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No: 76 (May 2018) p22-27
The Use of Indigenous Trichoderma in Controlling Phytophthora palmivora – An In Vitro Investigation
S Sundram* and M A Intan Nur Ainni*

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The Use of Indigenous Trichoderma in Controlling Phytophthora palmivora – An In Vitro Investigation

Oil palm bud rot is a disease that destroys the young tissues of palms, and Phytophthora palmivora has been identified as the causal pathogen. The disease is devastating the South American oil palm industry. The pathogen is also known to be responsible for a number of serious diseases in cocoa, durian, jackfruit and coconut. A biosecurity threat is imminent in Malaysia due to the fact that P. palmivora is an indigenous pathogen affecting local commodity crops. Various research activities have been initiated to assess the potential threat imposed by the pathogen on oil palm. These include an investigation into one of the three components of biosecurity, i.e. developing long-term approaches for reducing and managing the effects of a potential outbreak. Four candidates of Trichoderma virens (PP9, PP29, T7b and T159c) that control Ganoderma effectively were selected for further investigation. An in vitro assessment subjected on 11 strains of P. palmivora to these Trichoderma isolates. Endophytic T. virens isolates T7b and T159c recorded good mycelial inhibition, ranging from 54%-77%, compared with the non-endophytic isolates of T. virens PP9 and PP29. The efficacy of extracellular metabolites of these four T. virens isolates was also tested on the two most aggressive strains representative of P. palmivora (P3 and P7). The study demonstrates the potential use of local Trichoderma isolates in controlling P. palmivora, and warrants further investigations to be conducted in the nursery and in the field.

Reput umbut sawit adalah penyakit yang merosakkan tisu-tisu muda pokok sawit dan Phytophthora palmivora telah dikenalpasti sebagai patogen penyakit tersebut. Penyakit ini kini menghancurkan industri sawit di Amerika Selatan. Patogen ini juga menyebabkan beberapa penyakit serius pada koko, durian, nangka dan kelapa. Ancaman biosekuriti dikhuatiri di Malaysia kerana P. palmivora adalah patogen yang menjangkiti tanaman komoditi tempatan. Pelbagai aktiviti penyelidikan sedang dilakukan untuk menilai potensi ancaman oleh patogen ini terhadap sawit. Ini termasuk siasatan pada salah satu komponen biosekuriti, iaitu pendekatan jangka panjang untuk mengurangkan dan mengurus kesan wabak yang berpotensi. Empat agen kawalan Trichoderma (PP9, PP29, T7b dan T159c telah dikenalpasti dapat mengawal Ganoderma dengan berkesan dipilih untuk siasatan lanjut. Penilaian in vitro terhadap keberkesanan empat isolat tersebut dilakukan pada 11 isolat P. palmivora. Isolat T. virens endofitik T7b dan T159c mencatatkan perencatan miselium yang baik (antara 54% dan 77%) berbanding dengan isolat T. virens bukan endofitik PP9 dan PP29. Keberkesanan metabolit ekstraselular daripada empat isolat T. virens ini juga diuji pada dua strain P. palmivora yang paling agresif (P3 dan P7). Kajian ini menunjukkan potensi penggunaan isolat Trichoderma tempatan untuk mengawal P. palmivora, dan juga menunjukkan siasatan lanjut di tapak semaian dan ladang perlu dilakukan.



Keyword(s): oil palm, bud rot, Phytophthora palmivora, biosecurity, Trichoderma

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No: 76 (May 2018) p15-21
Consumptive Water Use Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment-based Water Footprint for Palm Oil
Vijaya Subramaniam*; Zulkifli Hashim*; Soh Kheang Loh* and Astimar Abdul Aziz*

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Abstract


Consumptive Water Use Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment-based Water Footprint for Palm Oil

Water scarcity and climate change are serious issues facing our planet. This study evaluates the impacts caused by water consumption of oil palm, from seedling until the production of crude palm oil, based on a full tlife cycle assessment. The consumptive water use evaluation for direct water was based on the local water stress index (WSI). The system boundary included the oil palm nursery, plantation (with land use change from oil palm to oil palm, and from logged-over forest to oil palm) and palm oil mill (in a biogas capture scenario). The findings show that direct water used by the palms and for processes is low. This is valid as most oil palm plantations are not irrigated but rather rain-fed, coupled with Malaysia’s climate that is characterised by high rainfall, leading to a very low WSI for the country. The main potential impacts within the system boundary are dominated by land conversion, production and use of fertilisers and pesticides. These findings contradict the general perception of any agriculture system, i.e. the notion assuming that water used during crop cultivation will have a major potential impact. It is recommended that oil palm plantations implement Good Agricultural Practices that help address the key elements of land and water management, as well as fertiliser and integrated pest management to obtain a favourable water footprint.

