Search
LIST OF ARTICLES

PDF of individual article can be purchased from Palm Information Centre, MPOB
Tel: 603-8769 4928 Fax: 603-8925 4213 Email: palmoils@mpob.gov.my

Article Info

No: 75 (November 2017) p27-36
Biogas Capture – A Means of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Loh, S K*; Nasrin, A B*; Mohamad Azri, S*; Nurul Adela, B*; Muzzammil, N*; Daryl Jay, T* and Stasha Eleanor, R A*

Download PDF

Abstract


Biogas Capture – A Means of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Oil palm – being the economic backbone of Malaysia – provides not just palm oil as the main commodity but also many other forms of by-products, namely oil palm trunks, fronds, palm kernel shell, mesocarp fiber, empty fruit bunches and palm oil mill effluent (POME), all of which can be transformed into valueadded products for energy and non-energy uses. POME has been exploited as a renewable energy source under the Entry Point Project (EPP) 5 of the Palm Oil National Key Economic Area (NKEA), Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) since 2010. Implementation of EPP5 by building biogas trapping facilities at all palm oil mills across the country is one of the oil palm industry’s renewable energy initiatives towards environmental sustainability. The production of biogas via anaerobic digestion of POME in the conventional treatment system releases ~65% methane into the atmosphere; methane is 25 times more potent than CO2 as a greenhouse gas (GHG). Biogas capture and its various modes of utilisation, plus the more recently adopted methane avoidance from POME, have thus far progressed satisfactorily in lowering the carbon footprint of palm oil production. By fully harnessing biogas from POME, a projected GHG emissions of ~18 million tonnes CO2eq per annum could be mitigated. This could greatly enhance the competitiveness of palm oil in facing more stringent sustainability requirements as stipulated under the EU Renewable Energy Directive and the USA EPA Renewable Fuel Standard 2 Program. The aim of this paper is to relate the Malaysian experiences in strategising and optimising POME management as well as biogas resource recovery, gearing towards accelerating sustainable palm oil production.

Industri sawit merupakan salah satu sumber ekonomi utama negara. Selain menghasilkan minyak sawit mentah sebagai sumber komoditi utama, ia turut menghasilkan produk sampingan seperti batang sawit, pelepah, tempurung, gentian mesokarpa, tandan buah kosong dan air kumbahan kilang sawit (POME). Kesemua sumber ini boleh digunakan bagi penghasilan produk nilai tambah sama ada untuk penggunaan berasaskan tenaga dan bukan tenaga. POME telah dikenalpasti dan digunakan sebagai sumber tenaga diperbaharui di bawah Projek Permulaan No. 5 (EPP5) – Bidang Ekonomi Utama Negara (NKEA), Program Transformasi Ekonomi Negara (ETP) sejak tahun 2010. Pelaksanaan EPP5 yang mensasarkan pembangunan loji pemerangkapan biogas di kilang sawit di seluruh negara merupakan salah satu inisiatif industri sawit negara ke arah pembangunan lestari dan mesra alam. Biogas yang terhasil daripada penguraian anaerobik ke atas POME dalam sistem rawatan kovensional membebaskan 65% gas metana ke atmosfera; metana berpotensi sebagai gas rumah hijau yang 25 kali lebih tinggi kesannya daripada gas karbon dioksida (CO2). Pemerangkapan dan penggunaan biogas dengan pelbagai bentuk penjanaan tenaga, termasuklah perlaksanaan projek berasaskan pengelakan metana menggunakan POME, telah berkembang dengan baik bagi mengurangkan jejak karbon untuk penghasilan minyak sawit mentah. Dianggarkan sebanyak 18 juta tan CO2eq setahun dapat dikurangkan sekiranya kesemua biogas yang dihasilkan di kilang sawit di seluruh negara diperangkap dan digunakan semula. Ini akan meningkatkan daya saing minyak sawit di peringkat global yang kini harus memenuhi pelbagai keperluan dan peraturan kemampanan yang ketat seperti yang termaktub di bawah program ‘EU Renewable Energy Directive’ dan ‘USA EPA Renewable Fuel Standard 2’. Artikel ini membincangkan pengalaman Malaysia dalam usaha dan strategi mengoptimumkan pengurusan POME dan penggunaan sumber biogas ke arah memacu pembangunan mampan dalam penghasilan minyak sawit.



