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No: 72 (May 2016) p25-31
Leaf Nutrient Status in Relation to Severity of Ganoderma Infection in Oil Palm Seedlings Artificially Infected with Ganoderma Boninense using Root Inoculation Technique
Nuranis, I; Kamaruzaman, S; Khairulmazmi, A; Mohd Shukri, I; Zulkifli, H; and Idris, A S

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Leaf Nutrient Status in Relation to Severity of Ganoderma Infection in Oil Palm Seedlings Artificially Infected with Ganoderma Boninense using Root Inoculation Technique

Basal stem rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma spp., a basidiomycete fungus, is a major devastating disease of oil palm, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Several factors were reported to influence the outbreak of BSR disease which include nutrient status, age of palm, types of soil, previous crop and replanting techniques. Elemental nutrient is known to have some beneficial effects on plant disease control. Over many years, macro- and micronutrient application has been totally overlooked in oil palm fertiliser programmes in relation to outbreak of BSR disease incidence. A study was conducted to determine leaf nutrient concentrations in relation to severity of Ganoderma infection in oil palm seedlings artificially inoculated with G. boninense using root inoculation technique. This study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang which involved a total of 210 Dura x Pisifera (DXP) oil palm seedlings. After inoculation, external and internal symptoms developing on seedlings and disease severity index (DSI, four disease classes of 0, 1, 2 and 3) were recorded. At 15 months of inoculation, leaf samples were collected and macro-nutrient such as Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) and micro-nutrient such as Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe) and Boron (B) were analysed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to test the difference between leaf nutrient concentrations in relation to DSI, followed by comparison means using Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at 0.05 significant levels. A total of 25.0% of inoculated seedlings were dead due to G. boninense infection. Significant difference of leaf nutrient concentration in relation to DSI was observed. Leaf macro-nutrient concentration of N, K, and Ca showed difference (p<0.05) while P and Mg showed no significant difference in relation to BSR disease development. Meanwhile, leaf micro-nutrient concentration of Cu, Mn and B showed significant difference (p<0.05) while Zn and Fe showed no significant difference. Among significant nutrients, Ca and Cu were found higher in healthy seedlings (DSI - 0) compared to infected seedlings (DSI – 1, 2 or 3). This study suggested that formulation of fertiliser consists mainly of Ca and Cu are needed in order to reduce BSR disease incidence in oil palms.

Reput Pangkal Batang (RPB) disebabkan oleh Ganoderma spp. sejenis kulat basidiomycete, adalah penyakit utama yang teruk pada tanaman kelapa sawit, terutama di Malaysia dan Indonesia. Beberapa faktor telah dilaporkan mempengaruhi penyakit RPB iaitu status nutrien, umur sawit, jenis tanah, tanaman sebelumnya dan teknik penanaman. Element nutrien diketahui mempunyai kesan yang baik terhadap kawalan penyakit tumbuhan. Selepas beberapa tahun pembajaan, aplikasi makro- dan mikro-nutrien diabaikan dalam program pembajaan kelapa sawit berhubung dengan penyebaran penyakit RPB. Satu kajian telah dijalankan untuk menentukan kepekatan nutrient daun berhubung ke atas tahap penyakit RPB pada anak pokok sawit yang diinokulasi dengan G. boninense menggunakan teknik inokulasi akar. Kajian ini dijalankan di Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang yang melibatkan sejumlah 210 Dura x Pisifera (DXP) anak pokok sawit. Selepas inokulasi, simptom luaran dan dalaman serta index keterukan penyakit (DSI, 4 kelas 0, 1, 2 dan 3) direkodkan. Selepas 15 bulan inokulasi, sample daun diambil Leaf Nutrient Status in Relation to Severity of Ganoderma Infection in Oil Palm Seedlings Artificially Infected with Ganoderma boninense using Root Inoculation Technique dan makro-nutrien seperti Nitrogen (N), Fosforus (P), Kalium (K), Kalsium (Ca) dan Magnesium (Mg) dan mikro-nutrien seperti Kuprum (Cu), Zink (Zn), Mangan (Mn), Besi (Fe) dan Boron (B) dianalisis. Analisis variance (ANOVA) telah dijalankan untuk menguji perbezaan di antara kepekatan nutrient daun berhubung dengan DSI, diikuti dengan perbandingan bermakna menggunakan ujian perbezaan paling signifikan (LSD) pada 0.05 tahap ketara. Sejumlah 25% anak pokok diinokulasi mati disebabkan oleh G. boninense. Perbezaan di antara kepekatan nutrien daun berhubung dengan DSI diperhatikan. Kepekatan daun makro-nutrien N, K dan Ca menunjukkan perbezaan ketara (p<0.05) manakala P dan Mg menunjukkan tiada perbezaan kepekatan nutrien berhubung dengan penyakit RPB. Untuk kepekatan daun mikro-nutrien Cu, Mn dan B menunjukkan perbezaan ketara (p<0.05) manakala Zn dan Fe menunjukkan tiada perbezaan kepekatan nutrien berhubung dengan penyakit RPB. Di antara nutrien, Ca dan Cu menunjukkan tinggi dalam anak pokok sawit yang sihat (DSI – 0) berbanding dengan anak pokok diinokulasi dengan G. boninense (DSI – 1, 2 atau 3). Kajian ini menujukkan formulasi baja mengandungi Ca dan Cu diperlukan untuk mengurangkan kejadian penyakit RPB pada sawit.