Kekurangan air dan perubahan iklim merupakan isu serius yang dihadapi oleh planet kita. Kajian ini mengkaji impak yang disebabkan oleh penggunaan air oleh pokok sawit, daripada peringkat anak benih sehingga pengeluaran minyak sawit mentah, berasaskan penilaian kitar hayat lengkap. Kajian penggunaan air secara langsung adalah berdasarkan indeks tekanan air tempatan (WSI). Sempadan kajian termasuk tapak semaian sawit, perladangan (dengan perubahan penggunaan tanah daripada sawit kepada sawit, dan daripada pembalakan hutan kepada sawit) dan kilang minyak sawit (dengan senario penangkapan biogas). Hasil kajian menunjukkan penggunan air yang digunakan secara lansung oleh pokok dan pemprosesan adalah rendah. Ini disebabkan kebanyakan ladang sawit tidak menggunakan sistem pengairan sebaliknya ladang hanya bergantung kepada air hujan, kerana cuaca Malaysia dicirikan dengan taburan hujan yang tinggi dan menghasilkan WSI yang sangat rendah untuk negara ini. Impak utama dalam sempadan kajian dipengaruhi oleh penukaran tanah, pengeluaran dan penggunaan baja dan racun perosak. Penemuan ini bercanggah dengan persepsi umum tentang sistem pertanian yang mempunyai tanggapan bahawa air yang digunakan untuk penanaman tanaman memberi impak besar. Adalah disyorkan ladang sawit patut melaksanakan amalan pertanian baik bagi membantu menangani unsur-unsur utama pengurusan tanah dan air selain pengurusan baja dan pengurusan serangga bersepadu, untuk mendapatkan kadar penggunaan air yang berpatutan.



Keyword(s): water footprint, life cycle assessment, crude palm oil, FFB, oil palm seedlings

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No: 76 (May 2018) p8-14
Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, Kluang, Johor
Bettycopa Amit*; Andrew Alek Tuen#; Pui Yong Ming# and Mohd Haniff Harun*

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Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, Kluang, Johor

A rapid assessment survey of the amphibians and reptiles found at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) Research Station in Kluang, Johor, was carried out from 7-10 June 2013. Visual encounter surveys (VES) were used to identify the species of amphibians and reptiles encountered along the six sampling trails. A total of 12 amphibian species from six families and seven reptilian species from five families were discovered and identified in the research station. In terms of amphibians, the most common and widely distributed species were the cricket frog, Hylarana nicobariensis, and the four lined tree frog, Polypedates leucomystax, with both species observed in all of the survey sites. Calls from high numbers of amphibian species were heard in the swampy riparian areas and along the small drains. In terms of reptiles, the clouded monitor lizard, Varanus nebulosus, was observed in all of the survey sites, including along the plantation’s main roads. Maintaining and protecting small streams and swampy areas in the plantation is crucial to preserve amphibian and reptile species and their populations.

Tinjauan terhadap spesies amfibia dan reptilia di Stesen Penyelidikan Minyak Sawit Malaysia (MPOB), Kluang, Johor telah dijalankan pada 7-10 Jun 2013. Survey Encounter Visual (VES) digunakan untuk mengenalpasti spesies amfibia dan reptilia pada enam tapak persampelan. Sejumlah 12 spesies amfibia dari enam famili dan tujuh spesies reptilia dari lima famili telah dikenalpasti hadir di Stesen Penyelidikan MPOB, Kluang. Dari segi amfibia, spesies yang paling umum adalah ‘criket frog’ Hylarana nicobariensis dan ‘four line tree frog’ Polypedates leucomystax, kedua-dua spesies diperhatikan di semua tapak persempelan. Jumlah spesies amfibia yang banyak ditemui di kawasan paya dan saliran parit atau sungai yang kecil. Dari segi reptilia, biawak Varanus nebulosus diperhatikan di semua tapak persampelan termasuk di sepanjang jalan utama perladangan. Dengan mengekalkan dan melindungi kawasan sungai dan paya yang kecil di ladang sawit adalah penting untuk mengekalkan spesies dan populasi amfibia dan reptilia.