Keyword(s): palm oil mill effluent, greenhouse gas, renewable energy, sustainable development, industry initiative

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 75 (November 2017) p17-26
Effects of Chemical Properties of Different Soils on Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)
Yit Kheng Goh*; Choon Kiat Lim*; Cong Rong Cheng*; Suet Yee Tan*; Li Wen Cheah*; Petronella G Ah Tung*; You Keng Goh* and Kah Joo Goh*

Download PDF

Abstract


Effects of Chemical Properties of Different Soils on Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

Variations in the incidence of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) on different soils had been observed in the field. Notably, acid sulphate coastal soils were observed to have higher Ganoderma incidence compared with inland soils. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to study the effects of four different soils belonging to five soil series, namely Parit Botak* and Jawa** series - acid sulphate coastal soil, Bungor*** series - inland soil, Blenheim series - coastal shell deposit soil (Typic Quartzipsamments), and Kabu series - limestonederived soil, coarse sandy loam (Typic Paleudults), on Ganoderma incidence and severity in oil palm seedlings in the nursery. The results show that the seedlings planted on both samples of acid sulphate coastal soils had the highest Ganoderma incidence and severity whereas those planted on coastal shell deposit soil had the lowest. Total number and weight of fruiting bodies produced at five months postinoculation were exponentially correlated to percent reduction in dry weight of Ganoderma-inoculated rubber wood blocks (RWB). Inoculated RWB from Parit Botak series were the most friable and the softest, followed by those from Jawa and Kabu series. Three sets of symptoms of Ganoderma infection were observed: a) leaf symptoms prior to initiation of Ganoderma fruiting bodies (on Bungor and Jawa series); b) leaf symptoms after initiation of Ganoderma fruiting bodies (on Blenheim and Parit Botak series); and c) a combination of the two sets (on Kabu series). Discriminant analyses elucidated that zinc, copper and calcium were associated with more than 50% disease severity index (DSI) and necrotic bole tissues. In contrast, pH, iron, manganese and nitrogen were associated with less than or 50% of DSI and necrotic bole tissues. This study illustrates the impacts of soils with different chemical compositions on the incidence and severity Ganoderma disease.

Pemerhatian di ladang mendapati bahawa insiden penyakit Ganoderma reput pangkal sawit (Elaeis guineensis) adalah berbeza pada tanah yang berlainan. Tanah asid sulfat pantai telah didapati mengalami insiden jangkitan Ganoderma yang lebih tinggi berbanding di tanah pedalaman. Oleh itu, objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji kemungkinan berlaku insiden jangkitan Ganoderma dan tahap kerosakan ke atas anak benih sawit di tapak semaian menggunakan tanah yang berlainan. Kajian ini menggunakan lima siri tanah dari empat taksonomi berbeza iaitu siri Parit Botak* dan siri Jawa** - tanah sulfat asid pantai, siri Bungor*** - tanah pedalaman, siri Blenheim - tanah mendapan shell pantai (Typic Quartzipsamments), dan siri Kabu - tanah terhasil dari batu kapur, lom berpasir kasar (Typic Paleudults). Keputusan mendapati bahawa anak benih yang ditanam di kedua-dua tanah asid sulfat pantai mengalami insiden jangkitan Ganoderma dan tahap kerosakan tertinggi, manakala yang ditanam di tanah mendapan shell pantai mengalami jangkitan terendah lima bulan selepas diinokulasi, jumlah bilangan dan berat jasad berbuah yang dihasilkan didapati mempunyai korelasi secara eksponensial dengan pengurangan peratus berat kering blok kayu getah terinokulasi. RWB yang diinokulasi dari siri Parit Botak adalah yang paling rapuh dan lembut, diikuti oleh RWB di tanah siri Jawa dan Kabu. Pemerhatian dilakukan ke atas tiga set simptom jangkitan Ganoderma: a) simptom daun sebelum terhasilnya jasad berbuah Ganoderma (pada siri Bungor dan Jawa); b) simptom daun selepas terhasilnya jasad berbuah Ganoderma (pada siri Blenheim dan Parit Botak); dan c) gabungan kedua-dua set (pada siri Kabu). Analisis diskriminasi menunjukkan bahawa zink, kuprum dan kalsium mempunyai kaitan dengan indeks kerosakan penyakit (DSI) dan nekrotik di tisu boleh melebihi 50%. Sebaliknya, pH, ferum, mangan dan nitrogen mempunyai kaitan dengan DSI dan nekrotik tisu bole pada tahap 50% atau kurang. Kajian ini menunjukan bahawa tanah yang mengandungi komposisi kimia yang berlainan akan memberi impak berbeza terhadap insiden dan kerosakan disebabkan penyakit Ganoderma.



