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No: 78 (May 2019) p13-23
Population Dynamics of Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma spp. in Malaysian and Ghanaian Soils
M Hefni Rusli*; A Seman Idris* and Richard M Cooper**

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Population Dynamics of Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma spp. in Malaysian and Ghanaian Soils

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis (Foe) is a pathogenic fungus that causes vascular wilt in oil palm. The disease is prevalent in African oil palm plantations, causing devastating losses. Oil palm seeds are used in global breeding programmes, and have recently been shown to be highly contaminated with Foe, with 3% of all Foe-infected seedlings developing Fusarium wilt during growth. Malaysia is the second largest oil palm producer in the world, and palms here are also susceptible to the disease, with Foe posing a potential major threat to the industry. Malaysia and other countries in Southeast (SE) Asia have previously imported seeds from Africa, yet remain unaffected by Foe. This is thought to be caused by the presence of antagonists, such as species of Trichoderma or other micro-organisms that give the soil its Foe-suppressive qualities. This study looks into the levels of Foe and Trichoderma in the soils from Ghana and Malaysia. From colony counts, Malaysian soil samples were shown to have a lower number of Fusarium species per gram, with 25% of these isolates revealed to belong to the species F. oxysporum. These soils were also found to have a higher number of Trichoderma species per gram of soil. Both these results were significantly different from those on the Ghanian soils (P=0.0450 and P=0.0003, respectively), and may be the reason for the absence of the disease in Malaysia. Trichoderma isolates from Ghana were tested in dual culture experiments, and it was found that Foe colony growth was inhibited by 7% to 32%, although the colonies were not killed in the process and no inhibition zones were seen. This indicates the potential, though unlikely, suppression quality of Trichoderma against Foe isolates which can be tested in a field setting. A comparison with Malaysian Trichoderma isolates may reveal significant differences in inhibition strength that may indicate Trichoderma as the antagonist behind Foe inhibition in Malaysia. This would strengthen the hypothesis that Trichoderma has potential as an antagonist against Fusarium wilt. This, among other inhibition studies, may provide a suitable candidate as a biological control agent in Ghana and Malaysia to prevent and control this devastating disease of oil palm.

Penyakit layu vaskular yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis (Foe) merupakan penyakit sawit yang sangat serius di Afrika. Walau bagaimanapun, penyakit ini tidak pernah dilaporkan di Asia Tenggara, walaupun pengimportan biji benih dari Afrika sering dilakukan untuk tujuan pembiakbakaan. Malaysia ialah pengeluar minyak sawit yang kedua terbesar di dunia, dan Foe merupakan satu ancaman utama pada industri ini. Berdasarkan kajian yang lepas, kehadiran agen kawalan biologi seperti Trichoderma yang berpotensi merencatkan infeksi Foe merupakan antara salah satu faktor yang mungkin menyebabkan ketiadaan penyakit layu vaskular sawit di Malaysia dan Asia Tenggara. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk mengenalpasti dinamik populasi Foe dan Trichoderma dalam tanah di Malaysia dan Ghana. Berdasarkan keputusan yang diperoleh, kiraan koloni dari sampel tanah Malaysia ditunjukkan mempunyai bilangan spesies Fusarium yang lebih rendah per gram, dengan 25% isolat terdiri daripada spesies F. oxysporum, dan lebih banyak spesies Trichoderma bagi setiap gram tanah. Kedua-dua keputusan ini berbeza dengan signifikan (P = 0.0450 dan P = 0.0003, masingmasing) dibandingkan dengan keputusan daripada sampel tanah Ghana, dan boleh menjadi penyebab ketidakhadiran penyakit layu vaskular di Malaysia. Kajian in vitro menunjukkan Trichoderma yang diisolat daripada tanah Ghana boleh merencatkan pertumbuhan Foe sebanyak 7%-32%. Ini menunjukkan bahawa Trichoderma mempunyai potensi sebagai agen kawalan biologi terhadap Foe.