Keyword(s): amphibian, reptile, oil palm plantation

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No: 76 (May 2018) p1-7
Classification of Tropical Peat in Malaysia
Siti Khadijah Hajon*; Hasimah Mos*; Nurmaisarah Jantan* and Haniff MH*

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Classification of Tropical Peat in Malaysia

Classifying tropical peat is crucial for the oil palm industry, especially studying the effects of different peat types on the agricultural sector in Malaysia. The different defined criteria used for grouping peat lead to different classification systems for temperate and tropical peats. In Malaysia, a better understanding of the differences in the classification systems for tropical peats is needed because the systems are varied further based on the three different regions of Malaysia, namely Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. Very few studies have been carried out to categorise tropical peats using suitable classification systems. These include international schemes for classifying peats, such as Soil Taxonomy, Eleventh Edition (USDA) and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). However, it has been claimed that these international schemes are unsatisfactory for classifying tropical peats. Hence, the local conditions so that it can be applied to most tropical lowland peats. Thus, this paper highlights an improved of tropical peat classification based on several different defined criteria. However, further work is still needed to understand the relationships among peat classification, greenhouse gas emissions and oil palm yield performance.

Klasifikasi gambut tropika adalah penting untuk industri sawit terutama sekali untuk mengkaji kesan jenis gambut yang berbeza terhadap sektor pertanian di Malaysia. Perbezaan definisi dan pengklasifikasian gambut membawa kepada klasifikasi yang berbeza untuk gambut iklim sederhana dan tropika. Di Malaysia, pemahaman yang lebih baik mengenai perbezaan sistem klasifikasi di kawasan tropika diperlukan kerana klasifikasi tersebut dibahagikan berdasarkan kawasan di Malaysia, seperti Semenanjung Malaysia, Sabah dan Sarawak. Hanya beberapa kajian yang telah dilakukan untuk mengklasifikasikan gambut tropika menggunakan sistem klasifikasi yang sesuai. Ini termasuk skim antarabangsa dalam mengklasifikasikan gambut seperti Soil Taxonomy – Eleventh Edition (USDA) dan World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). Walau bagaimanapun, skim antarabangsa ini dikatakan tidak berjaya untuk klasifikasi di gambut tropika. Oleh itu, sistem klasifikasi gambut Malaysia telah dihasilkan dengan penambahbaikan sistem USDA untuk disesuaikan dengan keadaan tempatan dan dapat diaplikasikan di kebanyakkan gambut tropika. Penulisan ini bertujuan untuk menekankan pemahaman yang lebih baik terhadap klasifikasi gambut tropika berdasarkan beberapa definisi yang berbeza. Kajian yang lebih mendalam diperlukan untuk memahami hubungan antara klasifikasi gambut, pelepasan rumah hijau, dan prestasi hasil sawit.



Keyword(s): Tropical peat, temperate peat, peat types, classification system, oil palm

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No: 75 (November 2017) p27-36
Biogas Capture – A Means of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Loh, S K*; Nasrin, A B*; Mohamad Azri, S*; Nurul Adela, B*; Muzzammil, N*; Daryl Jay, T* and Stasha Eleanor, R A*

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Biogas Capture – A Means of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Oil palm – being the economic backbone of Malaysia – provides not just palm oil as the main commodity but also many other forms of by-products, namely oil palm trunks, fronds, palm kernel shell, mesocarp fiber, empty fruit bunches and palm oil mill effluent (POME), all of which can be transformed into valueadded products for energy and non-energy uses. POME has been exploited as a renewable energy source under the Entry Point Project (EPP) 5 of the Palm Oil National Key Economic Area (NKEA), Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) since 2010. Implementation of EPP5 by building biogas trapping facilities at all palm oil mills across the country is one of the oil palm industry’s renewable energy initiatives towards environmental sustainability. The production of biogas via anaerobic digestion of POME in the conventional treatment system releases ~65% methane into the atmosphere; methane is 25 times more potent than CO2 as a greenhouse gas (GHG). Biogas capture and its various modes of utilisation, plus the more recently adopted methane avoidance from POME, have thus far progressed satisfactorily in lowering the carbon footprint of palm oil production. By fully harnessing biogas from POME, a projected GHG emissions of ~18 million tonnes CO2eq per annum could be mitigated. This could greatly enhance the competitiveness of palm oil in facing more stringent sustainability requirements as stipulated under the EU Renewable Energy Directive and the USA EPA Renewable Fuel Standard 2 Program. The aim of this paper is to relate the Malaysian experiences in strategising and optimising POME management as well as biogas resource recovery, gearing towards accelerating sustainable palm oil production.

