaan di antara kepekatan nutrient daun berhubung dengan DSI, diikuti dengan perbandingan bermakna menggunakan ujian perbezaan paling signifikan (LSD) pada 0.05 tahap ketara. Sejumlah 25% anak pokok diinokulasi mati disebabkan oleh G. boninense. Perbezaan di antara kepekatan nutrien daun berhubung dengan DSI diperhatikan. Kepekatan daun makro-nutrien N, K dan Ca menunjukkan perbezaan ketara (p<0.05) manakala P dan Mg menunjukkan tiada perbezaan kepekatan nutrien berhubung dengan penyakit RPB. Untuk kepekatan daun mikro-nutrien Cu, Mn dan B menunjukkan perbezaan ketara (p<0.05) manakala Zn dan Fe menunjukkan tiada perbezaan kepekatan nutrien berhubung dengan penyakit RPB. Di antara nutrien, Ca dan Cu menunjukkan tinggi dalam anak pokok sawit yang sihat (DSI – 0) berbanding dengan anak pokok diinokulasi dengan G. boninense (DSI – 1, 2 atau 3). Kajian ini menujukkan formulasi baja mengandungi Ca dan Cu diperlukan untuk mengurangkan kejadian penyakit RPB pada sawit.



Keyword(s): Basal stem rot, Ganoderma boninense, leaf nutrien

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Article Info

No: 72 (May 2016) p1-24
Oil Palm Fertiliser Recommendation for Sabah Soils
Afandi, A M; Zulkifli, H; Khalid, H; Hasnol, O; Nur Zuhaili, H A Z A and Zuraidah, Y

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Oil Palm Fertiliser Recommendation for Sabah Soils

This article discusses on derivation of oil palm fertiliser formulation based on nutrient budget in Sabah mineral soils. The balanced compound fertiliser with N:11%, P2O5:6%, K2O: 22%, MgO: 2% and B2O3: 0.5% were fortified with organic matter and premium grade trace elements. This formulation would enhance the nutrient uptake and thus improving productivity of oil palm. Recycling of organic matter from palm waste would reduce the production cost towards sustainable oil palm plantation. The nutrients ratio of compound fertilisers available in the market were ranged between 23.5% to 48%. Therefore, this formulation with 41.5% of the nutrient ratio is considered commendable. The recommendation fertiliser rate for this formulation to be applied in mature oil palm is 8.5 to 9.0 kg palm-1 yr-1.

Artikel ini membincangkan bagaimana untuk memperoleh formulasi baja sawit berdasarkan kegunaan nutrien di tanah di Sabah. Baja sebatian yang seimbang dengan nisbah N: 11%, P2O5:6%, K2O:22%, MgO:2% dan B2O3:0.5% serta diperkaya dengan bahan organik dan unsur surih gred premium akan meningkatkan pengambilan nutrien dan produktiviti sawit. Pengitaran semula bahan organik daripada sisa sawit akan mengurangkan kos pengeluaran sawit dan menjadikan industri tersebut lebih mampan. Jumlah keseluruhan nisbah nutrien dalam baja sebatian sawit yang terdapat di pasaran adalah antara 23.5% - 48%. Oleh itu, formulasi baja dengan jumlah keseluruhan nutrien baja sebanyak 41.5% adalah munasabah. Kadar syor pembajaan adalah di antara 8.5 - 9.0 kg pk-1 thn-1 untuk pokok sawit matang.



Keyword(s): oil palm, nutrient budget, Sabah mineral soils, recycling of organic matter, fertiliser formulation

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Article Info

No: 71 (November 2015) p25-27
MPOB News
-

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MPOB News

  • Transformasi dan Pengembangan Pekebun Kecil
    Sawit Sarawak Programme at Sri Aman

  • MPOB Bagged 34 Medals at ITEX 2015

  • Visit from China Centre for International
    Economic Exchange

  • Dialogue with MOH and MPIC

  • Balau Carnival 2015

  • Palm Oil Familiarisation Programme (POFP)

  • Hello Komoditi in Betong, Sarawak

  • Launching of Bio-CNG Plant

  • Transfer of Technology (TOT) Seminar 2015

  • International Seminar on Gearing Oil Palm
    Breeding and Agronomy for Climate Change

  • PIPOC 2015



Keyword(s): -

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No: 71 (November 2015) p14-24
Zero Discharge of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Outdoor Flash Evaporation at Standard Atmospheric Conditions
Prashant Patel*

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Zero Discharge of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Outdoor Flash Evaporation at Standard Atmospheric Conditions

The single largest issue facing the extended development of the palm oil industry is the impact of mill by-products on the environment; in particular on palm oil mill effluent (POME). The Malaysian Department of Environment requires treatment of POME to extremely challenging parameters, which are difficult to achieve in the face of highly volatile processing volumes and irregular conditions for bacteria to optimally survive in anaerobic and aerobic ponds, the most common method of POME treatment. Whilst POME discharge is only permitted through land irrigation, the heavy volumes of POME produced can overflow from silted irrigation channels, especially during heavy rainfalls, and eventually find its way into the surrounding rivers and harming dependent communities. The palm oil industry has broadly struggled to find cost-effective solutions to fully consume or recycle POME into other applications, thereby creating a genuine zero discharge scenario. This article describes a technology that has been successfully deployed in POME treatment via flash evaporation/air-drying of POME. The technology has the potential to safely eliminate discharge of POME and ensure the continued safety of Malaysia’s sensitive ecosystems.

Isu terbesar yang dihadapi oleh industri minyak sawit adalah kesan bahan buangan kilang sawit terhadap alam sekitar; khususnya efluen kilang minyak sawit (POME). Jabatan Alam Sekitar Malaysia menetapkan peraturan yang ketat supaya POME dirawat dengan berkesan, tetapi ini agak sukar untuk dicapai dengan kaedah rawatan POME yang biasa iaitu kolam anaerobik dan aerobik kerana jumlah pemprosesan yang tidak menentu dan keadaan kolam yang berubah-ubah menyukarkan kehidupan bakteria secara optimum. Walaupun pelepasan POME hanya dibenarkan melalui pengairan tanah, POME dihasilkan dengan jumlah yang besar boleh melimpah dari parit pengairan yang dipenuhi kelodak, terutamanya semasa hujan lebat, dan akhirnya mencemari sungai yang berhampiran dan membahayakan penduduk yang bergantung padanya. Industri minyak sawit telah berusaha untuk mencari penyelesaian secara kos efektif untuk menggunakan POME sepenuhnya atau mengitar semula POME ke dalam aplikasi yang lain, dengan itu mewujudkan satu senario pelepasan sifar. Kajian ini menjelaskan tentang teknologi penyejatan pantas atau pengeringan udara yang telah berjaya diguna pakai dalam merawat POME. Teknologi ini mempunyai potensi untuk menyingkirkan POME dengan selamat dan memastikan keadaan ekosistem alam sekitar sentiasa terpelihara.



Keyword(s): palm oil, wastewater, zero discharge, organic decomposition, evaporation

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This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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