Keyword(s): BSR, fruiting body, soil nutrients, disease severity, disease incidence

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 75 (November 2017) p11-16
Efforts in Mechanisation towards Improving Worker Productivity
R Thayaparakanthan*

Download PDF

Abstract


Efforts in Mechanisation towards Improving Worker Productivity

The labour situation in the plantation sector in Malaysia is heading towards a twin convergence of increasing minimum wages and low labour productivity. Going forward, the industry will face difficulties in attracting and retaining workers, if the above challenges are not addressed quickly to improve operational efficiency and productivity, as well as skills dilution. Currently, the arrival of workers from Indonesia shows a declining trend, and the focus is on recruitment of other nationalities, mainly from India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, as replacement workers. The process is getting difficult and slow due to the longer processing time and higher cost of recruitment. In addition, the demand for wage increase will continue to push the current minimum wage of RM 1000 per month in the Peninsula to a much higher level. It is critical that we focus on productivity and earnings, in order to attract local workers for some jobs where physical efforts can be minimised or removed altogether through the integration of innovative technologies and realignment of work processes to make the job scope more attractive. Every effort is required from industry players to ensure a common platform to elevate the plantation sector through technology incorporation to meet sustainability goals. This paper focuses mainly on harvesting operations being the most critical activity in any oil palm estate in terms of generating revenue and profit for the plantation company. Sime Darby Plantation has improved harvesting work processes through the implementation of a Division of Labour (DOL) and Division of Earnings (DOE) concept in their estates. The basic step of DOL and DOE is to segregate the duties of the harvesters into ‘skilled’ and ‘unskilled’ functions, whereby the harvesting wage structure is distributed proportionately based on the job category of the harvesters. Optimisation of cutters’ skills is important, as the total earnings of a group of harvesters are solely dependent on the performance of the cutters in achieving the targeted productivity with duties covering only the cutting of subtending frond or fronds and the fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The importance of integrating man and machine is to minimise physical effort and to eliminate multiple manual handling in both flat and terraced areas. Implementation of the above efficient work processes will improve the labour-tohectare ratio, and ultimately reduce the workforce requirements for harvesting. Other options being explored for mechanising field operations are also touched on briefly in this paper. The critical success factor is ensuring that the estate management consistently monitors the performance of each harvester assigned to a particular task in meeting the targeted productivity and cost. In addition, continuously driving the performance of all categories of harvesters and workers in the estates by setting long-term targets is essential for the company to be cost-efficient, competitive and sustainable.

Situasi buruh di sektor perladangan di Malaysia kini menuju ke arah penyatuan bersepadu iaitu meningkatkan kadar gaji minimum dan juga meningkatkan produktiviti. Pada masa hadapan, industri ini akan menghadapi kesukaran dalam menarik dan mengekalkan pekerja, jika cabaran untuk meningkatkan kecekapan serta produktiviti operasi, dan juga pemindahan kemahiran, tidak ditangani dengan segera. Kini, kedatangan pekerja
dari Indonesia menunjukkan kadar menurun, fokusnya kini adalah untuk mengambil pekerja gantian dari warganegara lain, terutamanya dari India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka dan Myanmar. Proses ini menjadi semakin sukar dan lambat disebabkan oleh masa pemprosesan yang lebih lama dan kos pengambilan yang lebih tinggi. Di samping itu, permintaan kenaikan gaji akan terus mendorong kenaikan aras gaji minimum RM 1000 sebulan di Semenanjung ke tahap yang lebih tinggi. Adalah penting untuk kita memberi tumpuan kepada produktiviti dan pendapatan, untuk menarik pekerja tempatan di mana tenaga fizikal dapat diminimumkan atau dihapus sama sekali melalui integrasi teknologi yang inovatif dan penyusunan semula proses kerja untuk menjadikan skop kerja lebih menarik. Segala usaha diperlukan bagi memastikan pihak industri menggunakan platform yang sama untuk meningkatkan sektor perladangan menerusi penyatuan teknologi bagi mencapai matlamat kemampanan. Kertas kerja ini memberi tumpuan utama kepada operasi penuaian sebagai aktiviti terpenting di ladang sawit dari segi penjanaan pendapatan dan juga keuntungan bagi syarikat perladangan. Sime Darby Plantation telah memperbaiki proses kerja penuaian melalui pelaksanaan konsep Bahagian Buruh (DOL) dan Bahagian Pendapatan (DOE) di estet mereka. Langkah asas DOL dan DOE adalah untuk mengasingkan tugas-tugas penuai kepada fungsi ‘mahir’ dan ‘tidak mahir’, di mana struktur upah penuaian diagihkan berdasarkan kategori tugas penuai. Mengoptimakan kemahiran penuai adalah penting, kerana jumlah pendapatan kumpulan penuai amat bergantung kepada prestasi penuai dalam mencapai sasaran produktiviti yang hanya melibatkan pemotongan pelepah dan buah tandan segar (BTS). Kepentingan mengintegrasikan tenaga manusia dan mesin adalah untuk meminimumkan penggunaan tenaga fizikal dan menghapuskan pelbagai pengendalian manual di kedua-dua kawasan rata dan berteres. Pelaksanaan proses kerja yang cekap di atas akan meningkatkan nisbah buruh per hektar, dan akhirnya mengurangkan keperluan tenaga kerja untuk menuai. Artikel ini juga menyentuh secara ringkas opsyen lain yang diterokai untuk memekanisasikan operasi ladang. Faktor kejayaan yang terpenting adalah dengan memastikan pengurusan estet memantau secara konsisten prestasi setiap penuai untuk mencapai sasaran produktiviti dan kos. Di samping itu, adalah penting bagi sesebuah syarikat menetapkan sasaran jangka panjang untuk menjadi cekap, kompetitif dan mampan dengan berterusan mengawasi prestasi semua kategori penuai dan pekerja di estet.



