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No: 71 (November 2015) p25-27
MPOB News
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MPOB News

  • Transformasi dan Pengembangan Pekebun Kecil
    Sawit Sarawak Programme at Sri Aman

  • MPOB Bagged 34 Medals at ITEX 2015

  • Visit from China Centre for International
    Economic Exchange

  • Dialogue with MOH and MPIC

  • Balau Carnival 2015

  • Palm Oil Familiarisation Programme (POFP)

  • Hello Komoditi in Betong, Sarawak

  • Launching of Bio-CNG Plant

  • Transfer of Technology (TOT) Seminar 2015

  • International Seminar on Gearing Oil Palm
    Breeding and Agronomy for Climate Change

  • PIPOC 2015



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No: 71 (November 2015) p14-24
Zero Discharge of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Outdoor Flash Evaporation at Standard Atmospheric Conditions
Prashant Patel*

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Zero Discharge of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Outdoor Flash Evaporation at Standard Atmospheric Conditions

The single largest issue facing the extended development of the palm oil industry is the impact of mill by-products on the environment; in particular on palm oil mill effluent (POME). The Malaysian Department of Environment requires treatment of POME to extremely challenging parameters, which are difficult to achieve in the face of highly volatile processing volumes and irregular conditions for bacteria to optimally survive in anaerobic and aerobic ponds, the most common method of POME treatment. Whilst POME discharge is only permitted through land irrigation, the heavy volumes of POME produced can overflow from silted irrigation channels, especially during heavy rainfalls, and eventually find its way into the surrounding rivers and harming dependent communities. The palm oil industry has broadly struggled to find cost-effective solutions to fully consume or recycle POME into other applications, thereby creating a genuine zero discharge scenario. This article describes a technology that has been successfully deployed in POME treatment via flash evaporation/air-drying of POME. The technology has the potential to safely eliminate discharge of POME and ensure the continued safety of Malaysia’s sensitive ecosystems.

Isu terbesar yang dihadapi oleh industri minyak sawit adalah kesan bahan buangan kilang sawit terhadap alam sekitar; khususnya efluen kilang minyak sawit (POME). Jabatan Alam Sekitar Malaysia menetapkan peraturan yang ketat supaya POME dirawat dengan berkesan, tetapi ini agak sukar untuk dicapai dengan kaedah rawatan POME yang biasa iaitu kolam anaerobik dan aerobik kerana jumlah pemprosesan yang tidak menentu dan keadaan kolam yang berubah-ubah menyukarkan kehidupan bakteria secara optimum. Walaupun pelepasan POME hanya dibenarkan melalui pengairan tanah, POME dihasilkan dengan jumlah yang besar boleh melimpah dari parit pengairan yang dipenuhi kelodak, terutamanya semasa hujan lebat, dan akhirnya mencemari sungai yang berhampiran dan membahayakan penduduk yang bergantung padanya. Industri minyak sawit telah berusaha untuk mencari penyelesaian secara kos efektif untuk menggunakan POME sepenuhnya atau mengitar semula POME ke dalam aplikasi yang lain, dengan itu mewujudkan satu senario pelepasan sifar. Kajian ini menjelaskan tentang teknologi penyejatan pantas atau pengeringan udara yang telah berjaya diguna pakai dalam merawat POME. Teknologi ini mempunyai potensi untuk menyingkirkan POME dengan selamat dan memastikan keadaan ekosistem alam sekitar sentiasa terpelihara.



Keyword(s): palm oil, wastewater, zero discharge, organic decomposition, evaporation

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No: 71 (November 2015) p8-13
Efficient Use of Inorganic and Organic Fertilisers for Oil Palm
Khalid Haron*; Zulkifli Hashim* and Norman Kamarudin*

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Efficient Use of Inorganic and Organic Fertilisers for Oil Palm