Keyword(s): Fusarium oxysporum, Trichoderma, oil palm

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No: 78 (May 2019) p6-12
Avifauna and Mammal Assessments at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, Kluang, Johor
Bettycopa Amit* and Andrew Alek Tuen**

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Avifauna and Mammal Assessments at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, Kluang, Johor

A rapid assessment of the avifauna and mammals at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) Research Station in Kluang, Johor, was carried out from 7-10 June 2013. Mist-netting and observations were the methods used to survey the species of avifauna and mammals in the oil palm estate. A total of 42 avifauna species from 24 families was recorded in this estate, which included the Black Hornbill, Anthracoceros malayanus. The most abundant bird in this estate was the Yellow-vented Bulbul, Pycnonotus goiavier, with 69 individuals recorded. For mammals, a total of 15 species from nine families were recorded, and these included the Globally Threatened Bearded Pig (Sus barbatus) and one Near Threatened species, the Dusky-leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus obscures). The most common mammal was the Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, with 253 individuals; this species was recorded at all the sampling sites. Sites located in the forest within and at the boundary of the estate and in the riparian area recorded high numbers of species, suggesting that these habitats should be conserved and maintained for better biodiversity enrichment in the oil palm plantation.

Tinjauan terhadap burung dan mamalia di ladang penyelidikan Lembaga Minyak Sawit Malaysia (MPOB) di Kluang, Johor, telah dijalankan dari 7-10 Jun 2013. Kaedah jaring samar dan pemerhatian digunakan untuk mengenal pasti spesies avifauna dan mamalia yang ada di ladang sawit. Sebanyak 42 spesies avifauna daripada 24 famili telah direkodkan, termasuk Burung Enggang Birah, Anthracoceros malayanus. Burung yang paling kerap direkodkan ialah Merbah Kapur, Pycnonotus goiavier, dengan 69 individu. Dari segi mamalia, sebanyak 15 spesies mamalia dari sembilan famili telah dicatatkan termasuk satu spesies terancam di seluruh dunia, Avifauna and Mammal Assessments at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, Kluang, Johor Bettycopa Amit* and Andrew Alek Tuen** iaitu Bearded Pig (Sus barbatus) dan satu spesies yang terancam, iaitu Dusky-leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus obscurus). Spesies yang paling kerap ialah Kelawar Cecadu Pisang, Cynopterus brachyotis, dengan 253 individu; spesies ini telah direkodkan di semua tapak persampelan. Tapaktapak yang terletak di kawasan hutan dalam dan di sempadan ladang sawit serta di kawasan riparian mencatatkan bilangan spesies yang tinggi, mencadangkan bahawa habitat ini perlu dipulihara dan dikekalkan untuk lebih memperkayakan biodiversiti di ladang sawit.



Keyword(s): avifauna, mammals, oil palm plantation, forest, riparian areas

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No: 78 (May 2019) p1-5
Fishes of a Conserved Peat Swamp Forest in an Oil Palm Plantation
Ella Michael Dosi*; Andrew Alek Tuen**; Ivan Chiron Yaman# and Kho Lip Khoon*

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Fishes of a Conserved Peat Swamp Forest in an Oil Palm Plantation

Peat swamps are known to be important habitats for fish fauna that have narrow niches and restricted range. As peatland is being utilised for agriculture, biodiversity conservation plays an essential role as one of the criteria for defining sustainable agriculture. In an oil palm production landscape which is located at Tinbarap Estate in Miri, Sarawak, a total of 210.63 ha of peat swamp forest have been set aside as the Tinbarap Conservation Area (TCA) for conservation efforts. This study documents the fish fauna of Sungai Kulak which flows through the conservation area. Sampling was conducted in April 2016 and November 2016, from which a total of 106 fishes representing 13 species and seven families were recorded. In terms of the number of individuals caught, 78.30% were from the family Cyprinidae, 8.49% from Siluridae, 4.72% from Channidae, 3.77% from Osphronemidae, 1.89% from Anabantidae, 1.89% from Bagridae and 0.94% from the family Helostomatidae. The dominant species was Desmopuntius johorensis which accounted for 47.17% of the total fishes recorded. The dominance of Cyprinidae in TCA was similar to that in other peat swamp habitats. The results of our present study provide useful information on the diversity of fishes in Sungai Kulak which in the future could be valuable in conservation planning of the aquatic environment in TCA of Tinbarap Estate.

