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No: 68 (May 2014) p16-24
Chemical Control of Mucuna bracteata Dc. Ex Kurz Legume Cover Crop
Yit Kheng Goh*; Chin Hor Lai*; Tasren Nasir Mahamooth*; Huang Huang Gan*; You Keng Goh* and Kah Joo Goh*

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Chemical Control of Mucuna bracteata Dc. Ex Kurz Legume Cover Crop

Mucuna bracteata DC. ex Kurz is a fast growing leguminous ground cover planted in oil palm plantations for conserving soils, suppressing unwanted noxious weeds, recycling nutrients, and minimising rhinoceros beetles to young immature oil palm. However, its fast-growing nature and ability to regenerate very rapidly, if uncontrolled, can smother the palms. The effects of five major types of herbicides, namely glufosinate ammonium, metsulfuron methyl, glyphosate isopropylamine, paraquat dichloride, and disodium methyl arsenate, selective combination of them and the associated costs in M. bracteata control were evaluated to determine an economical and effective approach of managing M. bracteata cover in oil palm plantations. Treatments with contact herbicides were applied at four- to five-week intervals, but treatments with systemic chemicals, missed the third round of spraying because of low Mucuna coverage (below 70%). M. bracteata treated with contact herbicides showed high mortality in first week after application but the effect reduced over time and thus, had shorter control duration. Metsulfuron and other systemic chemicals caused low mortality to Mucuna at first but efficacy increased with time. Glufosinate ammonium (premium or original formulation) was more effective in suppressing M. bracteata compared to generic formulation. Selective contact disodium methyl arsenate was the least effective in legume control compared to other contact herbicides. Results showed that spraying with glyphosate+metsulfuron mixture followed by glufosinate gave longer duration of control efficacy, less labour-intensive and more economical compared with contact herbicides. This treatment is a good replacement for paraquat and the costlier repeated use of glufosinate.

 

Mucuna bracteata DC. ex Kurz adalah tanaman kekacang penutup bumi yang mempunyai kadar pertumbuhan yang tinggi dan ditanam di ladang sawit untuk memelihara tanah, mengawal pertumbuhan rumpai yang tidak diingini, mengitar semula nutrien dan mengurangkan serangan kumbang badak pada sawit yang belum matang. Namun begitu, kadar pertumbuhannya yang tinggi dan keupayaan untuk tumbuh semula dengan cepat boleh melitupi sawit jika tidak dikawal. Kesan lima jenis racun rumpai utama, iaitu glufosinat ammonium, metsulfuron metil, glifosat isoprolamin, parakuat diklorid dan disodium metil arsenat (DSMA) serta gabungan terpilih di antara racun rumpai tersebut dan kos yang berkaitan dengan kawalan M. bracteata telah dinilai untuk menentukan pendekatan ekonomi dan keberkesanan racun rumpai tersebut dalam mengawal pertumbuhan M. bracteata di ladang sawit. Rawatan dengan menggunakan racun rumpai sentuhan telah digunakan pada selang empat hingga lima minggu, tetapi rawatan dengan racun kimia sistemik, terlepas semburan pusingan ketiga kerana liputan Mucuna yang rendah (bawah 70%). Kadar kematian M. bracteata yang tinggi dicatatkan pada minggu pertama selepas dirawat dengan racun rumpai sentuhan tetapi kesannya berkurangan dari semasa ke semasa dan dengan itu, mempunyai tempoh kawalan yang lebih pendek. Metsulfuron dan bahan kimia sistemik lain menyebabkan kadar kematian Mucuna rendah pada mulanya tetapi keberkesanan meningkat dengan masa. Glufosinat ammonium (premium atau formulasi asal) adalah lebih berkesan dalam mengawal M. bracteata berbanding formulasi generik. Racun rumpai DSMA secara terpilih adalah paling kurang berkesan dalam kawalan kekacang berbanding dengan racun rumpai sentuhan yang lain. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa semburan campuran glifosat+metsulfuron diikuti dengan glufosinat memberikan tempoh keberkesanan yang lebih panjang, kurang penggunaan buruh dan lebih ekonomi berbanding dengan racun rumpai sentuhan. Rawatan ini adalah pengganti yang baik untuk parakuat dan penggunaan berulang glufosinat yang kosnya lebih mahal.