Keyword(s): productivity, efficiency, mechanisation, DOL, DOE, skilled and unskilled

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 75 (November 2017) p1-10
Managing Soil Deterioration and Erosion under Oil Palm
Afandi, A M*; Zuraidah, Y*; Nurzuhaili, H A Z A*; Zulkifli, H* and Yaqin, M*

Download PDF

Abstract


Managing Soil Deterioration and Erosion under Oil Palm

Planting oil palm on steepland can cause severe soil degradation as erosion carries away fertile topsoil and nutrients, especially at the early stage of field development. Hence, good agronomic practices are essential to sustain the soil properties associated with oil palm productivity. This article is a review of soil conservation practices that can minimise soil degradation under oil palm planted on sloping land. The common agronomic practices include terracing, silt pits, mulches (empty fruit bunches and pruned fronds) and establishment of leguminous cover crops, all of which will help to reduce run-off and soil erosion. The purpose of implementing these techniques is to manage soil degradation in order to achieve site yield potential while safeguarding the environment right from the early stage of plantation development. Preserving riparian zones is also essential as they serve as natural filters for surface run-off from the plantation areas and hence minimise the amount of sediments and in doing so preserve the quality of water entering the watercourses.


Penanaman sawit di tanah bercerun boleh menyebabkan kemusnahan tanah disebabkan oleh hakisan yang akan membawa tanah atas yang subur bersama dengan nutrien, terutamanya pada peringkat awal pembangunan ladang. Oleh itu, amalan agronomi yang baik amatlah penting untuk mengekalkan sifat tanah yang baik untuk produktiviti sawit. Artikel ini membincangkan amalan pemuliharaan tanah bagi meminimumkan kemusnahan tanah bercerun yang ditanam dengan sawit. Amalan agronomi yang biasa digunakan termasuklah penyediaan teres, takungan kelodak, sungkupan (tandan buah kosong dan pelepah yang dipotong) dan menanam tanaman kekacang penutup bumi; semua ini akan membantu mengurangkan larian permukaan dan hakisan tanah. Tujuan menggunakan teknik-teknik ini adalah untuk mengawal kemusnahan tanah supaya dapat mencapai potensi hasil setempat dan menyelamatkan alam sekitar mulai pada peringkat awal pembangunan ladang. Memulihara zon riparian juga diperlukan kerana zon ini merupakan penapis semulajadi bagi larian permukaan dari kawasan ladang dan akan meminimumkan jumlah sedimen sekaligus memulihara kualiti air yang memasuki sumber air.