Paya gambut dikenali sebagai habitat penting bagi jenis ikan yang hanya terhad mendiami habitat-habitat tertentu. Oleh sebab pertanian juga dijalankan di tanah gambut, pemuliharaan biodiversiti memainkan peranan penting sebagai salah satu kriteria untuk menjamin pertanian lestari. Di landskap penanaman sawit yang terletak di Ladang Tinbarap di Miri, Sarawak, sejumlah 210.63 Fishes of a Conserved Peat Swamp Forest in an Oil Palm Plantation Ella Michael Dosi*; Andrew Alek Tuen**; Ivan Chiron Yaman# and Kho Lip Khoon* ha hutan paya gambut telah diwartakan sebagai Kawasan Pemuliharaan Tinbarap (TCA), untuk tujuan usaha pemuliharaan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti dan menyenaraikan spesies ikan yang terdapat di Sungai Kulak di TCA. Kerja persampelan telah dijalankan pada April 2016 dan November 2016; hasilnya sejumlah 106 ikan yang diwakili oleh 13 spesies dan tujuh famili telah direkodkan. Daripada keseluruhan individu yang direkodkan, 78.30% terdiri daripada famili Cyprinidae, 8.49% Siluridae, 4.72% Channidae, 3.77% Osphronemidae, 1.89% Anabantidae, 1.89% Bagridae dan 0.94% daripada famili Helostomatidae. Spesies dominan ialah Desmopuntius johorensis, yang mewakili 47.17% daripada jumlah ikan yang tercatat. Dominasi oleh Cyprinidae di TCA serupa dengan habitat di paya gambut lain. Hasil kajian ini memberikan maklumat tentang kepelbagaian ikan di Sungai Kulak pada masa hadapan yang dapat digunakan dalam perancangan pemuliharaan persekitaran akuatik TCA di Ladang Tinbarap.



Keyword(s): fish fauna, oil palm plantation, peat swamps

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No: 77 (November 2018) p19-25
The Potentials of Laser Cutting Technologies for Oil Palm Harvesting
Mohd Ikmal Hafizi Azaman*; Mohd Adzir Mahdi**; Abdul Razak Jelani*; Mohd Rizal Ahmad* and Abd Rahim Shuib*

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The Potentials of Laser Cutting Technologies for Oil Palm Harvesting

Malaysia is currently experiencing a labour shortage of labours in oil palm plantations, estimated to account for 46% of the total industrial workforce. At present, efforts are being made to increase the productivity of workers by utilising a wide range of intensive mechanisation technologies. Laser technology is a new approach as a tool for oil palm harvesting. Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) and Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) researchers are now focusing on the possibility of cutting frond and oil palm bunches stalk using fibre-pulsed lasers based on their high efficiency, small size and low divergence beams. The pulse regime can also be manipulated to produce high energy pulses, which enables the cutting operation to be conducted effectively. This paper reports the preliminary results of the potential use of laser technology in oil palm harvesting.

Malaysia pada ketika ini sedang mengalami kekurangan tenaga buruh di sektor perladangan sawit yang dianggarkan sebanyak 46% daripada jumlah tersebut. Pada masa ini usaha untuk meningkatkan produktiviti pekerja dengan menggunakan pelbagai teknologi mekanisasi sedang diperluaskan. Teknologi laser merupakan satu pendekatan baru sebagai alat penuaian sawit. Penyelidik MPOB dan UPM kini memberi tumpuan kepada kemungkinan penggunaan fibrepulse laser untuk memotong pelepah dan tandan sawit berdasarkan kecekapannya yang tinggi, saiznya yang kecil, dan lencongan cahaya yang rendah. Rejim nadi boleh dimanipulasikan untuk menghasilkan denyutan tenaga tinggi yang membolehkan operasi pemotongan dijalankan dengan berkesan. Kertas kerja ini melaporkan keputusan awal potensi penggunaan teknologi laser ini dalam penuaian sawit.