Keyword(s): Basal stem rot, Ganoderma boninense, leaf nutrien

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No: 72 (May 2016) p1-24
Oil Palm Fertiliser Recommendation for Sabah Soils
Afandi, A M; Zulkifli, H; Khalid, H; Hasnol, O; Nur Zuhaili, H A Z A and Zuraidah, Y

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Oil Palm Fertiliser Recommendation for Sabah Soils

This article discusses on derivation of oil palm fertiliser formulation based on nutrient budget in Sabah mineral soils. The balanced compound fertiliser with N:11%, P2O5:6%, K2O: 22%, MgO: 2% and B2O3: 0.5% were fortified with organic matter and premium grade trace elements. This formulation would enhance the nutrient uptake and thus improving productivity of oil palm. Recycling of organic matter from palm waste would reduce the production cost towards sustainable oil palm plantation. The nutrients ratio of compound fertilisers available in the market were ranged between 23.5% to 48%. Therefore, this formulation with 41.5% of the nutrient ratio is considered commendable. The recommendation fertiliser rate for this formulation to be applied in mature oil palm is 8.5 to 9.0 kg palm-1 yr-1.

Artikel ini membincangkan bagaimana untuk memperoleh formulasi baja sawit berdasarkan kegunaan nutrien di tanah di Sabah. Baja sebatian yang seimbang dengan nisbah N: 11%, P2O5:6%, K2O:22%, MgO:2% dan B2O3:0.5% serta diperkaya dengan bahan organik dan unsur surih gred premium akan meningkatkan pengambilan nutrien dan produktiviti sawit. Pengitaran semula bahan organik daripada sisa sawit akan mengurangkan kos pengeluaran sawit dan menjadikan industri tersebut lebih mampan. Jumlah keseluruhan nisbah nutrien dalam baja sebatian sawit yang terdapat di pasaran adalah antara 23.5% - 48%. Oleh itu, formulasi baja dengan jumlah keseluruhan nutrien baja sebanyak 41.5% adalah munasabah. Kadar syor pembajaan adalah di antara 8.5 - 9.0 kg pk-1 thn-1 untuk pokok sawit matang.