 



Keyword(s): contact, Elaeis guineensis, leguminous cover crops, herbicide, systemic, Mucuna bracteata

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No: 68 (May 2014) p8-15
Persistence of Mineral Fertility Carried over from the First Crop Cycle in Two Oil Palm Plantations in South America
Bernard Dubos* and Albert Flori**

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Persistence of Mineral Fertility Carried over from the First Crop Cycle in Two Oil Palm Plantations in South America

In South America, factorial fertilisation trials were set up on oil palm estates managed by Palmeras de los Andes in Ecuador and Indupalma S.A. In Colombia to control fertilisation during the two oil palm crop cycles. These experiments were designed to determine the optimal leaf contents of N, P, K, Mg and Cl, in recent planting materials and to assess the impacts of the first crop cycle on the following cycle.

In the two presented trials, nitrogen and chlorine treatments were found to have the greatest impact on production after 10 years of monitoring. The observed leaf N and Cl deficiencies resulted in a significant effect on the average bunch weight, but these differences did not lead to significant differences in yield. However, after 10 years of monitoring, it was found that the yield differences between the highest and the lowest nitrogen rates (N2-N0) and between the highest and the lowest chlorine rates (Cl2-Cl0), increased steadily until reaching a threshold at which some authors consider that supplementary fertilisation is required. In both experiments, soil mineral reserves had not been tapped during the first oil palm crop cycle, which had benefitted from mean rational fertiliser rates of 3 - 5 kg palm-1 yr-1. These reserves were sufficient to limit a yield decline in the non-fertilised treatments. We also noted that it took a long time for the differences in leaf mineral content and yields to become significant, thus confirming that these are long-term effects. Hence, in a suitably fertilised plantation, it is very unlikely that the effects of fertiliser applications during previous years could be reflected by inter-annual yield variations. However, there is no reason to consider that the depressive effect of poor climatic conditions, such as prolonged drought, could be overcome by increasing early fertilisation.

 

Di Amerika Selatan, kajian pembajaan faktorial telah dijalankan di ladang sawit di bawah pengurusan Palmeras de los Andes di Ecuador dan Indupalma SA di Colombia bagi menyelia pembajaan dalam tempoh dua kitaran hayat sawit. Kajian ini direka untuk menentukan kandungan daun optimum N, P, K, Mg dan Cl dalam bahan tanaman terkini serta untuk menilai impak kitaran tanaman pertama pada kitaran berikut.

Setelah 10 tahun pemantauan, keputusan dua kajian tersebut menunjukkan nitrogen dan klorin mempunyai impak terbesar dalam pengeluaran hasil. Kekurangan N dan Cl dalam daun telah menyebabkan kesan yang ketara terhadap purata berat tandan tetapi tidak membawa kepada perbezaan hasil yang ketara. Walau bagaimanapun, selepas 10 tahun pemantauan, didapati bahawa perbezaan hasil antara kadar yang tertinggi dan yang terendah bagi nitrogen (N2-N0) dan klorin (Cl2-Cl0) meningkat dengan ketara sehingga mencapai suatu ambang yang memerlukan pembajaan tambahan. Kandungan rizab mineral dalam tanah didapati tidak digunakan semasa sawit dalam kitaran hayat yang pertama, yang mana sawit telah mendapat manfaat daripada kadar purata baja yang dibekalkan sebanyak 3 - 5 kg pokok-1 thn-1. Simpanan mineral ini mencukupi untuk menghadkan penurunan hasil sepertimana dalam plot tanpa rawatan baja. Kajian menunjukkan bahawa perbezaan dalam kandungan mineral daun dan hasil mengambil masa yang lama untuk menjadi ketara, sekali gus mengesahkan bahawa ini adalah kesan jangka panjang. Oleh itu, adalah sukar untuk membuktikan variasi hasil tahunan adalah terhasil daripada kesan pembajaan tahun-tahun sebelumnya. Namun begitu, pelaksanaan pembajaan awal bukanlah langkah yang perlu dipertimbangkan bagi mengatasi masalah yang boleh merendahkan hasil seperti kemarau yang berpanjangan.



