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No: 70 (May 2015) p8-12
Estimating Oil Content of Commercially Harvested Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches – A Step towards Increasing Palm Oil Yields
C R Donough*; J Cock*; T Oberthür*; K Indrasuara**; Rahmadsyah#; Gatot, A R‡ and T Dolong‡‡

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Estimating Oil Content of Commercially Harvested Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches – A Step towards Increasing Palm Oil Yields

Oil palm growers are able to assign fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yields to individual blocks, and thus are able to manage their plantation (or smallholding) to optimise FFB yield. However, currently it is not possible to attribute oil extraction rate (OER), hence oil yield, in a similar way, because mills process FFB from many sources, deriving a common OER for all the FFB that is processed rather than for individual sources. OER depends on the intrinsic qualities of the FFB being milled, which is likely to differ from one batch of FFB to another, hence assessment of milling performance is better based on extraction efficiency rather than OER per se. The Southeast Asia Programme of the International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI SEA) recently showed that practices aimed at maximising FFB yield may not necessarily maximise OER. The bunch analysis (BA) method adapted by IPNI SEA for assessing oil content of FFB from commercial-scale harvesting in Indonesia can be implemented by plantations without much difficulty. BA and harvest audit data together allow growers to compute their Field Oil Recovery Efficiency (FORE), an assessment of the effectiveness of field practices on crop recovery and oil content. Pre-milling estimates of oil content (EOC) in harvested FFB allows mills to better measure their process performance based on their Mill Oil Recovery Efficiency (MORE). Knowledge of EOC will allow mills to pay growers for the oil content of their crop, providing further motivation to growers to improve FORE. These recovery efficiency measures allow a more holistic analysis of the overall oil recovery process involving the growers and the mills, likely leading to reduced friction and better overall performance.

Penanam sawit boleh menguruskan ladang mereka untuk mendapatkan hasil buah tandan segar (BTS) yang optimum dari setiap blok. Walau bagaimanapun, setakat ini tidak mungkin untuk menghubungkaitkan kadar perahan minyak (OER) dengan hasil minyak kerana kilang memproses BTS yang diperoleh daripada pelbagai sumber. Oleh itu, OER yang diperoleh adalah untuk semua BTS yang diproses, bukan daripada sumber individu. OER bergantung pada sifat intrinsik BTS yang diproses, yang berbeza antara kumpulan BTS. Oleh itu, penilaian prestasi pengilangan adalah lebih baik berdasarkan kecekapan pengekstrakan daripada OER per se. Baru-baru ini Southeast Asia Program of the International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI SEA) mendapati bahawa kaedah untuk memaksimumkan hasil BTS tidak semestinya dapat memaksimumkan OER. Analisis tandan (BA) adalah kaedah yang digunakan oleh IPNI SEA untuk menilai kandungan minyak BTS dari penuaian berskala komersial di Indonesia boleh dilaksanakan di ladang tanpa banyak halangan. Penanam sawit boleh mengunakan BA bersama data audit tuaian untuk mengira Kecekapan Pemulihan Minyak di Ladang (FORE) iaitu penilaian terhadap keberkesanan amalan ladang bagi pemulihan tanaman dan kandungan minyak. Anggaran kandungan minyak (EOC) dalam BTS pada peringkat pra-pengilangan membolehkan kilang untuk mengukur prestasi mereka dengan lebih baik berdasarkan Kecekapan Pemulihan Minyak Kilang (MORE). Dengan mengetahui EOC, kilang akan membayar penanam sawit berdasarkan kandungan minyak daripada tanaman mereka, seterusnya memberikan motivasi kepada penanam untuk memperbaiki FORE. Langkah kecekapan pemulihan ini membolehkan analisis yang lebih menyeluruh mengenai keseluruhan proses pemulihan minyak dan menjadikan prestasi keseluruhan lebih baik melibatkan penanam dan juga kilang.