Keyword(s): oil palm, harvesting technology, laser cutting.

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No: 77 (November 2018) p14-18
The Importance of Sustainable Management for Common Oil Palm Insect Pests
Peter A C Ooi* and Norman Kamarudin**

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The Importance of Sustainable Management for Common Oil Palm Insect Pests

The oil palm is an exotic plant from Africa that has contributed vastly to the national economy and development. Many of the insect pests on oil palm come from other native palms, in particular coconut palm. The outbreak of pests in coconuts is rare because the pests are usually controlled by their natural enemies. In recent times, the emergence of bagworms and the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, in oil palm has raised concerns of growers. Recent studies have shown that both bagworms and rhinoceros beetle can be managed by native microbials, including Bacillus thuringiensis, nudivirus and Metarrhizium sp. The current state of oil palm pest control requires the expansion and use of the pest management control and tactics in order to ensure long term control of insect pests to sustain the profitability of oil palm.

Sawit adalah tumbuhan eksotik dari Afrika yang telah banyak menyumbang kepada ekonomi dan pembangunan negara. Terdapat serangga perosak tanaman kelapa yang boleh merosakkan tanaman sawit. Serangan yang menyebabkan perosak merebak bagi perosak kelapa amat jarang berlaku kerana dikawal oleh musuh semulajadinya. Pada masa ini, ulat bungkus dan kumbang badak, menjadi perosak penting yang menimbulkan kebimbangan penanam sawit. Kajian terbaru menunjukkan bahawa ulat bungkus dan kumbang badak ini boleh diurus dengan mikrob asli seperti Bacillus thuringiensis, nudivirus dan kulat, Metarrhizium sp. Kawalan perosak tanaman sawit perlu diperluaskan dan taktik kawalan secara biologi haruslah dieksploitasi untuk memastikan kawalan jangka panjang serangga perosak demi kesinambungan tanaman sawit yang mapan.



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No: 77 (November 2018) p8-13
Profiling of Metabolites Present in Ethyl Acetate Fractionation of Trichoderma virens 7b
Lee Pei Lee Angel*; Shamala Sundram*; Bonnie Tay Yen Ping*; Mohd Termizi Yusof** and Intan Safinar Ismail**

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Profiling of Metabolites Present in Ethyl Acetate Fractionation of Trichoderma virens 7b

Endophytic Trichoderma virens 7b isolated from oil palm roots has been extensively studied to determine its potential against the oil palm pathogen, Ganoderma. The activities of its nonpolar metabolites were previously reported to show the highest inhibition on G. boninense PER71 growth compared to other extracts. Nevertheless, it is also important to understand the activity of its semipolar metabolites towards G. boninense. Therefore, this study aims to reveal the list of metabolites in T. virens 7b extracted using ethyl acetate and the effect of extracts on G. boninense PER71. The ethyl acetate extract led to a significant decrease in the growth rate of G. boninense PER71 from 6.7 mm day-1 to 2.9 mm day-1. This resulted in a percentage inhibition of radial growth (PIRG) of 59.63% ± 9.13. Coiling and clumping of the G. boninense’s hyphae observed by scanning electron microscope subjected to ethyl acetate extract explain the growth inhibition. The metabolite profiles showed the presence of potential antifungal compounds which may contribute to the inhibition. These include succinimide and isolongifolene, 4,5,9,10-dehydro.