Industri sawit merupakan salah satu sumber ekonomi utama negara. Selain menghasilkan minyak sawit mentah sebagai sumber komoditi utama, ia turut menghasilkan produk sampingan seperti batang sawit, pelepah, tempurung, gentian mesokarpa, tandan buah kosong dan air kumbahan kilang sawit (POME). Kesemua sumber ini boleh digunakan bagi penghasilan produk nilai tambah sama ada untuk penggunaan berasaskan tenaga dan bukan tenaga. POME telah dikenalpasti dan digunakan sebagai sumber tenaga diperbaharui di bawah Projek Permulaan No. 5 (EPP5) – Bidang Ekonomi Utama Negara (NKEA), Program Transformasi Ekonomi Negara (ETP) sejak tahun 2010. Pelaksanaan EPP5 yang mensasarkan pembangunan loji pemerangkapan biogas di kilang sawit di seluruh negara merupakan salah satu inisiatif industri sawit negara ke arah pembangunan lestari dan mesra alam. Biogas yang terhasil daripada penguraian anaerobik ke atas POME dalam sistem rawatan kovensional membebaskan 65% gas metana ke atmosfera; metana berpotensi sebagai gas rumah hijau yang 25 kali lebih tinggi kesannya daripada gas karbon dioksida (CO2). Pemerangkapan dan penggunaan biogas dengan pelbagai bentuk penjanaan tenaga, termasuklah perlaksanaan projek berasaskan pengelakan metana menggunakan POME, telah berkembang dengan baik bagi mengurangkan jejak karbon untuk penghasilan minyak sawit mentah. Dianggarkan sebanyak 18 juta tan CO2eq setahun dapat dikurangkan sekiranya kesemua biogas yang dihasilkan di kilang sawit di seluruh negara diperangkap dan digunakan semula. Ini akan meningkatkan daya saing minyak sawit di peringkat global yang kini harus memenuhi pelbagai keperluan dan peraturan kemampanan yang ketat seperti yang termaktub di bawah program ‘EU Renewable Energy Directive’ dan ‘USA EPA Renewable Fuel Standard 2’. Artikel ini membincangkan pengalaman Malaysia dalam usaha dan strategi mengoptimumkan pengurusan POME dan penggunaan sumber biogas ke arah memacu pembangunan mampan dalam penghasilan minyak sawit.



Keyword(s): palm oil mill effluent, greenhouse gas, renewable energy, sustainable development, industry initiative

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No: 75 (November 2017) p17-26
Effects of Chemical Properties of Different Soils on Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)
Yit Kheng Goh*; Choon Kiat Lim*; Cong Rong Cheng*; Suet Yee Tan*; Li Wen Cheah*; Petronella G Ah Tung*; You Keng Goh* and Kah Joo Goh*

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Effects of Chemical Properties of Different Soils on Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