Keyword(s): oil palm, soil degradation, agronomic practices, run-off, erosion

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 74 (May 2017) p17-24
The Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus: Current Issues and Challenges in Malaysia
Wahizatul Afzan Azmi*; Chong Ju Lian*; Hazlina Ahamad Zakeri**; Norhayati Yusuf**; Wan Bayani Wan Omar*; Yong Kah Wai*; Ainatun Nadrah Zulkefli* and Mohd Haris Hussain*

Download PDF

Abstract


The Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus: Current Issues and Challenges in Malaysia

The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is an economically important pest of palms in many parts of the world. The weevil was first reported in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia in the early 2007, where it is now causing severe damage to coconut palms. However, in 2016, the RPW has been reported in five states – Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang, Terengganu and Kelantan, with the latter being the worst-hit. The weevil has also been found in oil palm plantations of FELDA and FELCRA by using pheromone trapping, but so far there is no evidence of the oil palm trees being affected. Current method to manage the RPW in Malaysia is largely based on pheromone mass trapping. However, it is still not an effective way to reduce the infestation of the RPW as the weevil population keeps increasing drastically. Thus, urgent action with special management considerations should be taken in order to reduce the problem. Here we report the identification, life cycle, symptoms of infestation, current management tactics for the RPW, and the potential threat of RPW to oil palm industry.

Kumbang merah palma (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus adalah merupakan perosak penting pokok palma di banyak kawasan di dunia. Kehadiran kumbang ini pertama kali dilaporkan di pantai timur Semenanjung Malaysia pada awal tahun 2007, di mana kini ianya menyebabkan kerosakan yang teruk kepada pokok kelapa. Walau bagaimanapun, pada 2016, RPW telah dilaporkan melanda lima negeri - Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang, Terengganu dan Kelantan, negeri terakhir yang paling teruk terkesan. Kumbang ini juga telah ditemui di ladang sawit FELDA dan FELCRA dengan menggunakan perangkap feromon, tetapi setakat ini tiada bukti menunjukkan serangan telah berlaku ke atas pokok sawit. Kaedah semasa untuk menguruskan RPW di Malaysia adalah sebahagian besarnya menggunakan perangkap feromon. Walau bagaimanapun, kaedah ini bukanlah satu kaedah yang efektif untuk mengurangkan infestasi RPW kerana populasi kumbang didapati telah bertambah secara drastik. Oleh itu, tindakan segera perlu dilakukan untuk mengurangkan masalah ini dengan mengambilkira pengurusan yang khusus. Penulisan berkaitan RPW ini merangkumi keterangan identiti, kitaran hidup, simptom serangan, taktik pengurusan semasa dan juga potensi ancamannya terhadap industri sawit.



Keyword(s): red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, control management, coconut palm, oil palm.

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 74 (May 2017) p12-16
Bacterial Biodiversity in Oil Palm Plantation and Different Forest Ecosystems in Mineral Soil in Sarawak
Shamsilawani, A B*; Siti Ramlah, A A* and Mohd Shawal, T M*

Download PDF

Abstract


Bacterial Biodiversity in Oil Palm Plantation and Different Forest Ecosystems in Mineral Soil in Sarawak

Changes in the soil properties due to cultivation causes rapid changes in the microbial communities and activities in the soil. Most of this soil microbial population are sensitive to the changes in soil; therefore, some microbiological parameter such as microbial biodiversity can be used as an indicator for soil quality. By applying 16S rDNA and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), we investigated the bacterial composition in an area planted with oil palm in mineral soil in Belaga, Sarawak. Overall Shannon-Weaver biodiversity index showed that soil bacterial biodiversity in the oil palm planted area increased slightly after clean clearing. When palms reached the age of 2.5 years, the biodiversity index increased from early planting compared to the biodiversity in the strip areas. Prevalence of minor phylum showed that with the increase of oil palm age, there was an increase in the variations of new phylum groups contributing to the diverse population of soil bacteria in the oil palm area.

Perubahan tanah akibat daripada aktiviti pertanian mengakibatkan berlakunya perubahan populasi dan aktiviti mikrob di dalam tanah. Kebanyakan mikrob tanah ini adalah sensitif kepada perubahan dalam tanah. Oleh itu, parameter seperti indek biodiversiti mikrob boleh digunakan sebagai satu penunjuk untuk mengukur kualiti tanah. Primer 16S rDNA dan kaedah ’denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis‘ (DGGE), telah digunakan bagi mengkaji komposisi bakteria di kawasan penanaman sawit dan kawasan strip biodiversiti pada tanah mineral di Belaga, Sarawak. Secara keseluruhan indek biodiversiti Shannon-Weaver menunjukkan bahawa biodiversiti bakteria di kawasan sawit meningkat sedikit selepas pembersihan kawasan tanpa kaedah pembakaran. Apabila sawit mencapai umur 2.5 tahun, indek biodiversiti meningkat berbanding penanaman awal sawit dan kawasan strip biodiversiti. Kehadiran filum minoriti menunjukkan dengan peningkatan umur sawit, variasi kumpulan filum baru juga meningkat dan seterusnya ia menyumbang kepada peningkatan kepelbagaian populasi bakteria tanah kawasan penanaman sawit berbanding strip biodiversiti.