Trichoderma virens 7b endofitik yang dipencil daripada akar pokok sawit telah dikaji untuk menentukan potensinya dalam menentang patogen sawit, Ganoderma. Aktiviti metabolit bukan polar yang dilaporkan sebelum ini telah menunjukkan perencatan pertumbuhan paling tinggi terhadap G. boninense PER71 berbanding ekstrak lain. Walau bagaimanapun, aktiviti metabolit semi-polar terhadap G. boninense adalah penting untuk dikaji. Oleh itu, kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil metabolit dalam T. virens 7b yang diekstrak menggunakan etil asetat dan kesan ekstrak terhadap G. boninense PER71. Ekstrak etil asetat berjaya mengurangkan kadar pertumbuhan G. boninense PER71 dari 6.7 mm hari-1 kepada 2.9 mm hari-1. Hasilnya, peratus perencatan pertumbuhan G. boninense PER71 adalah sebanyak 59.63% ± 9.13. Cerapan mikroskop elektron imbasan (SEM) menunjukkan bahawa ekstrak etil asetat telah menyebabkan penggelungan dan pembentukan ketulan hifa G. boninense PER71, menjelaskan perencatan pertumbuhan G. boninense PER71. Profil metabolit menunjukkan kehadiran sebatian antifungal iaitu succinimide dan isolongifolene, 4,5,9,10-dehydro yang boleh menyumbang kepada perencatan G. boninense PER71.



Keyword(s): biological control agent, Trichoderma virens, ethyl acetate, antifungal compounds

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No: 77 (November 2018) p1-7
Biochar as Soil’s Best Friend – A Review
Nurzuhaili, H A Z A*; Zuraidah, Y*; Hasnol, O* and Afandi, A M*

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Biochar as Soil’s Best Friend – A Review

In order to deal with environmental sustainability issues such as global climate change, food and energy crisis as well as environmental pollution, biochar had been widely used as a tool to combat these problems. It might act as soil carbon sink to restore soil organic carbon (SOC) larger than its inherent capacity, thus reducing the emission of greenhouse gasses (GHGs). The high soil carbon storage, available nutrient elemental composition, high aromatic structure, high porosity, and high alkalinity of biochar are factors for it to act ideally as potential soil improver. Studies thus far have shown the properties of biochar and its effect on crops and ecosystems vary, mainly because of differences in biomass sources and production processes. The aim of this review paper is to summarise the benefits of applying the biochar from various sources in soil in order to overcome climate change and improve soil properties thereby increasing crop productivity.

Dalam usaha untuk menangani isu-isu berkaitan kelestarian alam sekitar seperti perubahan iklim global, bio-arang telah diberi pendekatan secara meluas sebagai satu kaedah untuk mengatasi perubahan iklim. Ia mampu bertindak sebagai penyimpan/penyerap karbon tanah secara lebih banyak daripada secara semulajadi bagi memulihkan karbon organic tanah (SOC), sekaligus dapat mengurangkan pelepasan gas rumah hijau (GHG). Sifat-sifat bio-arang termasuk penyimpan karbon tanah yang tinggi, terdapat komposisi unsur nutrien yang tersedia, terdapat struktur aromatik, tahap keliangan dan tahap kealkalian yang tinggi adalah antara faktor-faktor yang membolehkan bioarang sesuai bertindak sebagai pembaik tanah yang berpotensi. Kajian-kajian sepanjang masa ini telah menunjukkan keputusan yang berbeza terhadap sifatsifat bio-arang serta implikasinya terhadap tanaman dan ekosistem, sebahagian besarnya berpunca daripada sumber biojisim dan proses penghasilan yang berbeza. Oleh itu, tujuan rencana ini adalah untuk merumuskan kelebihan penggunaan bioarang daripada pelbagai sumber dalam tanah untuk mengatasi perubahan iklim, memperbaiki sifat-sifat tanah di samping meningkatkan produktiviti.



Keyword(s): biochar, climate change, soil fertility, carbon storage

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No: 76 (May 2018) p22-27
The Use of Indigenous Trichoderma in Controlling Phytophthora palmivora – An In Vitro Investigation
S Sundram* and M A Intan Nur Ainni*

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The Use of Indigenous Trichoderma in Controlling Phytophthora palmivora – An In Vitro Investigation