Keyword(s): oil palm, nutrient budget, Sabah mineral soils, recycling of organic matter, fertiliser formulation

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No: 71 (November 2015) p25-27
MPOB News
-

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MPOB News

  • Transformasi dan Pengembangan Pekebun Kecil
    Sawit Sarawak Programme at Sri Aman

  • MPOB Bagged 34 Medals at ITEX 2015

  • Visit from China Centre for International
    Economic Exchange

  • Dialogue with MOH and MPIC

  • Balau Carnival 2015

  • Palm Oil Familiarisation Programme (POFP)

  • Hello Komoditi in Betong, Sarawak

  • Launching of Bio-CNG Plant

  • Transfer of Technology (TOT) Seminar 2015

  • International Seminar on Gearing Oil Palm
    Breeding and Agronomy for Climate Change

  • PIPOC 2015



Keyword(s): -

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No: 71 (November 2015) p14-24
Zero Discharge of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Outdoor Flash Evaporation at Standard Atmospheric Conditions
Prashant Patel*

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Zero Discharge of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Outdoor Flash Evaporation at Standard Atmospheric Conditions

The single largest issue facing the extended development of the palm oil industry is the impact of mill by-products on the environment; in particular on palm oil mill effluent (POME). The Malaysian Department of Environment requires treatment of POME to extremely challenging parameters, which are difficult to achieve in the face of highly volatile processing volumes and irregular conditions for bacteria to optimally survive in anaerobic and aerobic ponds, the most common method of POME treatment. Whilst POME discharge is only permitted through land irrigation, the heavy volumes of POME produced can overflow from silted irrigation channels, especially during heavy rainfalls, and eventually find its way into the surrounding rivers and harming dependent communities. The palm oil industry has broadly struggled to find cost-effective solutions to fully consume or recycle POME into other applications, thereby creating a genuine zero discharge scenario. This article describes a technology that has been successfully deployed in POME treatment via flash evaporation/air-drying of POME. The technology has the potential to safely eliminate discharge of POME and ensure the continued safety of Malaysia’s sensitive ecosystems.

Isu terbesar yang dihadapi oleh industri minyak sawit adalah kesan bahan buangan kilang sawit terhadap alam sekitar; khususnya efluen kilang minyak sawit (POME). Jabatan Alam Sekitar Malaysia menetapkan peraturan yang ketat supaya POME dirawat dengan berkesan, tetapi ini agak sukar untuk dicapai dengan kaedah rawatan POME yang biasa iaitu kolam anaerobik dan aerobik kerana jumlah pemprosesan yang tidak menentu dan keadaan kolam yang berubah-ubah menyukarkan kehidupan bakteria secara optimum. Walaupun pelepasan POME hanya dibenarkan melalui pengairan tanah, POME dihasilkan dengan jumlah yang besar boleh melimpah dari parit pengairan yang dipenuhi kelodak, terutamanya semasa hujan lebat, dan akhirnya mencemari sungai yang berhampiran dan membahayakan penduduk yang bergantung padanya. Industri minyak sawit telah berusaha untuk mencari penyelesaian secara kos efektif untuk menggunakan POME sepenuhnya atau mengitar semula POME ke dalam aplikasi yang lain, dengan itu mewujudkan satu senario pelepasan sifar. Kajian ini menjelaskan tentang teknologi penyejatan pantas atau pengeringan udara yang telah berjaya diguna pakai dalam merawat POME. Teknologi ini mempunyai potensi untuk menyingkirkan POME dengan selamat dan memastikan keadaan ekosistem alam sekitar sentiasa terpelihara.



Keyword(s): palm oil, wastewater, zero discharge, organic decomposition, evaporation

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No: 71 (November 2015) p8-13
Efficient Use of Inorganic and Organic Fertilisers for Oil Palm
Khalid Haron*; Zulkifli Hashim* and Norman Kamarudin*

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Efficient Use of Inorganic and Organic Fertilisers for Oil Palm