Fertiliser application practices to increase oil palm productivity have been discussed extensively in many forums. This article investigates how to increase the efficiency of fertiliser use in oil palm plantations so as to contribute towards the saving of fertiliser inputs and to ensure maximum returns. Application of organic fertiliser alone was unable to produce high yield for oil palm due to low and inconsistent nutrient contents in organic fertiliser. The effects of integrating inorganic and organic fertilisers on soil quality and oil palm productivity are discussed. The soil quality was improved as shown by an increase in soil pH, which enhanced the availability of nutrients, thus increasing the efficiency of the fertilisers applied. This would result in a reduction in fertiliser inputs and contribute to an increase in oil palm productivity. The results of soil and foliar analyses in relation to yields of oil palm with different fertiliser treatments were also discussed. Integrating inorganic and organic fertilisers can increase the efficiency of nutrients uptake by the crops and enhance the retention of nutrients in the soil in the long-term to improve the soil quality. In addition, recycling of organic wastes from the palm oil mill, which can be turned into a high value-added product, will help the oil palm industry remain competitive and more sustainable. For example, utilisation of decanter cake and boiler ash from palm oil mill as alternative sources of nutrients, especially potassium, is a workable scheme to reduce the use of chemical fertilisers by the industry.

Amalan penggunaan baja untuk meningkatkan produktiviti sawit telah dibincangkan secara meluas dalam banyak forum. Kertas kajian ini mengkaji bagaimana untuk meningkatkan kecekapan penggunaan baja di ladang sawit supaya dapat menyumbang ke arah penjimatan input baja dan memastikan pulangan yang maksimum. Sawit tidak dapat mengeluarkan hasil yang tinggi dengan penggunaan baja organik sahaja kerana kandungan nutrien yang rendah dan tidak konsisten. Kesan mengintegrasikan baja bukan organik dan organik ke atas kualiti tanah dan produktiviti sawit juga dibincangkan. Kualiti tanah menjadi lebih baik dengan peningkatan pH, di mana ia akan menambahkan ketersediaan nutrien, sekali gus meningkatkan kecekapan penggunaan baja. Ini menjadikan pengurangan input baja dan menyumbang kepada peningkatan produktiviti sawit. Keputusan analisis tanah dan foliar dengan rawatan baja yang berbeza serta kesan ke atas hasil sawit juga dibincangkan. Mengintegrasikan baja bukan organik dan organik boleh meningkatkan kecekapan pengambilan nutrien oleh tanaman dan juga meningkatkan pengekalan nutrien dalam tanah untuk jangka masa panjang, dan seterusnya memperbaiki kualiti tanah. Di samping itu, kitar semula sisa organik daripada kilang minyak sawit boleh dijadikan produk tambah nilai yang tinggi. Ini akan membantu industri sawit mengekalkan daya saing dan lebih mapan. Sebagai contoh, penggunaan kek dekanter dan abu dandang daripada kilang minyak sawit digunakan sebagai alternatif sumber nutrien, terutama kalium, adalah satu cara yang boleh digunakan untuk mengurangkan penggunaan baja kimia dalam industri sawit.



Keyword(s): biofertiliser, organic fertiliser, inorganic fertiliser, oil palm

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Article Info

No: 71 (November 2015) p1-7
Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil
Ainie Kuntom*; Ahmad Kushairi* and Choo, Y M*

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Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil

The Malaysian Standard (MS) for the production of the Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO) is applicable to the processes along the whole supply chain commencing from plantations and smallholders to mills, the main gateway; and followed by kernel crushing, refining, storage and transportation. It can be applied to either the whole supply chain, parts of the supply chain or a single product/process in the supply chain. The MS applies to all types of palm oil production irrespective of the source of raw material, geographical location, technology and end user. It is applicable to big, medium and small producers as well as clusters of smallholders. Guidance to comply with the principles, criteria and indicators, as incorporated in the standard on MSPO, is provided in four specific documents, which are part of the certification system covering, in particular, production of certified sustainable palm oil (CSPO) at the milling stage. The system also allows for individual sustainability certification of products/outputs of post-milling operations as well as essential facilities prior to shipping.