Keyword(s): oil palm, yield response, mineral deficiency, mineral reserves

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No: 68 (May 2014) p5-7
Field Observation of Clonal Oil Palms Irradiated with Gamma Rays
Samsul Kamal Rosli*; Mohd Roslan Md Nor*; Tarmizi, A H*; Marhalil Marjunid*and Rohani, O**

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Field Observation of Clonal Oil Palms Irradiated with Gamma Rays

Clonal palms that were derived from callus cultures were repeatedly exposed to gamma rays of 5Gy (Grays) for three and five times during subculture intervals. Field observations and data recording were conducted four years after field planting. Preliminary results from palms derived from the callus cultures periodically irradiated for five times during subculture intervals recorded highly significant differences in leaf area index (LAI) and biomass compared with the control and standard cross palms. A two-dimensional principle component analysis score plot showed a distinct cluster of the various irradiation exposures compared to the standard cross materials. In addition, from the score and loading plots, a higher dosage of gamma irradiation resulted in increased rachis length, LAI, trunk height, biomass and leaf chlorophyll (SPAD) content, with an inversely smaller value in leaf water potential.

Klon sawit dihasil melalui kultur kalus yang terdedah kepada sinar gamma 5Gy (Grays) berturutan selama tiga dan lima kali subkultur. Pemerhatian di ladang dan penghasilan data telah dijalankan selepas tahun keempat penanaman. Keputusan awal mendapati radiasi berkala sebanyak lima kali subkultur mencatatkan perbezaan yang amat ketara dalam indeks helaian daun (LAI) dan biojisim berbanding dengan sawit kawalan dan standard. Skor analisis komponen dalam plot prinsip dua dimensi menunjukkan satu kelompok yang berbeza daripada pelbagai pendedahan penyinaran berbanding dengan sawit standard. Di samping itu, dari pemarkahan dan plot muatan, gamma penyinaran dengan dos yang lebih tinggi menghasilkan peningkatan panjang rakis,LAI, ketinggian pokok, biojisim dan kandungan klorofil daun (SPAD), berbanding dengan nilai potensi air daun yang rendah.



Keyword(s): irradiation, gamma rays, field trials, mutation, principle component analysis

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No: 68 (May 2014) p1-4
Ekona x Deli Dura Materials: Promising High Oil-to-Bunch Dura Materials
Joko Handoko Hadi Prasetyo*; Baihaqi Sitepu*; Jajan Djuhjana* and Stephen P C Nelson*

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Ekona x Deli Dura Materials: Promising High Oil-to-Bunch Dura Materials

Most South-east Asian oil palm seed producers currently use Deli dura as female seed palms to produce commercial seeds. This material is characterised by large bunches and high fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield. SumBio’s Deli dura material usually has laboratory % oil-to-bunch (OB) of 18%-22%.

SumBio is currently developing its dura breeding materials by introgressing commercial Deli dura material with breeding material received from Cameroon and Democratic Republic of Congo. These materials were received as part of the Combined Breeding Programme between Unilever Plc and Harrisons and Crosfield and were planted at Bah Lias Research Station in 1985. Selected Ekona duras were crossed with selected Deli dura to produce a F1 generation and a trial was conducted in 1995. Palms from selected progenies of Ekona x Deli dura from this planting were selfed to produce an Ekona x Deli F2 generation. A trial was conducted in 2003 which compared six Bah Lias Deli dura selfed progenies with 28 Ekona x Deli dura selfs for potential selection as commercial seed palms. The trial results showed that Ekona x Deli progenies had higher OB compared to Bah Lias Deli dura progeny. One Ekona x Deli F2 progeny achieved an OB ratio of 27.7% with high % mesocarp to fruit (67.0%).

Since these are Ekona x Deli F2 progenies, with high between-palm-within progeny genetic variation, there is optimism that there is considerable potential to make further breeding progress by selecting within progenies (following progeny testing) and by selfing. It will also be possible to rapidly multiply the best dura palms within these progenies (on the basis of progeny trial results) by cloning.

 

Kebanyakan pengeluar biji benih di Asia Tenggara kini menggunakan dura Deli sebagai induk betina untuk menghasilkan biji benih komersial. Bahan tersebut berciri tandan besar dan hasil buah tandan segar (BTS) yang tinggi. Bahan tanaman dura Deli SumBio lazimnya mempunyai nisbah minyakke-tandan 18%-22%.