Keyword(s): palm oil yield, oil content, oil recovery

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No: 70 (May 2015) p1-7
Control of Mucuna bracteata DC. Ex. Kurz Legume Covers with Herbicides in Oil Palm Plantation: Spraying Volume and Frequency
Yit Kheng Goh*; Kim Loong Wong*; Chin Hor Lai*; Suet Yee Tan*; Tasren Nazir Mahamooth*; Huang Huang Gan*; You Keng Goh* and Kah Joo Goh*

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Control of Mucuna bracteata DC. Ex. Kurz Legume Covers with Herbicides in Oil Palm Plantation: Spraying Volume and Frequency

Leguminous Mucuna bracteata DC. ex. Kurz is one of the most commonly planted ground covers in oil palm plantations. However, under uncontrolled conditions, the covers can smother and entangle the palms, especially in young immature plantings. Efficacy of five major types of herbicides - paraquat dichloride (PD), glyphosate isopropylamine (GI), metsulfuron methyl (MM), glufosinate ammonium (GA), and disodium methyl arsenate (DSMA), as well as ammonium chloride with two separate spraying volumes and two different spraying frequencies, in controlling M. bracteata were studied. Variable spraying volume or spray-towet method caused higher M. bracteata mortality compared to fixed volume spraying. The PD, GI+MM mixture and GA were observed to give better control of M. bracteata compared to other treatments. Multifactorial ANOVA illustrated that herbicide, volume and frequency were showing significant post-spraying influence on both percent of casualty and alive M. bracteata after most of the spraying rounds. Interactions between herbicide x volume, herbicide x frequency, and herbicide x volume x frequency were spotted in a few postspraying census. However, there was no interaction found in volume x frequency. Results showed that spraying with GI+MM mixture could be one of the promising herbicide combinations with spray-till-wet technique and variable spraying rounds (reapplication as M. bracteata covered > 70%) was the most efficient treatment and with reduced effect on M. bracteata regeneration.

Pokok kekacang, Mucuna bracteata DC. ex. Kurz merupakan tanaman penutup bumi yang biasa ditanam di ladang sawit. Walau bagaimanapun, dalam keadaan yang tidak terkawal, tanaman penutup bumi ini boleh melitupi dan menjerut sawit, terutamanya sawit yang belum matang. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk mengetahui keberkesanan lima jenis racun rumpai utama dalam mengawal M. bracteata - parakuat diklorid (PD), glifosat isoproplamin (GI), metsulfuron metil (MM), glufosinat ammonium (GA), dan disodium metil arsenat (DSMA), serta ammonium klorida dengan dua jumlah semburan berasingan dan dua frekuensi semburan yang berbeza. Jumlah semburan yang berubah atau kaedah semburan hingga basah menyebabkan kadar kematian M. bracteata lebih tinggi berbanding jumlah semburan tetap. PD, campuran GI + MM dan GA didapati dapat memberi kawalan yang lebih baik terhadap M. bracteata berbanding rawatan lain. Multifaktorial ANOVA membuktikan bahawa jenis racun, jumlah dan kekerapan semburan memberi pengaruh yang signifikan ke atas peratus M. bracteata yang hidup dan mati selepas pusingan awal semburan. Interaksi antara racun rumpai x jumlah racun, racun rumpai x frekuensi semburan, dan racun rumpai x jumlah x kekerapan telah dikesan dalam beberapa kajian selepas semburan awal. Walau bagaimanapun, tidak terdapat interaksi di antara jumlah racun rumpai x frekuensi semburan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa semburan dengan GI + MM boleh menjadi salah satu daripada gabungan racun rumpai yang berkesan dengan teknik semburan-hingga-basah dan pelbagai pusingan semburan (aplikasi semula bagi M. bracteata menutupi > 70%) adalah rawatan yang paling berkesan dan mampu mengurangkan pertumbuhan semula M. bracteata.