Fertiliser application practices to increase oil palm productivity have been discussed extensively in many forums. This article investigates how to increase the efficiency of fertiliser use in oil palm plantations so as to contribute towards the saving of fertiliser inputs and to ensure maximum returns. Application of organic fertiliser alone was unable to produce high yield for oil palm due to low and inconsistent nutrient contents in organic fertiliser. The effects of integrating inorganic and organic fertilisers on soil quality and oil palm productivity are discussed. The soil quality was improved as shown by an increase in soil pH, which enhanced the availability of nutrients, thus increasing the efficiency of the fertilisers applied. This would result in a reduction in fertiliser inputs and contribute to an increase in oil palm productivity. The results of soil and foliar analyses in relation to yields of oil palm with different fertiliser treatments were also discussed. Integrating inorganic and organic fertilisers can increase the efficiency of nutrients uptake by the crops and enhance the retention of nutrients in the soil in the long-term to improve the soil quality. In addition, recycling of organic wastes from the palm oil mill, which can be turned into a high value-added product, will help the oil palm industry remain competitive and more sustainable. For example, utilisation of decanter cake and boiler ash from palm oil mill as alternative sources of nutrients, especially potassium, is a workable scheme to reduce the use of chemical fertilisers by the industry.

Amalan penggunaan baja untuk meningkatkan produktiviti sawit telah dibincangkan secara meluas dalam banyak forum. Kertas kajian ini mengkaji bagaimana untuk meningkatkan kecekapan penggunaan baja di ladang sawit supaya dapat menyumbang ke arah penjimatan input baja dan memastikan pulangan yang maksimum. Sawit tidak dapat mengeluarkan hasil yang tinggi dengan penggunaan baja organik sahaja kerana kandungan nutrien yang rendah dan tidak konsisten. Kesan mengintegrasikan baja bukan organik dan organik ke atas kualiti tanah dan produktiviti sawit juga dibincangkan. Kualiti tanah menjadi lebih baik dengan peningkatan pH, di mana ia akan menambahkan ketersediaan nutrien, sekali gus meningkatkan kecekapan penggunaan baja. Ini menjadikan pengurangan input baja dan menyumbang kepada peningkatan produktiviti sawit. Keputusan analisis tanah dan foliar dengan rawatan baja yang berbeza serta kesan ke atas hasil sawit juga dibincangkan. Mengintegrasikan baja bukan organik dan organik boleh meningkatkan kecekapan pengambilan nutrien oleh tanaman dan juga meningkatkan pengekalan nutrien dalam tanah untuk jangka masa panjang, dan seterusnya memperbaiki kualiti tanah. Di samping itu, kitar semula sisa organik daripada kilang minyak sawit boleh dijadikan produk tambah nilai yang tinggi. Ini akan membantu industri sawit mengekalkan daya saing dan lebih mapan. Sebagai contoh, penggunaan kek dekanter dan abu dandang daripada kilang minyak sawit digunakan sebagai alternatif sumber nutrien, terutama kalium, adalah satu cara yang boleh digunakan untuk mengurangkan penggunaan baja kimia dalam industri sawit.



Keyword(s): biofertiliser, organic fertiliser, inorganic fertiliser, oil palm

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No: 71 (November 2015) p1-7
Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil
Ainie Kuntom*; Ahmad Kushairi* and Choo, Y M*

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Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil

The Malaysian Standard (MS) for the production of the Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO) is applicable to the processes along the whole supply chain commencing from plantations and smallholders to mills, the main gateway; and followed by kernel crushing, refining, storage and transportation. It can be applied to either the whole supply chain, parts of the supply chain or a single product/process in the supply chain. The MS applies to all types of palm oil production irrespective of the source of raw material, geographical location, technology and end user. It is applicable to big, medium and small producers as well as clusters of smallholders. Guidance to comply with the principles, criteria and indicators, as incorporated in the standard on MSPO, is provided in four specific documents, which are part of the certification system covering, in particular, production of certified sustainable palm oil (CSPO) at the milling stage. The system also allows for individual sustainability certification of products/outputs of post-milling operations as well as essential facilities prior to shipping.