Pada masa ini, SumBio sedang membangunkan bahan biak baka dura dengan menggabungkan dura Deli komersial dengan bahan biak baka yang diterima dari Cameroon dan Republik Demokratik Congo. Bahan tersebut diterima sebagai sebahagian daripada Program Biak Baka Bersepadu di antara Unilever Plc dan Harrisons and Crosfield dan telah ditanam di Stesen Penyelidikan Bah Lias pada tahun 1985. Dura Ekona yang terpilih telah dikacukkan dengan dura Deli terpilih untuk menghasilkan generasi F1 dan satu percubaan telah dijalankan pada tahun 1995. Penyendirian pokok dari penanaman progeni terpilih Ekona x dura Deli telah dilakukan untuk menghasilkan generasi F2 Ekona x dura Deli. Satu percubaan telah dijalankan pada tahun 2003 untuk membandingkan progeni enam dura Deli penyendirian Bah Lias dengan 28 penyendirian Ekona x dura Deli untuk pemilihan berpotensi sebagai pokok induk komersial. Keputusan percubaan menunjukkan bahawa progeni Ekona x dura Deli mempunyai nisbah minyak-ke-tandan yang lebih tinggi berbanding progeni dura Deli Bah Lias. Satu progeni Ekona x Deli F2 mencapai nisbah minyak-ke-tandan 27.7% dengan nisbah mesokarpa-ke-buah yang tinggi (67%).

Memandangkan ini adalah progeni F2 Ekona x Deli dengan variasi genetik antara pokok di kalangan progeni yang tinggi, maka terdapat keyakinan tentang potensi untuk mencapai kemajuan biak baka selanjutnya dengan cara memilih di kalangan progeni (susulan ujian progeni) dan menerusi penyendirian. Di samping itu, terdapat kemungkinan untuk menambahkan pokok dura terbaik di kalangan progeni tersebut dengan cepat (berdasar keputusan percubaan progeni) menerusi pengklonan.



Keyword(s): SumBio, dura breeding programme, Ekona x Deli dura

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No: 67 (November 2013) p30-31
MPOB News
-

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MPOB News

  • B5 Launch, Southern Region, Johor
  • Palm Oil Familiarisation Programme 2013
  • Minister’s Visit to MPOB’s Sessang Research Station


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No: 67 (November 2013) p17-29
Land Evaluation for Oil Palm Cultivation using Geospatial Information Technologies
Nordiana, A A*; Wahid, O*; Esnan, A G*; Zaki, A*; Tarmizi, A M*; Zulkifli, H* and Norman, K*

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Land Evaluation for Oil Palm Cultivation using Geospatial Information Technologies

Land evaluation is the process of assessing the characteristics of a given piece of land to determine its suitability and viability for development. For oil palm cultivation, land development involves planning, land clearing, road and drainage networks development and oil palm planting. This article reports the results of land evaluation carried out in Sungai Asap, Belaga, Sarawak to investigate the effectiveness of geographic information system (GIS), global positioning system (GPS) and remote sensing (RS) in evaluating whether a land is suitable for oil palm cultivation. Results of the study indicated that only 61.8% of the study area was suitable to be cultivated with oil palm. The rest of the area was unsuitable because of steepness, accessibility and allocation for buffer zones. SPOT (Systẻme Pour d’Observation de la Terre 5) satellite data was able to provide preliminary information of landform, land use and infrastructures of the evaluated land. GPS and GIS employed in this project were able to precisely track and collect ground data. The technologies could predetermine length and density of roads and terraces, and the number of planting points. The information was manipulated to produce land assessment report and very useful for preparation of budgets and contracts for plantation development.


Penilaian tanah ialah satu proses menilai ciri ciri sebidang tanah bagi menentukan kesesuaian dan kebolehupayaan tanah tersebut untuk dibangunkan. Untuk penanaman sawit, penilaian tanah melibatkan proses merancang, membersihkan kawasan, membina jaringan jalan perhubungan dan perparitan, serta menanam sawit. Kajian ini telah dijalankan di Sungai Asap, Belaga, Sarawak, bagi mengkaji keberkesanan teknologi sistem maklumat geografi (GIS), sistem penentududukan global (GPS) dan penderiaan jauh (RS) bagi menilai sama ada sesuatu kawasan sesuai untuk penanaman sawit. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa hanya terdapat 61.8% daripada keseluruhan kawasan adalah sesuai ditanam sawit. Baki kawasan tersebut adalah tidak sesuai kerana terlalu curam, tidak boleh dimasuki dan terdiri daripada zon penampan. Data satelit SPOT telah digunakan kerana berupaya memberikan maklumat awal berkaitan bentuk muka bumi, penggunaan tanah dan infrastruktur yang terdapat di kawasan tersebut. Teknologi GPS dan GIS diaplikasikan bagi mengumpul maklumat yang tepat di lapangan. Ia digunakan untuk mengetahui panjang dan kepadatan jalan, teres dan jumlah lokasi penanaman sawit. Maklumat tersebut dimanipulasi untuk menghasilkan satu laporan penilaian kawasan dan amat berguna dalam penyediaan bajet dan kontrak untuk pembangunan perladangan.