Standard Malaysia (MS) untuk pengeluaran Minyak Sawit Lestari Malaysia (MSPO) sesuai digunakan untuk keseluruhan rantaian proses bekalan bermula dari ladang dan pekebun kecil ke pintu masuk utama kilang, dan diikuti oleh pelumatan isirong, penapisan, penyimpanan dan pengangkutan. MS boleh digunakan sama ada dalam keseluruhan/sebahagian rantaian bekalan, atau produk/proses tunggal dalam rantaian bekalan. MS terpakai untuk semua jenis pengeluaran minyak sawit tanpa mengira sumber bahan mentah, lokasi geografi, teknologi dan pengguna akhir. Ia juga boleh digunakan untuk pengeluar besar, sederhana dan kecil, dan juga kelompok pekebun kecil. Panduan untuk mematuhi prinsip, kriteria dan petunjuk, seperti yang digabungkan dalam standard MSPO terdapat dalam empat dokumen spesifik, yang merupakan sebahagian daripada sistem pensijilan, khususnya, pengeluaran minyak sawit mampan yang disahkan (CSPO) pada peringkat kilang. Sistem ini juga membolehkan pensijilan kemampanan produk/output individu selepas operasi pengilangan selesai dan juga kemudahan yang perlu sebelum penghantaran.



Keyword(s): Malaysian Standard (MS), Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO), smallholders, plantations, mills

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Article Info

No: 70 (May 2015) p17-19
MPOB News
-

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Abstract


MPOB News

  • Hello Komoditi in Betong
  • Quality Leadership Award
  • MPOB Awards Excellent Industry Players
  • Talk with PORAM
  • B7 Utilisation in Sarawak, Sabah and Labuan
  • Launching of SOP Green Energy Palm Biodiesel Plant
  • Dialogue with Oil Palm Planters in Bintulu
  • Visit to Petroleum Depot in Bintulu
  • MPOB Bagged MTE 2015 Excellent Medals
  • Visit by MP from EU
  • Participation in the NSCEC
  • Jom Semarakkan Sawit Programme at Sungai Besar
  • Visit by ACCCIM


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Article Info

No: 70 (May 2015) p13-16
SureSawitTM SHELL - A Diagnostic Assay to Predict Fruit Forms of Oil Palm
Rajinder Singh*; Meilina Ong Abdullah*; Leslie Low Eng Ti*; Rajanaidu Nookiah*; Mohamad Arif Abd Manaf* and Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi*

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SureSawitTM SHELL - A Diagnostic Assay to Predict Fruit Forms of Oil Palm

Genetic studies in oil palm have been impeded by its long breeding cycle and requirement for large tracts of land for field planting. The application of genomics tools provides an opportunity to overcome these constraints and move forward from the phenotype-driven research that had been the focus previously. In order to develop these tools, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) and its partners achieved a significant scientific breakthrough by decoding the E. guineensis and E. oleifera genomes, in 2013. Obtaining high quality sequence assembly proved to be a valuable resource to identify genes linked to important agronomic traits of oil palm. In this respect, using a combination of classical genetics and whole genome sequence as a reference, the gene responsible for the three different fruit forms of E. guineensis - SHELL - was identified. The identification of the gene responsible for the fruit forms paved the way for the development of the SureSawitTM SHELL diagnostic assay kit. The kit advances the application of molecular diagnostic tools in both oil palm breeding and commercial seed production.

Kajian genetik sawit sering menghadapi halangan yang berpunca daripada kitar pembiakbakaan yang panjang dan keperluan kawasan tanah yang luas untuk penanaman. Aplikasi peralatan genomik membuka peluang untuk mengatasi halangan tersebut dan beralih daripada kajian berasaskan fenotip yang merupakan fokus sebelum ini. Bagi membangunkan peralatan genomik tersebut, MPOB dan beberapa rakan kongsinya telah mencapai kejayaan yang cemerlang dalam bidang sains melalui pengekodan genom E. guineensis dan E. oleifera pada tahun 2013. Kehadiran himpunan jujukan genom yang berkualiti tinggi merupakan sumber yang bernilai untuk mengenal pasti gen yang berkaitan dengan ciri-ciri agronomi sawit yang penting. Sehubungan dengan itu, melalui gabungan maklumat daripada genetik klasik dan jujukan genom lengkap sebagai rujukan, gen yang bertanggungjawab terhadap pembentukan tiga jenis buah daripada spesis E. guineensis – SHELL – telah dikenal pasti. Penemuan gen yang berperanan dalam pembentukan jenis buah tersebut telah memberi laluan untuk pembangunan kit asai diagnostik SureSawitTM SHELL. Penggunaan kit asai diagnostik ini akan menerajui penggunaan peralatan diagnostik molekul dalam bidang pembiakbakaan sawit dan penghasilan biji benih komersil.