Oil palm bud rot is a disease that destroys the young tissues of palms, and Phytophthora palmivora has been identified as the causal pathogen. The disease is devastating the South American oil palm industry. The pathogen is also known to be responsible for a number of serious diseases in cocoa, durian, jackfruit and coconut. A biosecurity threat is imminent in Malaysia due to the fact that P. palmivora is an indigenous pathogen affecting local commodity crops. Various research activities have been initiated to assess the potential threat imposed by the pathogen on oil palm. These include an investigation into one of the three components of biosecurity, i.e. developing long-term approaches for reducing and managing the effects of a potential outbreak. Four candidates of Trichoderma virens (PP9, PP29, T7b and T159c) that control Ganoderma effectively were selected for further investigation. An in vitro assessment subjected on 11 strains of P. palmivora to these Trichoderma isolates. Endophytic T. virens isolates T7b and T159c recorded good mycelial inhibition, ranging from 54%-77%, compared with the non-endophytic isolates of T. virens PP9 and PP29. The efficacy of extracellular metabolites of these four T. virens isolates was also tested on the two most aggressive strains representative of P. palmivora (P3 and P7). The study demonstrates the potential use of local Trichoderma isolates in controlling P. palmivora, and warrants further investigations to be conducted in the nursery and in the field.

Reput umbut sawit adalah penyakit yang merosakkan tisu-tisu muda pokok sawit dan Phytophthora palmivora telah dikenalpasti sebagai patogen penyakit tersebut. Penyakit ini kini menghancurkan industri sawit di Amerika Selatan. Patogen ini juga menyebabkan beberapa penyakit serius pada koko, durian, nangka dan kelapa. Ancaman biosekuriti dikhuatiri di Malaysia kerana P. palmivora adalah patogen yang menjangkiti tanaman komoditi tempatan. Pelbagai aktiviti penyelidikan sedang dilakukan untuk menilai potensi ancaman oleh patogen ini terhadap sawit. Ini termasuk siasatan pada salah satu komponen biosekuriti, iaitu pendekatan jangka panjang untuk mengurangkan dan mengurus kesan wabak yang berpotensi. Empat agen kawalan Trichoderma (PP9, PP29, T7b dan T159c telah dikenalpasti dapat mengawal Ganoderma dengan berkesan dipilih untuk siasatan lanjut. Penilaian in vitro terhadap keberkesanan empat isolat tersebut dilakukan pada 11 isolat P. palmivora. Isolat T. virens endofitik T7b dan T159c mencatatkan perencatan miselium yang baik (antara 54% dan 77%) berbanding dengan isolat T. virens bukan endofitik PP9 dan PP29. Keberkesanan metabolit ekstraselular daripada empat isolat T. virens ini juga diuji pada dua strain P. palmivora yang paling agresif (P3 dan P7). Kajian ini menunjukkan potensi penggunaan isolat Trichoderma tempatan untuk mengawal P. palmivora, dan juga menunjukkan siasatan lanjut di tapak semaian dan ladang perlu dilakukan.



Keyword(s): oil palm, bud rot, Phytophthora palmivora, biosecurity, Trichoderma

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No: 76 (May 2018) p15-21
Consumptive Water Use Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment-based Water Footprint for Palm Oil
Vijaya Subramaniam*; Zulkifli Hashim*; Soh Kheang Loh* and Astimar Abdul Aziz*

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Consumptive Water Use Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment-based Water Footprint for Palm Oil

Water scarcity and climate change are serious issues facing our planet. This study evaluates the impacts caused by water consumption of oil palm, from seedling until the production of crude palm oil, based on a full tlife cycle assessment. The consumptive water use evaluation for direct water was based on the local water stress index (WSI). The system boundary included the oil palm nursery, plantation (with land use change from oil palm to oil palm, and from logged-over forest to oil palm) and palm oil mill (in a biogas capture scenario). The findings show that direct water used by the palms and for processes is low. This is valid as most oil palm plantations are not irrigated but rather rain-fed, coupled with Malaysia’s climate that is characterised by high rainfall, leading to a very low WSI for the country. The main potential impacts within the system boundary are dominated by land conversion, production and use of fertilisers and pesticides. These findings contradict the general perception of any agriculture system, i.e. the notion assuming that water used during crop cultivation will have a major potential impact. It is recommended that oil palm plantations implement Good Agricultural Practices that help address the key elements of land and water management, as well as fertiliser and integrated pest management to obtain a favourable water footprint.