Standard Malaysia (MS) untuk pengeluaran Minyak Sawit Lestari Malaysia (MSPO) sesuai digunakan untuk keseluruhan rantaian proses bekalan bermula dari ladang dan pekebun kecil ke pintu masuk utama kilang, dan diikuti oleh pelumatan isirong, penapisan, penyimpanan dan pengangkutan. MS boleh digunakan sama ada dalam keseluruhan/sebahagian rantaian bekalan, atau produk/proses tunggal dalam rantaian bekalan. MS terpakai untuk semua jenis pengeluaran minyak sawit tanpa mengira sumber bahan mentah, lokasi geografi, teknologi dan pengguna akhir. Ia juga boleh digunakan untuk pengeluar besar, sederhana dan kecil, dan juga kelompok pekebun kecil. Panduan untuk mematuhi prinsip, kriteria dan petunjuk, seperti yang digabungkan dalam standard MSPO terdapat dalam empat dokumen spesifik, yang merupakan sebahagian daripada sistem pensijilan, khususnya, pengeluaran minyak sawit mampan yang disahkan (CSPO) pada peringkat kilang. Sistem ini juga membolehkan pensijilan kemampanan produk/output individu selepas operasi pengilangan selesai dan juga kemudahan yang perlu sebelum penghantaran.



Keyword(s): Malaysian Standard (MS), Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO), smallholders, plantations, mills

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No: 70 (May 2015) p17-19
MPOB News
-

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MPOB News

  • Hello Komoditi in Betong
  • Quality Leadership Award
  • MPOB Awards Excellent Industry Players
  • Talk with PORAM
  • B7 Utilisation in Sarawak, Sabah and Labuan
  • Launching of SOP Green Energy Palm Biodiesel Plant
  • Dialogue with Oil Palm Planters in Bintulu
  • Visit to Petroleum Depot in Bintulu
  • MPOB Bagged MTE 2015 Excellent Medals
  • Visit by MP from EU
  • Participation in the NSCEC
  • Jom Semarakkan Sawit Programme at Sungai Besar
  • Visit by ACCCIM


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No: 70 (May 2015) p13-16
SureSawitTM SHELL - A Diagnostic Assay to Predict Fruit Forms of Oil Palm
Rajinder Singh*; Meilina Ong Abdullah*; Leslie Low Eng Ti*; Rajanaidu Nookiah*; Mohamad Arif Abd Manaf* and Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi*

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SureSawitTM SHELL - A Diagnostic Assay to Predict Fruit Forms of Oil Palm

Genetic studies in oil palm have been impeded by its long breeding cycle and requirement for large tracts of land for field planting. The application of genomics tools provides an opportunity to overcome these constraints and move forward from the phenotype-driven research that had been the focus previously. In order to develop these tools, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) and its partners achieved a significant scientific breakthrough by decoding the E. guineensis and E. oleifera genomes, in 2013. Obtaining high quality sequence assembly proved to be a valuable resource to identify genes linked to important agronomic traits of oil palm. In this respect, using a combination of classical genetics and whole genome sequence as a reference, the gene responsible for the three different fruit forms of E. guineensis - SHELL - was identified. The identification of the gene responsible for the fruit forms paved the way for the development of the SureSawitTM SHELL diagnostic assay kit. The kit advances the application of molecular diagnostic tools in both oil palm breeding and commercial seed production.

Kajian genetik sawit sering menghadapi halangan yang berpunca daripada kitar pembiakbakaan yang panjang dan keperluan kawasan tanah yang luas untuk penanaman. Aplikasi peralatan genomik membuka peluang untuk mengatasi halangan tersebut dan beralih daripada kajian berasaskan fenotip yang merupakan fokus sebelum ini. Bagi membangunkan peralatan genomik tersebut, MPOB dan beberapa rakan kongsinya telah mencapai kejayaan yang cemerlang dalam bidang sains melalui pengekodan genom E. guineensis dan E. oleifera pada tahun 2013. Kehadiran himpunan jujukan genom yang berkualiti tinggi merupakan sumber yang bernilai untuk mengenal pasti gen yang berkaitan dengan ciri-ciri agronomi sawit yang penting. Sehubungan dengan itu, melalui gabungan maklumat daripada genetik klasik dan jujukan genom lengkap sebagai rujukan, gen yang bertanggungjawab terhadap pembentukan tiga jenis buah daripada spesis E. guineensis – SHELL – telah dikenal pasti. Penemuan gen yang berperanan dalam pembentukan jenis buah tersebut telah memberi laluan untuk pembangunan kit asai diagnostik SureSawitTM SHELL. Penggunaan kit asai diagnostik ini akan menerajui penggunaan peralatan diagnostik molekul dalam bidang pembiakbakaan sawit dan penghasilan biji benih komersil.