Keyword(s): oil palm, fruit form, shell gene, SureSawitTM SHELL, diagnostic assay.

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Article Info

No: 70 (May 2015) p8-12
Estimating Oil Content of Commercially Harvested Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches – A Step towards Increasing Palm Oil Yields
C R Donough*; J Cock*; T Oberthür*; K Indrasuara**; Rahmadsyah#; Gatot, A R‡ and T Dolong‡‡

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Estimating Oil Content of Commercially Harvested Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches – A Step towards Increasing Palm Oil Yields

Oil palm growers are able to assign fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yields to individual blocks, and thus are able to manage their plantation (or smallholding) to optimise FFB yield. However, currently it is not possible to attribute oil extraction rate (OER), hence oil yield, in a similar way, because mills process FFB from many sources, deriving a common OER for all the FFB that is processed rather than for individual sources. OER depends on the intrinsic qualities of the FFB being milled, which is likely to differ from one batch of FFB to another, hence assessment of milling performance is better based on extraction efficiency rather than OER per se. The Southeast Asia Programme of the International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI SEA) recently showed that practices aimed at maximising FFB yield may not necessarily maximise OER. The bunch analysis (BA) method adapted by IPNI SEA for assessing oil content of FFB from commercial-scale harvesting in Indonesia can be implemented by plantations without much difficulty. BA and harvest audit data together allow growers to compute their Field Oil Recovery Efficiency (FORE), an assessment of the effectiveness of field practices on crop recovery and oil content. Pre-milling estimates of oil content (EOC) in harvested FFB allows mills to better measure their process performance based on their Mill Oil Recovery Efficiency (MORE). Knowledge of EOC will allow mills to pay growers for the oil content of their crop, providing further motivation to growers to improve FORE. These recovery efficiency measures allow a more holistic analysis of the overall oil recovery process involving the growers and the mills, likely leading to reduced friction and better overall performance.

Penanam sawit boleh menguruskan ladang mereka untuk mendapatkan hasil buah tandan segar (BTS) yang optimum dari setiap blok. Walau bagaimanapun, setakat ini tidak mungkin untuk menghubungkaitkan kadar perahan minyak (OER) dengan hasil minyak kerana kilang memproses BTS yang diperoleh daripada pelbagai sumber. Oleh itu, OER yang diperoleh adalah untuk semua BTS yang diproses, bukan daripada sumber individu. OER bergantung pada sifat intrinsik BTS yang diproses, yang berbeza antara kumpulan BTS. Oleh itu, penilaian prestasi pengilangan adalah lebih baik berdasarkan kecekapan pengekstrakan daripada OER per se. Baru-baru ini Southeast Asia Program of the International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI SEA) mendapati bahawa kaedah untuk memaksimumkan hasil BTS tidak semestinya dapat memaksimumkan OER. Analisis tandan (BA) adalah kaedah yang digunakan oleh IPNI SEA untuk menilai kandungan minyak BTS dari penuaian berskala komersial di Indonesia boleh dilaksanakan di ladang tanpa banyak halangan. Penanam sawit boleh mengunakan BA bersama data audit tuaian untuk mengira Kecekapan Pemulihan Minyak di Ladang (FORE) iaitu penilaian terhadap keberkesanan amalan ladang bagi pemulihan tanaman dan kandungan minyak. Anggaran kandungan minyak (EOC) dalam BTS pada peringkat pra-pengilangan membolehkan kilang untuk mengukur prestasi mereka dengan lebih baik berdasarkan Kecekapan Pemulihan Minyak Kilang (MORE). Dengan mengetahui EOC, kilang akan membayar penanam sawit berdasarkan kandungan minyak daripada tanaman mereka, seterusnya memberikan motivasi kepada penanam untuk memperbaiki FORE. Langkah kecekapan pemulihan ini membolehkan analisis yang lebih menyeluruh mengenai keseluruhan proses pemulihan minyak dan menjadikan prestasi keseluruhan lebih baik melibatkan penanam dan juga kilang.