 



Keyword(s): chemical, Elaeis guineensis, immature planting, legume ground cover

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No: 69 (November 2014) p38-39
MPOB News
-

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MPOB News

  • Palm Industry Labour: Issues, Performances and Sustainability Seminar

  • 20th MPOB Transfer of Technology Seminar 2014

  • Palm Oil Familiarisation Programme

  • Farm Mechanisation Operators’ Course



Keyword(s): -

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No: 69 (November 2014) p27-37
Evaluation of Various Sources of Magnesium Fertiliser for Correction of Acute Magnesium Deficiency in Oil Palm
Manjit Sidhu*; Abdul Hasyim*; Eny Fithri Rambe*; Zulkasta Sinuraya*; Abdul Aziz* and Mukesh Sharma**

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Evaluation of Various Sources of Magnesium Fertiliser for Correction of Acute Magnesium Deficiency in Oil Palm

In view of it’s high water solubility and rapid nutrient availability, kieserite is often used for correcting magnesium (Mg) deficiency in oil palm. However, the same characteristics makes it prone to higher losses in sites with sandy soils, hilly topography or high rainfall. Under such conditions, a less water soluble but equally effective Mg fertiliser may be more suitable.

A trial evaluating the corrective capability of five less water soluble Mg fertilisers found that correction of Mg deficiency was a slow process requiring a minimum of two to three annual rounds to raise leaf Mg from 0.06% to above 0.20%.

All fertilisers evaluated greatly improved the visual appearance of Mg deficient palms. A significant decline in the number of fronds displaying new symptoms occurs as early as four to six months after treatment (MAT). By 16 MAT, majority of treated palms exhibit only light symptoms of Mg deficiency. Statistically, no significant differences were recorded between the various fertiliser types in raising leaf Mg levels and reducing the severity and emergence of new Mg deficiency symptoms. However, when based on palm vegetative growth improvement, kieserite still elicited the best responses and exhibited a higher relative agronomic efficiency (RAE) over the other five Mg fertilisers.

Disebabkan ciri kelarutan air yang tinggi dan ketersediaan nutriennya, kieserit sering digunakan untuk memperbaiki kekurangan magnesium pada sawit. Bagaimanapun, ciri-ciri yang sama ini membuatkan kieserit cenderung kepada kehilangan yang lebih tinggi di kawasan tanah berpasir, topografi berbukit atau ketika hujan lebat. Dalam

keadaan sedemikian, baja Mg yang bersifat kurang larut tetapi mempunyai keberkesanan yang setara berkemungkinan lebih sesuai. 

Satu kajian untuk menilai keupayaan membaikpulih menggunakan lima jenis baja Mg yang kurang larut air mendapati pembetulan kekurangan Mg merupakan satu proses yang perlahan dan memerlukan sekurang-kurangnya dua hingga tiga pusingan tahunan bagi meningkatkan nilai daun Mg dari 0.06% kepada melebihi 0.20%. 

Kesemua baja yang dinilai mampu meningkatkan penampilan visual Mg pada sawit yang kekurangan Mg. Pengurangan jumlah pelepah yang ketara menunjukkan simptom Mg yang baru berlaku seawal empat hingga enam bulan selepas rawatan (MAT). Pada 16 MAT, majoriti sawit yang dirawat hanya menunjukkan simptom kekurangan Mg yang sedikit. Tiada perbezaan ketara direkodkan secara statistik di kalangan pelbagai jenis baja dalam meningkatkan tahap Mg pada daun, mengurangkan keterukan dan kemunculan simptom baru kekurangan Mg. Walau bagaimanapun, berdasarkan peningkatan pertumbuhan tampang sawit, kieserit memberikan tindak balas terbaik dan meningkatkan keberkesanan kecekapan agronomik lebih tinggi berbanding lima baja Mg yang lain.



Keyword(s): magnesium, deficiency, fertilisers, oil palm.