Keyword(s): oil palm, fruit form, shell gene, SureSawitTM SHELL, diagnostic assay.

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No: 70 (May 2015) p8-12
Estimating Oil Content of Commercially Harvested Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches – A Step towards Increasing Palm Oil Yields
C R Donough*; J Cock*; T Oberthür*; K Indrasuara**; Rahmadsyah#; Gatot, A R‡ and T Dolong‡‡

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Estimating Oil Content of Commercially Harvested Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches – A Step towards Increasing Palm Oil Yields

Oil palm growers are able to assign fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yields to individual blocks, and thus are able to manage their plantation (or smallholding) to optimise FFB yield. However, currently it is not possible to attribute oil extraction rate (OER), hence oil yield, in a similar way, because mills process FFB from many sources, deriving a common OER for all the FFB that is processed rather than for individual sources. OER depends on the intrinsic qualities of the FFB being milled, which is likely to differ from one batch of FFB to another, hence assessment of milling performance is better based on extraction efficiency rather than OER per se. The Southeast Asia Programme of the International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI SEA) recently showed that practices aimed at maximising FFB yield may not necessarily maximise OER. The bunch analysis (BA) method adapted by IPNI SEA for assessing oil content of FFB from commercial-scale harvesting in Indonesia can be implemented by plantations without much difficulty. BA and harvest audit data together allow growers to compute their Field Oil Recovery Efficiency (FORE), an assessment of the effectiveness of field practices on crop recovery and oil content. Pre-milling estimates of oil content (EOC) in harvested FFB allows mills to better measure their process performance based on their Mill Oil Recovery Efficiency (MORE). Knowledge of EOC will allow mills to pay growers for the oil content of their crop, providing further motivation to growers to improve FORE. These recovery efficiency measures allow a more holistic analysis of the overall oil recovery process involving the growers and the mills, likely leading to reduced friction and better overall performance.

Penanam sawit boleh menguruskan ladang mereka untuk mendapatkan hasil buah tandan segar (BTS) yang optimum dari setiap blok. Walau bagaimanapun, setakat ini tidak mungkin untuk menghubungkaitkan kadar perahan minyak (OER) dengan hasil minyak kerana kilang memproses BTS yang diperoleh daripada pelbagai sumber. Oleh itu, OER yang diperoleh adalah untuk semua BTS yang diproses, bukan daripada sumber individu. OER bergantung pada sifat intrinsik BTS yang diproses, yang berbeza antara kumpulan BTS. Oleh itu, penilaian prestasi pengilangan adalah lebih baik berdasarkan kecekapan pengekstrakan daripada OER per se. Baru-baru ini Southeast Asia Program of the International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI SEA) mendapati bahawa kaedah untuk memaksimumkan hasil BTS tidak semestinya dapat memaksimumkan OER. Analisis tandan (BA) adalah kaedah yang digunakan oleh IPNI SEA untuk menilai kandungan minyak BTS dari penuaian berskala komersial di Indonesia boleh dilaksanakan di ladang tanpa banyak halangan. Penanam sawit boleh mengunakan BA bersama data audit tuaian untuk mengira Kecekapan Pemulihan Minyak di Ladang (FORE) iaitu penilaian terhadap keberkesanan amalan ladang bagi pemulihan tanaman dan kandungan minyak. Anggaran kandungan minyak (EOC) dalam BTS pada peringkat pra-pengilangan membolehkan kilang untuk mengukur prestasi mereka dengan lebih baik berdasarkan Kecekapan Pemulihan Minyak Kilang (MORE). Dengan mengetahui EOC, kilang akan membayar penanam sawit berdasarkan kandungan minyak daripada tanaman mereka, seterusnya memberikan motivasi kepada penanam untuk memperbaiki FORE. Langkah kecekapan pemulihan ini membolehkan analisis yang lebih menyeluruh mengenai keseluruhan proses pemulihan minyak dan menjadikan prestasi keseluruhan lebih baik melibatkan penanam dan juga kilang.