Keyword(s): palm oil yield, oil content, oil recovery

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No: 70 (May 2015) p1-7
Control of Mucuna bracteata DC. Ex. Kurz Legume Covers with Herbicides in Oil Palm Plantation: Spraying Volume and Frequency
Yit Kheng Goh*; Kim Loong Wong*; Chin Hor Lai*; Suet Yee Tan*; Tasren Nazir Mahamooth*; Huang Huang Gan*; You Keng Goh* and Kah Joo Goh*

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Control of Mucuna bracteata DC. Ex. Kurz Legume Covers with Herbicides in Oil Palm Plantation: Spraying Volume and Frequency

Leguminous Mucuna bracteata DC. ex. Kurz is one of the most commonly planted ground covers in oil palm plantations. However, under uncontrolled conditions, the covers can smother and entangle the palms, especially in young immature plantings. Efficacy of five major types of herbicides - paraquat dichloride (PD), glyphosate isopropylamine (GI), metsulfuron methyl (MM), glufosinate ammonium (GA), and disodium methyl arsenate (DSMA), as well as ammonium chloride with two separate spraying volumes and two different spraying frequencies, in controlling M. bracteata were studied. Variable spraying volume or spray-towet method caused higher M. bracteata mortality compared to fixed volume spraying. The PD, GI+MM mixture and GA were observed to give better control of M. bracteata compared to other treatments. Multifactorial ANOVA illustrated that herbicide, volume and frequency were showing significant post-spraying influence on both percent of casualty and alive M. bracteata after most of the spraying rounds. Interactions between herbicide x volume, herbicide x frequency, and herbicide x volume x frequency were spotted in a few postspraying census. However, there was no interaction found in volume x frequency. Results showed that spraying with GI+MM mixture could be one of the promising herbicide combinations with spray-till-wet technique and variable spraying rounds (reapplication as M. bracteata covered > 70%) was the most efficient treatment and with reduced effect on M. bracteata regeneration.

Pokok kekacang, Mucuna bracteata DC. ex. Kurz merupakan tanaman penutup bumi yang biasa ditanam di ladang sawit. Walau bagaimanapun, dalam keadaan yang tidak terkawal, tanaman penutup bumi ini boleh melitupi dan menjerut sawit, terutamanya sawit yang belum matang. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk mengetahui keberkesanan lima jenis racun rumpai utama dalam mengawal M. bracteata - parakuat diklorid (PD), glifosat isoproplamin (GI), metsulfuron metil (MM), glufosinat ammonium (GA), dan disodium metil arsenat (DSMA), serta ammonium klorida dengan dua jumlah semburan berasingan dan dua frekuensi semburan yang berbeza. Jumlah semburan yang berubah atau kaedah semburan hingga basah menyebabkan kadar kematian M. bracteata lebih tinggi berbanding jumlah semburan tetap. PD, campuran GI + MM dan GA didapati dapat memberi kawalan yang lebih baik terhadap M. bracteata berbanding rawatan lain. Multifaktorial ANOVA membuktikan bahawa jenis racun, jumlah dan kekerapan semburan memberi pengaruh yang signifikan ke atas peratus M. bracteata yang hidup dan mati selepas pusingan awal semburan. Interaksi antara racun rumpai x jumlah racun, racun rumpai x frekuensi semburan, dan racun rumpai x jumlah x kekerapan telah dikesan dalam beberapa kajian selepas semburan awal. Walau bagaimanapun, tidak terdapat interaksi di antara jumlah racun rumpai x frekuensi semburan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa semburan dengan GI + MM boleh menjadi salah satu daripada gabungan racun rumpai yang berkesan dengan teknik semburan-hingga-basah dan pelbagai pusingan semburan (aplikasi semula bagi M. bracteata menutupi > 70%) adalah rawatan yang paling berkesan dan mampu mengurangkan pertumbuhan semula M. bracteata.