Keyword(s): GPS, remote sensing, GIS, oil palm cultivation, SPOT satellite

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No: 67 (November 2013) p11-16
Development of Half-track Articulated Tractor for Peat and Soft Ground
Abd Rahim Shuib*; Mohd Ramdhan Khalid* and Maizan Ismail*

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Development of Half-track Articulated Tractor for Peat and Soft Ground

MPOB has recently redesigned the traction mechanism of the standard articulated tractor to get the optimum mobility on soft ground soils and peat areas. Blending the concepts of an articulated half-track and a traction mechanism, this prototype transporter shows a good potential to operate on soft ground. Since 1980s, many fabricators/importers had tested and evaluated their full track transporters/machines. The feedback received from the end-users pointed to the high maintenance cost of the track and transmission system as the major factors hindering their adoption. With the issues identified, MPOB started the development of a new track transporter with emphasis on compactness of the transporter design and material selection during fabrication with the aim of getting a reliable transporter for peat areas.


MPOB telah menghasilkan satu mekanisme pencengkam yang boleh dipasang pada traktor bersendi untuk mendapatkan pergerakan yang optimum di kawasan tanah gambut. Dengan mengadunkan konsep traktor bersendi dan mekanisme pencengkam, jentera prototaip pengangkut yang dihasilkan ini terbukti boleh beroperasi di tanah lembut/gambut. Sejak 1980-an, banyak pengeluar dan pengimport jentera telah memandu uji serta menilai jentera jenis bertrek. Maklum balas daripada pengguna adalah kos penyelenggaraan yang tinggi terutamanya sistem trek dan transmisi. Berpandukan maklumat ini, MPOB telah membangunkan sebuah jentera yang menekankan kesesuaian saiz reka bentuk dan pemilihan komponen di dalam fabrikasi untuk menghasilkan sebuah jentera yang ekonomik untuk kawasan tanah gambut.



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No: 67 (November 2013) p5-10
Sulphur Nutrition of Oil Palm in Indonesia – The Neglected Macronutrient
J Gerendás*; C R Donough**; T Oberthür**; Rahmadsyah***; Gatot Abdurrohim****; Kooseni Indrasuara‡; Ahmad Lubis‡‡ and Tenri Dolong‡‡‡

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Sulphur Nutrition of Oil Palm in Indonesia – The Neglected Macronutrient

Sulphur (S) has received limited attention by researchers, agronomists and planters involved in oil palm cultivation, despite the fact that the requirement at tissue level – as indicated by published critical concentrations in Frond #17 – is the same for S and magnesium (Mg) (0.2%). The continuous trend toward S-free fertilisers (urea, rock phosphate, KCl, dolomite) in Indonesia, together with high leaching rates of sulphate, have putatively reduced the S availability in many oil palm estates. However, this has rarely been addressed up to now. The BMP (Best Management Practice) project on sustainable oil palm intensification of the IPNI SEA programme carried out at six sites, which are representatives for current management practices in oil palm cultivation, revealed a very low S status throughout, as determined by the S concentration in Frond #17, with mean values of 0.12%-0.13% S. After evaluating available literature a downward adjustment of the published critical S concentration – considering a critical N:S ratio of 15:1 and a critical N concentration of 2.3% – 0.15% seems appropriate. Considering the more relevant adequate N concentration range of 2.4% - 2.8%, an adequate range for S of 0.16% - 0.19% is proposed. The results clearly indicate a very low S status even when evaluated using these adjusted critical S concentrations. Researchers, agronomists and planters are encouraged to pay more attention to the S supply and to the determination of S in foliar analysis. Until the proposed critical S concentrations are supported through experimental data, it is recommended that S-containing fertilisers are administered at S-deficient sites at about 1:10 of the N supply. Potentially, a wide range of S-containing fertilisers could be used. Kieserite (MgSO4 . H2O) seems particularly suitable due to its market availability and because both macronutrient elements contained are required in similar amounts by oil palm.