Keyword(s): oil palm plantation, microbial biodiversity, 16S rDNA, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, forest ecosystem.

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 74 (May 2017) p7-11
Evaluation of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Chemical to Control Termite, Coptotermes curvignathus on Mature Oil Palm and Supply Seedlings on Peat
Mohamad Rosman Sulaiman*; Saharul Abillah Mohamad*; Ramle Moslim*; Zulkefli Masijan* and Siaw Ting Chuan**

Download PDF

Abstract


Evaluation of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Chemical to Control Termite, Coptotermes curvignathus on Mature Oil Palm and Supply Seedlings on Peat

The use of chemical insecticide, fipronil and two entomotahogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium major on termite control was evaluated. The experiment was conducted in high termite infested field with 10 year-old palm and young supply seedlings of six months after planting. Treatment on infested mature palm was conducted by spraying of product solution on the whole palm trunk and soil injection surrounding the palm bases. For young supply seedling, the palm was only treated by soil injection. For treatment with fipronil, all 8 treated palms were observed to be free from any termite activity at 3 and 6 months after treatment (MAT). However, at 9 MAT, one palm had collapsed due to severe damage in the inner trunk tissues caused by termite attack. For treatment with B. bassiana, out of 17 treated palms, no termite activity was found on 3 palms at 3 MAT, 5 palms at 6 MAT and 7 palms at 9 MAT. The number of palms which collapsed due to termite attack was only one palm, recorded at 3 MAT. For treatment with M. major, out of 10 treated palms, one palm was observed with no presence of termite activity at 3 MAT. While from 6 to 9 MAT, the number of palms with no termite infestation increased to 2 palms. Two palms treated with M. major collapsed due to severe damage of the inner trunk tissues caused by termite attack. For young supply seedlings, up to 9 MAT, only one palm treated with B. bassiana was infested by termite, while other palms were still healthy. Findings of this study showed that fipronil was the most effective, giving 100% control against termite infestation up to 9 MAT. The entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana gave 41.18% control and M. major gave 20% control against termite infestation. All products were able to prevent infestation of termite on new supply seedling in high termite infestation areas up to 9 MAT. Possible factors that might have influenced the effectiveness of the two entomopathogenic fungi in controlling termite infestation were elaborated in detail. Further research is needed to develop biological products and delivery methods for effective control of termite on peat.

Penggunaan racun serangga kimia, fipronil dan dua kulat entomopatogenik, Beauveria bassiana dan Metarhizium major untuk kawalan anai-anai telah dikaji. Kajian telah dijalankan di kawasan pokok sawit matang berusia 10 tahun dan anak sawit sulam berumur 6 bulan selepas tanam. Rawatan pada pokok sawit matang dijalankan secara semburan larutan produk pada keseluruhan batang sawit dan suntikan tanah di sekitar pangkal pokok. Untuk anak sawit sulam, ia dirawat hanya dengan kaedah suntikan tanah. Hasil kajian mendapati rawatan fipronil berupaya mengawal kesemua 8 pokok sawit daripada serangan anaianai pada 3 dan 6 bulan selepas rawatan (BSR). Walau bagaimanapun, pada 9 BSR, satu pokok telah tumbang akibat kerosakan teruk tisu dalaman batang yang disebabkan oleh serangan anai-anai. Untuk rawatan B. bassiana, daripada 17 pokok sawit yang dirawat, tiada aktiviti anai-anai ditemui pada 3 pokok selepas 3 BSR, 5 pokok pada 6 BSR dan 7 pokok pada 9 BSR. Bilangan pokok sawit yang tumbang akibat serangan anai-anai hanya satu pokok, yang dicatatkan pada 3 BSR. Untuk rawatan kulat M. major, daripada 10 pokok sawit yang dirawat, hanya satu pokok diperhatikan tanpa aktiviti anai-anai pada 3 BSR. Manakala pada 6 BSR dan 9 BSR, bilangan pokok sawit tanpa anai-anai meningkat kepada 2 pokok. Dua sawit yang dirawat dengan M. major telah tumbang akibat kerosakan teruk tisu dalaman batang yang disebabkan oleh serangan anai-anai. Untuk anak sawit sulam, hanya satu pokok sawit yang dirawat dengan B. bassiana telah diserang oleh anaianai selepas 9 bulan rawatan. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa fipronil merupakan rawatan yang paling berkesan, memberikan kawalan 100% terhadap serangan anai-anai sehingga 9 BSR. Kulat entomopatogenik B. bassiana memberikan kawalan 41.18% dan M. major memberikan kawalan 20% terhadap serangan anai-anai. Semua produk dapat mengawal serangan anai-anai pada anak sawit sulam sehingga 9 BSR. Faktor yang menyebabkan kedua-dua kulat entomopatogenik kurang berkesan untuk mengawal anai-anai juga dihuraikan dengan lebih lanjut. Kajian lanjut bagi membangunkan produk biologi serta kaedah penggunaan di ladang untuk anai-anai perlu dijalankan.