Keyword(s): palm oil yield, oil content, oil recovery

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No: 70 (May 2015) p1-7
Control of Mucuna bracteata DC. Ex. Kurz Legume Covers with Herbicides in Oil Palm Plantation: Spraying Volume and Frequency
Yit Kheng Goh*; Kim Loong Wong*; Chin Hor Lai*; Suet Yee Tan*; Tasren Nazir Mahamooth*; Huang Huang Gan*; You Keng Goh* and Kah Joo Goh*

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Control of Mucuna bracteata DC. Ex. Kurz Legume Covers with Herbicides in Oil Palm Plantation: Spraying Volume and Frequency

Leguminous Mucuna bracteata DC. ex. Kurz is one of the most commonly planted ground covers in oil palm plantations. However, under uncontrolled conditions, the covers can smother and entangle the palms, especially in young immature plantings. Efficacy of five major types of herbicides - paraquat dichloride (PD), glyphosate isopropylamine (GI), metsulfuron methyl (MM), glufosinate ammonium (GA), and disodium methyl arsenate (DSMA), as well as ammonium chloride with two separate spraying volumes and two different spraying frequencies, in controlling M. bracteata were studied. Variable spraying volume or spray-towet method caused higher M. bracteata mortality compared to fixed volume spraying. The PD, GI+MM mixture and GA were observed to give better control of M. bracteata compared to other treatments. Multifactorial ANOVA illustrated that herbicide, volume and frequency were showing significant post-spraying influence on both percent of casualty and alive M. bracteata after most of the spraying rounds. Interactions between herbicide x volume, herbicide x frequency, and herbicide x volume x frequency were spotted in a few postspraying census. However, there was no interaction found in volume x frequency. Results showed that spraying with GI+MM mixture could be one of the promising herbicide combinations with spray-till-wet technique and variable spraying rounds (reapplication as M. bracteata covered > 70%) was the most efficient treatment and with reduced effect on M. bracteata regeneration.

Pokok kekacang, Mucuna bracteata DC. ex. Kurz merupakan tanaman penutup bumi yang biasa ditanam di ladang sawit. Walau bagaimanapun, dalam keadaan yang tidak terkawal, tanaman penutup bumi ini boleh melitupi dan menjerut sawit, terutamanya sawit yang belum matang. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk mengetahui keberkesanan lima jenis racun rumpai utama dalam mengawal M. bracteata - parakuat diklorid (PD), glifosat isoproplamin (GI), metsulfuron metil (MM), glufosinat ammonium (GA), dan disodium metil arsenat (DSMA), serta ammonium klorida dengan dua jumlah semburan berasingan dan dua frekuensi semburan yang berbeza. Jumlah semburan yang berubah atau kaedah semburan hingga basah menyebabkan kadar kematian M. bracteata lebih tinggi berbanding jumlah semburan tetap. PD, campuran GI + MM dan GA didapati dapat memberi kawalan yang lebih baik terhadap M. bracteata berbanding rawatan lain. Multifaktorial ANOVA membuktikan bahawa jenis racun, jumlah dan kekerapan semburan memberi pengaruh yang signifikan ke atas peratus M. bracteata yang hidup dan mati selepas pusingan awal semburan. Interaksi antara racun rumpai x jumlah racun, racun rumpai x frekuensi semburan, dan racun rumpai x jumlah x kekerapan telah dikesan dalam beberapa kajian selepas semburan awal. Walau bagaimanapun, tidak terdapat interaksi di antara jumlah racun rumpai x frekuensi semburan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa semburan dengan GI + MM boleh menjadi salah satu daripada gabungan racun rumpai yang berkesan dengan teknik semburan-hingga-basah dan pelbagai pusingan semburan (aplikasi semula bagi M. bracteata menutupi > 70%) adalah rawatan yang paling berkesan dan mampu mengurangkan pertumbuhan semula M. bracteata.

 



Keyword(s): chemical, Elaeis guineensis, immature planting, legume ground cover

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