Keperluan sulfur (S) bagi tanaman sawit tidak diberi perhatian yang sewajarnya oleh penanam sawit dan ahli agronomi walaupun fakta menunjukkan bahawa nilai kritikal kepekatan S dan Mg untuk Pelepah 17 adalah sama (0.2%). Di Indonesia, penggunaan berterusan baja tanpa kandungan S (urea, batuan fosfat, KCl dan dolomit) serta kadar larut resap sulfat yang tinggi telah menyebabkan kedapatan S berkurangan di kebanyakan ladang sawit. Bagaimanapun, isu ini jarang diperbincangkan sehingga kini. Pihak IPNI SEA programme yang menjalankan projek amalan pengurusan terbaik (BMP) bagi sawit mampan di enam kawasan telah mendedahkan berlakunya keadaan status S yang sangat rendah dengan kepekatan S Pelepah 17 pada nilai purata 0.12%-0.13%. Selepas penilaian bahan rujukan, pelarasan menurun terhadap nilai kritikal kepekatan S dengan nisbah kritikal N:S pada nilai 15:1, maka nilai kritikal kepekatan N antara 2.3% hingga 0.15% adalah sesuai. Berdasarkan julat nilai kepekatan N yang mencukupi iaitu antara 2.4%- 2.8%, maka dicadangkan julat nilai kepekatan S yang mencukupi adalah antara 0.16%-0.19%. Keputusan ini jelas menunjukkan bahawa status S adalah sangat rendah walaupun dinilai dengan menggunakan kepekatan kritikal S yang telah dilaraskan. Para penyelidik, ahli agronomi dan penanam sawit adalah digalakkan untuk memberi lebih perhatian terhadap bekalan S serta kepentingan penentuan status S dalam analisis daun. Sehingga nilai kritikal kepekatan S yang dicadangkan dapat disokong dengan data penyelidikan, maka disyorkan penggunaan baja mengandungi S di kawasan mengalami kekurangan S iaitu dengan nisbah 1:10 dari kadar penggunaan N. Terdapat beberapa baja yang mengandungi S yang boleh digunakan, ini termasuklah kieserit (MgSO4 . H2O) yang mudah diperoleh di pasaran serta mengandungi dua makronutrien yang diperlukan dengan jumlah yang sama bagi keperluan sawit.



Keyword(s): adequate range, critical concentration, oil palm, fertilisation, fertilisers, requirement, sulphur.

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No: 67 (November 2013) p1-4
Genetic Diversity of Commercial Oil Palm Seed Production Parents
Sri Wening*; Michael J Wilkinson**; Happyka Fillianti*; Jajan Djuhjana*; Brian P Forster‡; Stephen P C Nelson* and Peter D S Caligari‡

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Genetic Diversity of Commercial Oil Palm Seed Production Parents

A genetic diversity analysis was performed on 2039 dura seed palms and 25 pisifera pollen parents using eight Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers. The heterozygosity of the pisifera germplasm (mostly AVROS) was higher than the Deli dura seed palms. Variation was found in heterozygosity among the Deli dura progenies, selected for seed production. As expected, there was increased homozygosity in the dura material with each generation of selfing. Graphical genotyping was carried out to assist the genetic diversity analysis to identify candidate heterotic loci. In the screening of highly homozygous palms, there were 26 dura parental palms which were homozygous at 16 SSR marker loci used, which involved eight different unlinked markers in the first screening, followed by another eight different unlinked markers in the second screening.

Satu kajian mengenai keluasan genetik telah dijalankan ke atas 2039 pokok dura dan 25 pokok pisifera menggunakan lapan penanda molekul jujukan berulang ringkas (SSR). Kadar heterozigositi bagi germplasma pisifera (kebanyakannya adalah AVROS) didapati lebih tinggi berbanding pokok dura. Variasi juga telah didapati wujud dalam heterozigositi di antara progeni dura yang terpilih bagi penghasilan biji benih. Seperti jangkaan, kadar homozigositi bertambah dari generasi ke generasi bagi bahan tanaman kacukan sendiri dura. Gambaran genotip telah dibina bagi membantu analisis keluasan genetik dalam mengenalpasti lokus heterotik. Dalam imbasan ke atas pokok berhomozigositi tinggi, terdapat 26 induk dura yang homozigus pada 16 lokus penanda SSR yang digunakan, yang mana melibatkan lapan penanda tidak berkait yang berbeza pada imbasan pertama, diikuti dengan lapan lagi penanda yang tidak berkait dengan yang lain pada imbasan kedua