Variations in the incidence of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) on different soils had been observed in the field. Notably, acid sulphate coastal soils were observed to have higher Ganoderma incidence compared with inland soils. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to study the effects of four different soils belonging to five soil series, namely Parit Botak* and Jawa** series - acid sulphate coastal soil, Bungor*** series - inland soil, Blenheim series - coastal shell deposit soil (Typic Quartzipsamments), and Kabu series - limestonederived soil, coarse sandy loam (Typic Paleudults), on Ganoderma incidence and severity in oil palm seedlings in the nursery. The results show that the seedlings planted on both samples of acid sulphate coastal soils had the highest Ganoderma incidence and severity whereas those planted on coastal shell deposit soil had the lowest. Total number and weight of fruiting bodies produced at five months postinoculation were exponentially correlated to percent reduction in dry weight of Ganoderma-inoculated rubber wood blocks (RWB). Inoculated RWB from Parit Botak series were the most friable and the softest, followed by those from Jawa and Kabu series. Three sets of symptoms of Ganoderma infection were observed: a) leaf symptoms prior to initiation of Ganoderma fruiting bodies (on Bungor and Jawa series); b) leaf symptoms after initiation of Ganoderma fruiting bodies (on Blenheim and Parit Botak series); and c) a combination of the two sets (on Kabu series). Discriminant analyses elucidated that zinc, copper and calcium were associated with more than 50% disease severity index (DSI) and necrotic bole tissues. In contrast, pH, iron, manganese and nitrogen were associated with less than or 50% of DSI and necrotic bole tissues. This study illustrates the impacts of soils with different chemical compositions on the incidence and severity Ganoderma disease.

Pemerhatian di ladang mendapati bahawa insiden penyakit Ganoderma reput pangkal sawit (Elaeis guineensis) adalah berbeza pada tanah yang berlainan. Tanah asid sulfat pantai telah didapati mengalami insiden jangkitan Ganoderma yang lebih tinggi berbanding di tanah pedalaman. Oleh itu, objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji kemungkinan berlaku insiden jangkitan Ganoderma dan tahap kerosakan ke atas anak benih sawit di tapak semaian menggunakan tanah yang berlainan. Kajian ini menggunakan lima siri tanah dari empat taksonomi berbeza iaitu siri Parit Botak* dan siri Jawa** - tanah sulfat asid pantai, siri Bungor*** - tanah pedalaman, siri Blenheim - tanah mendapan shell pantai (Typic Quartzipsamments), dan siri Kabu - tanah terhasil dari batu kapur, lom berpasir kasar (Typic Paleudults). Keputusan mendapati bahawa anak benih yang ditanam di kedua-dua tanah asid sulfat pantai mengalami insiden jangkitan Ganoderma dan tahap kerosakan tertinggi, manakala yang ditanam di tanah mendapan shell pantai mengalami jangkitan terendah lima bulan selepas diinokulasi, jumlah bilangan dan berat jasad berbuah yang dihasilkan didapati mempunyai korelasi secara eksponensial dengan pengurangan peratus berat kering blok kayu getah terinokulasi. RWB yang diinokulasi dari siri Parit Botak adalah yang paling rapuh dan lembut, diikuti oleh RWB di tanah siri Jawa dan Kabu. Pemerhatian dilakukan ke atas tiga set simptom jangkitan Ganoderma: a) simptom daun sebelum terhasilnya jasad berbuah Ganoderma (pada siri Bungor dan Jawa); b) simptom daun selepas terhasilnya jasad berbuah Ganoderma (pada siri Blenheim dan Parit Botak); dan c) gabungan kedua-dua set (pada siri Kabu). Analisis diskriminasi menunjukkan bahawa zink, kuprum dan kalsium mempunyai kaitan dengan indeks kerosakan penyakit (DSI) dan nekrotik di tisu boleh melebihi 50%. Sebaliknya, pH, ferum, mangan dan nitrogen mempunyai kaitan dengan DSI dan nekrotik tisu bole pada tahap 50% atau kurang. Kajian ini menunjukan bahawa tanah yang mengandungi komposisi kimia yang berlainan akan memberi impak berbeza terhadap insiden dan kerosakan disebabkan penyakit Ganoderma.



Keyword(s): BSR, fruiting body, soil nutrients, disease severity, disease incidence

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No: 75 (November 2017) p11-16
Efforts in Mechanisation towards Improving Worker Productivity
R Thayaparakanthan*

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Efforts in Mechanisation towards Improving Worker Productivity