 



Keyword(s): chemical, Elaeis guineensis, immature planting, legume ground cover

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Article Info

No: 69 (November 2014) p38-39
MPOB News
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Abstract


MPOB News

  • Palm Industry Labour: Issues, Performances and Sustainability Seminar

  • 20th MPOB Transfer of Technology Seminar 2014

  • Palm Oil Familiarisation Programme

  • Farm Mechanisation Operators’ Course



Keyword(s): -

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Article Info

No: 69 (November 2014) p27-37
Evaluation of Various Sources of Magnesium Fertiliser for Correction of Acute Magnesium Deficiency in Oil Palm
Manjit Sidhu*; Abdul Hasyim*; Eny Fithri Rambe*; Zulkasta Sinuraya*; Abdul Aziz* and Mukesh Sharma**

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Evaluation of Various Sources of Magnesium Fertiliser for Correction of Acute Magnesium Deficiency in Oil Palm

In view of it’s high water solubility and rapid nutrient availability, kieserite is often used for correcting magnesium (Mg) deficiency in oil palm. However, the same characteristics makes it prone to higher losses in sites with sandy soils, hilly topography or high rainfall. Under such conditions, a less water soluble but equally effective Mg fertiliser may be more suitable.

A trial evaluating the corrective capability of five less water soluble Mg fertilisers found that correction of Mg deficiency was a slow process requiring a minimum of two to three annual rounds to raise leaf Mg from 0.06% to above 0.20%.

All fertilisers evaluated greatly improved the visual appearance of Mg deficient palms. A significant decline in the number of fronds displaying new symptoms occurs as early as four to six months after treatment (MAT). By 16 MAT, majority of treated palms exhibit only light symptoms of Mg deficiency. Statistically, no significant differences were recorded between the various fertiliser types in raising leaf Mg levels and reducing the severity and emergence of new Mg deficiency symptoms. However, when based on palm vegetative growth improvement, kieserite still elicited the best responses and exhibited a higher relative agronomic efficiency (RAE) over the other five Mg fertilisers.

Disebabkan ciri kelarutan air yang tinggi dan ketersediaan nutriennya, kieserit sering digunakan untuk memperbaiki kekurangan magnesium pada sawit. Bagaimanapun, ciri-ciri yang sama ini membuatkan kieserit cenderung kepada kehilangan yang lebih tinggi di kawasan tanah berpasir, topografi berbukit atau ketika hujan lebat. Dalam

keadaan sedemikian, baja Mg yang bersifat kurang larut tetapi mempunyai keberkesanan yang setara berkemungkinan lebih sesuai. 

Satu kajian untuk menilai keupayaan membaikpulih menggunakan lima jenis baja Mg yang kurang larut air mendapati pembetulan kekurangan Mg merupakan satu proses yang perlahan dan memerlukan sekurang-kurangnya dua hingga tiga pusingan tahunan bagi meningkatkan nilai daun Mg dari 0.06% kepada melebihi 0.20%. 

Kesemua baja yang dinilai mampu meningkatkan penampilan visual Mg pada sawit yang kekurangan Mg. Pengurangan jumlah pelepah yang ketara menunjukkan simptom Mg yang baru berlaku seawal empat hingga enam bulan selepas rawatan (MAT). Pada 16 MAT, majoriti sawit yang dirawat hanya menunjukkan simptom kekurangan Mg yang sedikit. Tiada perbezaan ketara direkodkan secara statistik di kalangan pelbagai jenis baja dalam meningkatkan tahap Mg pada daun, mengurangkan keterukan dan kemunculan simptom baru kekurangan Mg. Walau bagaimanapun, berdasarkan peningkatan pertumbuhan tampang sawit, kieserit memberikan tindak balas terbaik dan meningkatkan keberkesanan kecekapan agronomik lebih tinggi berbanding lima baja Mg yang lain.



Keyword(s): magnesium, deficiency, fertilisers, oil palm.

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This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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