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No: 69 (November 2014) p21-26
Diversity of Bird Species in the Oil Palm Plantation on Peat
Bettycopa Amit*; Andrew Alek Tuen**; Khalid Haron* and Mohd Haniff Harun*

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Diversity of Bird Species in the Oil Palm Plantation on Peat

Oil palm plantation on peat creates an alternative habitat for birds to live in. In order to find out the diversity of bird species dwelling in this oil palm habitat, surveys were carried out in a seven-year old oil palm plantation established on peat soil near Betong, Sarawak between August 2010 to October 2011. The survey was done by observation and mist netting methods. A total of 463 individual birds belonging to 42 species were recorded and this represents approximately 7% of the total species known to occur in Borneo. More than 50% of the birds recorded in oil palm plantation are feeding on insects. Besides that, wetland birds and birds of prey were also recorded in this habitat. Among the 42 species sampled, Yellow-vented Bulbul (23.3%) was the most dominant species. Twenty-six percent of the birds recorded in oil palm plantation are categorised as protected birds under the Sarawak Wild Life Protection Ordinance (1998). Our results suggest that the seven-year old oil palm plantation in Betong, Sarawak had a reasonably good community of birds. More sampling works are needed in order to study the population gradient over time to gain a better understanding on bird response to dynamic change.

 

Ladang sawit di paya gambut mewujudkan habitat alternatif kepada burung untuk didiami. Dalam usaha untuk mengetahui kepelbagaian spesies burung yang tinggal di habitat ini, kaji selidik telah dijalankan antara Ogos 2010 hingga Oktober 2011 di ladang sawit berusia tujuh tahun yang terletak di kawasan paya gambut, Betong, Sarawak. Kajian ini dijalankan dengan menggunakan kaedah pemerhatian dan jaring samar. Sebanyak 463 individu dari 42 spesies burung telah direkodkan dan ini mewakili lebih kurang 7% daripada jumlah spesies yang telah direkodkan di Borneo. Lebih daripada 50% burung di ladang sawit yang makan serangga. Selain itu, burung tanah paya dan burung pemangsa juga telah direkodkan di habitat ini. Di antara 42 spesies burung ini, Merbah Kapur (23.3%) adalah spesies yang paling dominan di habitat ini. Dua puluh enam peratus daripada burung di ladang sawit dikategorikan sebagai burung yang dilindungi di bawah Ordinan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar Sarawak (1998). Keputusan ini menunjukkan bahawa ladang sawit berusia tujuh tahun di Betong, Sarawak, mempunyai komuniti kepelbagaian spesies burung yang baik. Kajian yang lebih mendalam amatlah diperlukan untuk mengkaji kecerunan populasi burung dari semasa ke semasa untuk mendapatkan pemahaman yang lebih baik mengenai tindak balas burung terhadap perubahan dinamik ini.




Keyword(s): birds, oil palm plantation, yellow-vented bulbul, protected birds.

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No: 69 (November 2014) p13-20
Physico-chemical Changes During Co-composting of Chipped-ground Oil Palm Frond and Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Mohd Najib Ahmad*; Siti Ramlah Ahmad Ali* and Mohd Ali Hassan**

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Physico-chemical Changes During Co-composting of Chipped-ground Oil Palm Frond and Palm Oil Mill Effluent

The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical changes during co-composting of chippedground oil palm frond (CG-OPF) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). Results showed that co-composting of CG-OPF and POME was completed within 60 days with average C:N ratio of 23. Temperature of the compost observed in thermophilic phase was at 53.5oC after four days of composting (DOC). The highest temperature observed during thermophilic phase was 56oC at 21 DOC. The oxygen level, moisture content and pH of the compost were maintained at 1.7%-12.2%, 60.6%-70.7% and 7.9-8.5, respectively, throughout the 60 DOC. The total bacteria count observed was 55 x 1010 cfu ml-1 at the initial stage and decreased to 14.7 x 1010 cfu ml-1 on 25th DOC and 3.7 x 1010 cfu ml-1 on 60th DOC. The C:N ratio observed was 63.9 at the initial stage and decreased to 24 on 60th DOC.