The labour situation in the plantation sector in Malaysia is heading towards a twin convergence of increasing minimum wages and low labour productivity. Going forward, the industry will face difficulties in attracting and retaining workers, if the above challenges are not addressed quickly to improve operational efficiency and productivity, as well as skills dilution. Currently, the arrival of workers from Indonesia shows a declining trend, and the focus is on recruitment of other nationalities, mainly from India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, as replacement workers. The process is getting difficult and slow due to the longer processing time and higher cost of recruitment. In addition, the demand for wage increase will continue to push the current minimum wage of RM 1000 per month in the Peninsula to a much higher level. It is critical that we focus on productivity and earnings, in order to attract local workers for some jobs where physical efforts can be minimised or removed altogether through the integration of innovative technologies and realignment of work processes to make the job scope more attractive. Every effort is required from industry players to ensure a common platform to elevate the plantation sector through technology incorporation to meet sustainability goals. This paper focuses mainly on harvesting operations being the most critical activity in any oil palm estate in terms of generating revenue and profit for the plantation company. Sime Darby Plantation has improved harvesting work processes through the implementation of a Division of Labour (DOL) and Division of Earnings (DOE) concept in their estates. The basic step of DOL and DOE is to segregate the duties of the harvesters into ‘skilled’ and ‘unskilled’ functions, whereby the harvesting wage structure is distributed proportionately based on the job category of the harvesters. Optimisation of cutters’ skills is important, as the total earnings of a group of harvesters are solely dependent on the performance of the cutters in achieving the targeted productivity with duties covering only the cutting of subtending frond or fronds and the fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The importance of integrating man and machine is to minimise physical effort and to eliminate multiple manual handling in both flat and terraced areas. Implementation of the above efficient work processes will improve the labour-tohectare ratio, and ultimately reduce the workforce requirements for harvesting. Other options being explored for mechanising field operations are also touched on briefly in this paper. The critical success factor is ensuring that the estate management consistently monitors the performance of each harvester assigned to a particular task in meeting the targeted productivity and cost. In addition, continuously driving the performance of all categories of harvesters and workers in the estates by setting long-term targets is essential for the company to be cost-efficient, competitive and sustainable.

Situasi buruh di sektor perladangan di Malaysia kini menuju ke arah penyatuan bersepadu iaitu meningkatkan kadar gaji minimum dan juga meningkatkan produktiviti. Pada masa hadapan, industri ini akan menghadapi kesukaran dalam menarik dan mengekalkan pekerja, jika cabaran untuk meningkatkan kecekapan serta produktiviti operasi, dan juga pemindahan kemahiran, tidak ditangani dengan segera. Kini, kedatangan pekerja
dari Indonesia menunjukkan kadar menurun, fokusnya kini adalah untuk mengambil pekerja gantian dari warganegara lain, terutamanya dari India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka dan Myanmar. Proses ini menjadi semakin sukar dan lambat disebabkan oleh masa pemprosesan yang lebih lama dan kos pengambilan yang lebih tinggi. Di samping itu, permintaan kenaikan gaji akan terus mendorong kenaikan aras gaji minimum RM 1000 sebulan di Semenanjung ke tahap yang lebih tinggi. Adalah penting untuk kita memberi tumpuan kepada produktiviti dan pendapatan, untuk menarik pekerja tempatan di mana tenaga fizikal dapat diminimumkan atau dihapus sama sekali melalui integrasi teknologi yang inovatif dan penyusunan semula proses kerja untuk menjadikan skop kerja lebih menarik. Segala usaha diperlukan bagi memastikan pihak industri menggunakan platform yang sama untuk meningkatkan sektor perladangan menerusi penyatuan teknologi bagi mencapai matlamat kemampanan. Kertas kerja ini memberi tumpuan utama kepada operasi penuaian sebagai aktiviti terpenting di ladang sawit dari segi penjanaan pendapatan dan juga keuntungan bagi syarikat perladangan. Sime Darby Plantation telah memperbaiki proses kerja penuaian melalui pelaksanaan konsep Bahagian Buruh (DOL) dan Bahagian Pendapatan (DOE) di estet mereka. Langkah asas DOL dan DOE adalah untuk mengasingkan tugas-tugas penuai kepada fungsi ‘mahir’ dan ‘tidak mahir’, di mana struktur upah penuaian diagihkan berdasarkan kategori tugas penuai. Mengoptimakan kemahiran penuai adalah penting, kerana jumlah pendapatan kumpulan penuai amat bergantung kepada prestasi penuai dalam mencapai sasaran produktiviti yang hanya melibatkan pemotongan pelepah dan buah tandan segar (BTS). Kepentingan mengintegrasikan tenaga manusia dan mesin adalah untuk meminimumkan penggunaan tenaga fizikal dan menghapuskan pelbagai pengendalian manual di kedua-dua kawasan rata dan berteres. Pelaksanaan proses kerja yang cekap di atas akan meningkatkan nisbah buruh per hektar, dan akhirnya mengurangkan keperluan tenaga kerja untuk menuai. Artikel ini juga menyentuh secara ringkas opsyen lain yang diterokai untuk memekanisasikan operasi ladang. Faktor kejayaan yang terpenting adalah dengan memastikan pengurusan estet memantau secara konsisten prestasi setiap penuai untuk mencapai sasaran produktiviti dan kos. Di samping itu, adalah penting bagi sesebuah syarikat menetapkan sasaran jangka panjang untuk menjadi cekap, kompetitif dan mampan dengan berterusan mengawasi prestasi semua kategori penuai dan pekerja di estet.