Keyword(s): entomopathogenic fungi, Coptotermes curvignathus, fipronil, oil palm.

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 74 (May 2017) p1-6
The Impact of El Niño and La Niña on Malaysian Palm Oil Industry
Nur Nadia Kamil* and Syuhadatul Fatimah Omar*

Download PDF

Abstract


The Impact of El Niño and La Niña on Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

El Niño and La Niña are two complex weather patterns that result from variations in the ocean temperatures of the equatorial Pacific. Being close to the equatorial Pacific, the occurrence of the socalled El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events has a notable impact on Malaysian weather. The wind circulation of the ENSO influences the precipitation in Malaysia. The extreme changes in rainfall level either below or above the average does significantly affect the productivity of the Malaysian main agriculture commodity namely palm oil. The reduction in rainfall amount creates stress during the development of oil palm fruit bunches and hence reduces the FFB yield of the palms. On the other hand, higher than average rainfall also has a negative effect on the oil palms and reduces the oil production. The occurrence of these two events is seen to affect CPO prices. However, our analysis suggested that there was no significant relationship between rainfall and CPO prices, but CPO production does.

El Niño dan La Niña adalah dua corak cuaca yang kompleks disebabkan oleh perubahan suhu lautan Pasifik di khatulistiwa. Terletak hampir dengan khatulistiwa lautan Pasifik, corak cuaca di Malaysia dipengaruhi oleh peristiwa yang dikenali sebagai El Niño dan Ayunan Selatan (ENSO). Peredaran angin disebabkan oleh kejadian ENSO mempengaruhi taburan hujan di Malaysia. Perubahan dalam taburan hujan yang melampau sama ada di bawah atau di atas paras purata taburan hujan memberi kesan ketara kepada produktiviti komoditi pertanian utama Malaysia iaitu minyak sawit. Pengurangan jumlah hujan mewujudkan tekanan semasa terhadap proses perkembangan tandan buah sawit dan dengan itu mengurangkan hasil buah tandan segar (BTS). Sebaliknya, hujan yang lebih tinggi daripada purata juga mempunyai kesan negatif ke atas tanaman sawit dan mengurangkan pengeluaran minyak. Secara amnya, taburan hujan yang terlalu rendah dan terlalu tinggi dilihat memberi kesan kepada pergerakan harga minyak sawit mentah (CPO). Walau bagaimanapun, analisis kami mencadangkan bahawa tidak terdapat hubungan yang signifikan di antara taburan hujan dan pergerakan harga minyak sawit mentah, tetapi perubahan dalam taburan hujan didapati mempengaruhi kadar pengeluaran CPO.