Kekurangan air dan perubahan iklim merupakan isu serius yang dihadapi oleh planet kita. Kajian ini mengkaji impak yang disebabkan oleh penggunaan air oleh pokok sawit, daripada peringkat anak benih sehingga pengeluaran minyak sawit mentah, berasaskan penilaian kitar hayat lengkap. Kajian penggunaan air secara langsung adalah berdasarkan indeks tekanan air tempatan (WSI). Sempadan kajian termasuk tapak semaian sawit, perladangan (dengan perubahan penggunaan tanah daripada sawit kepada sawit, dan daripada pembalakan hutan kepada sawit) dan kilang minyak sawit (dengan senario penangkapan biogas). Hasil kajian menunjukkan penggunan air yang digunakan secara lansung oleh pokok dan pemprosesan adalah rendah. Ini disebabkan kebanyakan ladang sawit tidak menggunakan sistem pengairan sebaliknya ladang hanya bergantung kepada air hujan, kerana cuaca Malaysia dicirikan dengan taburan hujan yang tinggi dan menghasilkan WSI yang sangat rendah untuk negara ini. Impak utama dalam sempadan kajian dipengaruhi oleh penukaran tanah, pengeluaran dan penggunaan baja dan racun perosak. Penemuan ini bercanggah dengan persepsi umum tentang sistem pertanian yang mempunyai tanggapan bahawa air yang digunakan untuk penanaman tanaman memberi impak besar. Adalah disyorkan ladang sawit patut melaksanakan amalan pertanian baik bagi membantu menangani unsur-unsur utama pengurusan tanah dan air selain pengurusan baja dan pengurusan serangga bersepadu, untuk mendapatkan kadar penggunaan air yang berpatutan.



Keyword(s): water footprint, life cycle assessment, crude palm oil, FFB, oil palm seedlings

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No: 76 (May 2018) p8-14
Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, Kluang, Johor
Bettycopa Amit*; Andrew Alek Tuen#; Pui Yong Ming# and Mohd Haniff Harun*

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Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, Kluang, Johor

A rapid assessment survey of the amphibians and reptiles found at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) Research Station in Kluang, Johor, was carried out from 7-10 June 2013. Visual encounter surveys (VES) were used to identify the species of amphibians and reptiles encountered along the six sampling trails. A total of 12 amphibian species from six families and seven reptilian species from five families were discovered and identified in the research station. In terms of amphibians, the most common and widely distributed species were the cricket frog, Hylarana nicobariensis, and the four lined tree frog, Polypedates leucomystax, with both species observed in all of the survey sites. Calls from high numbers of amphibian species were heard in the swampy riparian areas and along the small drains. In terms of reptiles, the clouded monitor lizard, Varanus nebulosus, was observed in all of the survey sites, including along the plantation’s main roads. Maintaining and protecting small streams and swampy areas in the plantation is crucial to preserve amphibian and reptile species and their populations.

Tinjauan terhadap spesies amfibia dan reptilia di Stesen Penyelidikan Minyak Sawit Malaysia (MPOB), Kluang, Johor telah dijalankan pada 7-10 Jun 2013. Survey Encounter Visual (VES) digunakan untuk mengenalpasti spesies amfibia dan reptilia pada enam tapak persampelan. Sejumlah 12 spesies amfibia dari enam famili dan tujuh spesies reptilia dari lima famili telah dikenalpasti hadir di Stesen Penyelidikan MPOB, Kluang. Dari segi amfibia, spesies yang paling umum adalah ‘criket frog’ Hylarana nicobariensis dan ‘four line tree frog’ Polypedates leucomystax, kedua-dua spesies diperhatikan di semua tapak persempelan. Jumlah spesies amfibia yang banyak ditemui di kawasan paya dan saliran parit atau sungai yang kecil. Dari segi reptilia, biawak Varanus nebulosus diperhatikan di semua tapak persampelan termasuk di sepanjang jalan utama perladangan. Dengan mengekalkan dan melindungi kawasan sungai dan paya yang kecil di ladang sawit adalah penting untuk mengekalkan spesies dan populasi amfibia dan reptilia.



Keyword(s): amphibian, reptile, oil palm plantation

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