Keyword(s): productivity, efficiency, mechanisation, DOL, DOE, skilled and unskilled

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No: 75 (November 2017) p1-10
Managing Soil Deterioration and Erosion under Oil Palm
Afandi, A M*; Zuraidah, Y*; Nurzuhaili, H A Z A*; Zulkifli, H* and Yaqin, M*

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Managing Soil Deterioration and Erosion under Oil Palm

Planting oil palm on steepland can cause severe soil degradation as erosion carries away fertile topsoil and nutrients, especially at the early stage of field development. Hence, good agronomic practices are essential to sustain the soil properties associated with oil palm productivity. This article is a review of soil conservation practices that can minimise soil degradation under oil palm planted on sloping land. The common agronomic practices include terracing, silt pits, mulches (empty fruit bunches and pruned fronds) and establishment of leguminous cover crops, all of which will help to reduce run-off and soil erosion. The purpose of implementing these techniques is to manage soil degradation in order to achieve site yield potential while safeguarding the environment right from the early stage of plantation development. Preserving riparian zones is also essential as they serve as natural filters for surface run-off from the plantation areas and hence minimise the amount of sediments and in doing so preserve the quality of water entering the watercourses.


Penanaman sawit di tanah bercerun boleh menyebabkan kemusnahan tanah disebabkan oleh hakisan yang akan membawa tanah atas yang subur bersama dengan nutrien, terutamanya pada peringkat awal pembangunan ladang. Oleh itu, amalan agronomi yang baik amatlah penting untuk mengekalkan sifat tanah yang baik untuk produktiviti sawit. Artikel ini membincangkan amalan pemuliharaan tanah bagi meminimumkan kemusnahan tanah bercerun yang ditanam dengan sawit. Amalan agronomi yang biasa digunakan termasuklah penyediaan teres, takungan kelodak, sungkupan (tandan buah kosong dan pelepah yang dipotong) dan menanam tanaman kekacang penutup bumi; semua ini akan membantu mengurangkan larian permukaan dan hakisan tanah. Tujuan menggunakan teknik-teknik ini adalah untuk mengawal kemusnahan tanah supaya dapat mencapai potensi hasil setempat dan menyelamatkan alam sekitar mulai pada peringkat awal pembangunan ladang. Memulihara zon riparian juga diperlukan kerana zon ini merupakan penapis semulajadi bagi larian permukaan dari kawasan ladang dan akan meminimumkan jumlah sedimen sekaligus memulihara kualiti air yang memasuki sumber air.



Keyword(s): oil palm, soil degradation, agronomic practices, run-off, erosion

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No: 74 (May 2017) p17-24
The Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus: Current Issues and Challenges in Malaysia
Wahizatul Afzan Azmi*; Chong Ju Lian*; Hazlina Ahamad Zakeri**; Norhayati Yusuf**; Wan Bayani Wan Omar*; Yong Kah Wai*; Ainatun Nadrah Zulkefli* and Mohd Haris Hussain*

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Abstract


The Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus: Current Issues and Challenges in Malaysia

The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is an economically important pest of palms in many parts of the world. The weevil was first reported in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia in the early 2007, where it is now causing severe damage to coconut palms. However, in 2016, the RPW has been reported in five states – Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang, Terengganu and Kelantan, with the latter being the worst-hit. The weevil has also been found in oil palm plantations of FELDA and FELCRA by using pheromone trapping, but so far there is no evidence of the oil palm trees being affected. Current method to manage the RPW in Malaysia is largely based on pheromone mass trapping. However, it is still not an effective way to reduce the infestation of the RPW as the weevil population keeps increasing drastically. Thus, urgent action with special management considerations should be taken in order to reduce the problem. Here we report the identification, life cycle, symptoms of infestation, current management tactics for the RPW, and the potential threat of RPW to oil palm industry.