Keyword(s): El Niño, La Niña, ENSO, FFB yield, CPO prices

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 73 (November 2016) p13-14
MPOB News
-

Download PDF

Abstract


MPOB News

-



Keyword(s):

Download PDF

Article Info

No: 73 (November 2016) p10-12
Identification of Etiolated Palms for Thinning via IFSAR
Hardi Hadiali*; Siti Nuruljannah A Majid**; Ganesan Nallan* and Lee Teck Fah±

Download PDF

Abstract


Identification of Etiolated Palms for Thinning via IFSAR

Remote Sensing (RS) technology has come a long way in assisting the oil palm plantations to increase productivity while simplifying tedious and laborious field work. Utilising the highly accurate RS data like Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) is one of those ways. In this paper, the IFSAR data is used to assist in the identification of etiolated areas on desktop computer level before proceeding to the field for verification. Identification of etiolated palms for thinning is tedious and can be inaccurate if the personnel assigned to the task are not experienced enough. The complexity of selecting the etiolated palms to be thinned is further compounded if the area of interest is on a hilly terrain. Selection and thinning of etiolated palms on hilly terrain is not bounded by any system compared to the hexagonal “1 in 7 ’’ method which is generally adopted in oil palms planted on flat terrain. The IFSAR image enables the GIS team to identify areas where palms are closely planted via the desktop. A single GIS operator can cover up to 200 to 250 hectares per day for this task. This information is then translated in map formats into mobile GPS devices such as the Android Androzic application on smartphones or tablets. With this information, the operation team can zoom into the close planting areas where etiolation will most likely happen. By utilising this extra information, the team can save time and does not have to cover an entire block to identify the etiolated areas. On the ground, the team can then verify and mark out the etiolated palms for thinning. Based on experience, the verification on the ground is crucial as only up to 20% of the palms selected are suitable for thinning. The utilisation of such technology is helpful as it improves productivity and accuracy of the palms selected for thinning.

Teknologi Penderiaan Jauh (PJ) telah lama digunakan bagi membantu ladang-ladang sawit untuk meningkatkan produktiviti dan juga memudahkan kerja lapangan yang agak rumit dan payah. Salah satu cara adalah dengan menggunakan data PJ yang jitu seperti Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR). Dalam artikel ini, data IFSAR telah digunakan untuk membantu dalam mengenalpasti kawasan sawit beretiolasi dengan menggunakan komputer sebelum membuat pengesahan di lapangan. Pengenalpastian pokok sawit etiolasi untuk penjarangan adalah agak rumit dan boleh menjadi tidak tepat jika pegawai yang ditugaskan tidak berpengalaman. Tugas ini menjadi lebih rumit di kawasan berbukit. Pemilihan dan penjarangan pokok sawit etiolasi di kawasan berbukit tidak terikat dengan mana-mana sistem, berbanding dengan kaedah heksagon “1 dalam 7‘’ yang biasanya diterima pakai di kawasan yang rata. Imej IFSAR membolehkan pasukan GIS untuk mengenalpasti kawasan di mana pokok sawit yang ditanam rapat melalui komputer. Seorang pengendali GIS boleh menjalankan tugas ini meliputi sehingga 200 hingga 250 hektar sehari. Maklumat ini kemudian diterjemahkan dalam format peta ke dalam peranti GPS mudah alih seperti aplikasi Android Androzic pada telefon pintar atau tablet. Dengan maklumat ini juga, pasukan operasi boleh memberi tumpuan kepada kawasan penanaman rapat di mana kemungkinan besar akan berlaku etiolasi. Maklumat tambahan ini membolehkan petugas menjimatkan masa kerana tidak perlu meneliti keseluruhan blok untuk mengenalpasti kawasan sawit beretiolasi. Mereka kemudiannya boleh mengesahkan dan menandakan pokok sawit etiolasi di lapangan untuk penjarangan. Berdasarkan pengalaman, pengesahan di lapangan adalah penting kerana hanya 20% sahaja daripada pokok sawit yang dipilih adalah sesuai untuk penjarangan. Penggunaan teknologi ini dapat membantu untuk meningkatkan produktiviti dan pemilihan tepat pokok sawit untuk penjarangan.



Keyword(s): Remote Sensing, oil palm, productivity, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, etiolated palms, thinning, map formats

Download PDF

© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
Page 1 of 36

Menu

Popular Titles

BOOKS e-BOOKS e-JOURNALS
   Updated on 10 October 2017  

Subscribed Resources

e-RESOURCES

e-BOOKS 

 

2017 SUBSCRIBED TITLES

TITLE LIST

USER GUIDE

Updated on 10 October 2017

Daily CPO Prices

Quick Links


                 


      

              
Copyright © 2018 PALMOILIS Portal. All Rights Reserved.
Designed & Developed by Palm Information Centre, MPOB. Contact webmaster

Visitor Counter

041591
TodayToday88
YesterdayYesterday90
This WeekThis Week327
This MonthThis Month1634
All DaysAll Days41591