Keyword(s): oil palm, genetic diversity, SSR, graphical genotyping

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No: 66 (May 2013) p20-28
Innovative Machines for Compost Application in Oil Palm Plantations
Rahmat Kamisan*; Mohd Faiz Malik* and Mohd Rizal Rosslan*

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Innovative Machines for Compost Application in Oil Palm Plantations

The palm oil milling processes produce by-products or wastes in the form of empty fruit bunch (EFB) (23%), mesocarp fibres (12%), shell (5%), boiler ash, decanter cake, sludge and palm oil mill effluent (POME) (60%) for every tonne of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processed (Najafpour et al., 2005). These byproducts can be utilised as renewable resources with present technologies in harmony with the ecological system. Some examples of these renewable resources are biogas and biomass for the energy sector and composting for soil amelioration, in tandem with sustainable development for the oil palm industry.

Composting is indeed a viable means of converting oil palm organic wastes into organic fertilisers and soil conditioners that can be used safely and beneficially to supplement inorganic fertilisers. However, most producers encounter problems related to compost handling and applications, resulting in the extensive use of workers and the deployment of other conventional methods of applying compost in the plantation. Presently, getting workers to carry out harvesting of FFB is already a problem and will be compounded with compost production, handling and applications in the oil palm plantations.

Realising the imminent issues confronting compost application, Sime Darby Plantations has adopted various mechanisation application methods covering up to 35% of the targeted total compost production capacity. This article presents an overview of the various types of innovative machines used presently for the application of compost in Sime Darby plantations and their performances. The necessity to adopt various types of machines is simply to achieve larger coverage to accommodate the compost production volume and to effectively distribute the compost to the fields.

Proses pengilangan minyak sawit menghasilkan bahan sampingan atau buangan seperti buah tandan kosong (BTK) (23%), serat mesorkarpa (12%), tempurung (5%), abu dandang, kek dekanter, endapan dan efluen kilang minyak sawit (POME) (60%) bagi setiap tan buah tandan segar (BTS) yang diproses (Najafpour et al., 2005). Kesemua bahan sampingan ini boleh digunakan sebagai sumber boleh diperbaharui dengan teknologi masa kini seiring dengan sistem ekologi. Sebahagian daripada contoh sumber boleh diperbaharui adalah biogas dan biojisim untuk sektor tenaga dan kompos bagi penambahbaik tanah, selaras dengan pembangunan kelestarian untuk industri sawit. Pengkomposan adalah satu kaedah yang praktikal untuk mengubah bahan buangan organik sawit kepada baja organik dan perapi tanah yang selamat digunakan dan berfaedah sebagai tambahan kepada penggunaan baja inorganik. Namun, kebanyakan pengeluar menghadapi masalah berhubung dengan teknik mengendali dan mengaplikasi kompos, mengakibatkan penggunaan tenaga kerja yang ramai dan menggunapakai kaedah konvensional lain untuk mengaplikasi kompos di ladang. Pada masa kini, mendapatkan pekerja untuk menjalankan penuaian BTS merupakan satu masalah dan apatah lagi dengan adanya pengeluaran, kendalian dan aplikasi kompos di ladang.

Menyedari hakikat yang perlu ditangani mengenai pengaplikasian kompos, Sime Darby Plantations telah menggunakan pelbagai kaedah mekanisasi yang meliputi kawasan sehingga 35% keluasan yang disasarkan untuk kapasiti pengeluaran kompos. 

Artikel ini membentangkan pandangan menyeluruh pelbagai jentera inovatif yang  digunapakai masa kini untuk tujuan aplikasi kompos di Sime Darby Plantations serta prestasinya. Keperluan untuk mengguna pelbagai jentera adalah untuk mencapai keluasan yang besar untuk mengimbangi jumlah pengeluaran kompos serta pengagihan kompos yang berkesan di ladang.



Keyword(s): biomass, composting, soil conditioners, compost handling, mechanised methods.

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