Kumbang merah palma (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus adalah merupakan perosak penting pokok palma di banyak kawasan di dunia. Kehadiran kumbang ini pertama kali dilaporkan di pantai timur Semenanjung Malaysia pada awal tahun 2007, di mana kini ianya menyebabkan kerosakan yang teruk kepada pokok kelapa. Walau bagaimanapun, pada 2016, RPW telah dilaporkan melanda lima negeri - Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang, Terengganu dan Kelantan, negeri terakhir yang paling teruk terkesan. Kumbang ini juga telah ditemui di ladang sawit FELDA dan FELCRA dengan menggunakan perangkap feromon, tetapi setakat ini tiada bukti menunjukkan serangan telah berlaku ke atas pokok sawit. Kaedah semasa untuk menguruskan RPW di Malaysia adalah sebahagian besarnya menggunakan perangkap feromon. Walau bagaimanapun, kaedah ini bukanlah satu kaedah yang efektif untuk mengurangkan infestasi RPW kerana populasi kumbang didapati telah bertambah secara drastik. Oleh itu, tindakan segera perlu dilakukan untuk mengurangkan masalah ini dengan mengambilkira pengurusan yang khusus. Penulisan berkaitan RPW ini merangkumi keterangan identiti, kitaran hidup, simptom serangan, taktik pengurusan semasa dan juga potensi ancamannya terhadap industri sawit.



Keyword(s): red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, control management, coconut palm, oil palm.

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No: 74 (May 2017) p12-16
Bacterial Biodiversity in Oil Palm Plantation and Different Forest Ecosystems in Mineral Soil in Sarawak
Shamsilawani, A B*; Siti Ramlah, A A* and Mohd Shawal, T M*

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Abstract


Bacterial Biodiversity in Oil Palm Plantation and Different Forest Ecosystems in Mineral Soil in Sarawak

Changes in the soil properties due to cultivation causes rapid changes in the microbial communities and activities in the soil. Most of this soil microbial population are sensitive to the changes in soil; therefore, some microbiological parameter such as microbial biodiversity can be used as an indicator for soil quality. By applying 16S rDNA and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), we investigated the bacterial composition in an area planted with oil palm in mineral soil in Belaga, Sarawak. Overall Shannon-Weaver biodiversity index showed that soil bacterial biodiversity in the oil palm planted area increased slightly after clean clearing. When palms reached the age of 2.5 years, the biodiversity index increased from early planting compared to the biodiversity in the strip areas. Prevalence of minor phylum showed that with the increase of oil palm age, there was an increase in the variations of new phylum groups contributing to the diverse population of soil bacteria in the oil palm area.

Perubahan tanah akibat daripada aktiviti pertanian mengakibatkan berlakunya perubahan populasi dan aktiviti mikrob di dalam tanah. Kebanyakan mikrob tanah ini adalah sensitif kepada perubahan dalam tanah. Oleh itu, parameter seperti indek biodiversiti mikrob boleh digunakan sebagai satu penunjuk untuk mengukur kualiti tanah. Primer 16S rDNA dan kaedah ’denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis‘ (DGGE), telah digunakan bagi mengkaji komposisi bakteria di kawasan penanaman sawit dan kawasan strip biodiversiti pada tanah mineral di Belaga, Sarawak. Secara keseluruhan indek biodiversiti Shannon-Weaver menunjukkan bahawa biodiversiti bakteria di kawasan sawit meningkat sedikit selepas pembersihan kawasan tanpa kaedah pembakaran. Apabila sawit mencapai umur 2.5 tahun, indek biodiversiti meningkat berbanding penanaman awal sawit dan kawasan strip biodiversiti. Kehadiran filum minoriti menunjukkan dengan peningkatan umur sawit, variasi kumpulan filum baru juga meningkat dan seterusnya ia menyumbang kepada peningkatan kepelbagaian populasi bakteria tanah kawasan penanaman sawit berbanding strip biodiversiti.



Keyword(s): oil palm plantation, microbial biodiversity, 16S rDNA, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, forest ecosystem.

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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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