 

Kajian ini bertujuan adalah untuk mengenalpasti perubahan fisiko-kimia semasa proses kompos dijalankan menggunakan pelepah sawit keping terkisar dan enapcemar kilang sawit (POME). Hasil ujikaji mendapati proses kompos menggunakan pelepah sawit keping terkisar ini telah dijalankan sepenuhnya selama 60 hari dengan purata nisbah karbon:nitrogen pada paras 23. Suhu kompos yang dicatatkan pada fasa termofilik ialah 53.5oC selepas empat hari proses kompos dijalankan. Suhu tertinggi yang dicerap semasa fasa termofilik ialah 56oC selepas 21 hari proses kompos dijalankan. Paras oksigen, kandungan lembapan dan pH kompos pelepah sawit keping terkisar yang dicerap ialah masing-masing, 1.7%-12.2%, 60.6%-70.7% dan 7.9-8.5, sepanjang 60 hari proses kompos. Jumlah kiraan bakteria yang dicerap ialah 55 x 1010 cfu ml-1 pada hari permulaan dan menurun kepada 14.7 x 1010 cfu ml-1 pada hari ke-25 proses kompos dan seterusnya, 3.7 x1010 cfu ml-1 pada hari ke-60 proses kompos. Nisbah karbon:nitrogen yang dicatat ialah 63.9 pada hari permulaan dan menurun kepada 24 pada 60 hari proses kompos.



Keyword(s): chipped-ground oil palm frond (CGOPF), palm oil mill effluent (POME), composting

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No: 69 (November 2014) p1-12
Transforming Oil Palm Plantation for Forage and Livestock Integration
Kamil Azmi Tohiran*; Raja Zulkifli Raja Omar*; Norkaspi Khasim*; Md Zainal Rasyidi Mat Rodi*; Noor Khairani Muhamad Basri* and Wahid Omar*

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Transforming Oil Palm Plantation for Forage and Livestock Integration

Transforming the oil palm plantation for forage and livestock integration is a revolutionary approach to optimise land productivity. It will create synergy between forage and livestock integrated in the same piece of oil palm land. The objective of this article is to highlight the various steps required to enable planting of forage crop and intensive livestock production in an oil palm plantation. The crop integration activity can best be extended to mature oil palm areas if the oil palm has been planted with the double avenue planting system. Several forage crops were tested, and they included Napier grass, forage sorghum and kenaf. Detailed guidelines for each crop, such as planting, maintenance, harvesting, processing and the nutrient values are provided in this report. Intensive livestock integration is the important component to complement the forage crop project. This is because the planting of improved pasture types has made it possible to increase the stocking rate of livestock for integration. Intensive practices of integration of cattle and goat have been used successfully to demonstrate the potential of the suggested production system. The technical performances of forage crops and intensive livestock integration are also discussed. Systematic approach of forage crop and livestock integration has indeed shown the potential of reducing the meat importation and to move towards reaching self-sufficiency.

 

Transformasi ladang sawit bagi tujuan integrasi foraj dan ternakan merupakan pendekatan revolusionari bagi mengoptimumkan produktiviti tanah. Ini akan mewujudkan sinergi di antara integrasi foraj dan ternakan dalam sebidang tanah sawit yang sama. Objektif artikel ini adalah untuk mengetengahkan langkah untuk melaksanakan penanaman foraj dan produksi ternakan secara intensif di ladang sawit. Aktiviti integrasi tanaman dapat dilanjutkan sehingga sawit mencapai usia matang jika sawit ditanam menggunakan sistem dua baris kembar. Beberapa jenis foraj telah dikaji termasuklah rumput Napier, sekoi jenis foraj dan kenaf. Garis panduan terperinci bagi setiap tanaman termasuk kaedah penanaman, pemeliharaan, penuaian, pemprosesan dan nilai nutrisi turut disertakan. Integrasi ternakan secara intensif adalah komponen penting bagi melengkapi projek tanaman foraj ini. Ini kerana kadar stok ternakan yang diintegrasikan dapat ditingkatkan hanya dengan penanaman pastura berkualiti sahaja. Amalan secara intensif integrasi lembu dan kambing telah berjaya digunakan bagi menunjukkan potensi sistem pengeluaran yang telah disyorkan. Prestasi teknikal tanaman foraj dan integrasi ternakan secara intensif juga dibincangkan. Pendekatan secara sistematik integrasi foraj dan ternakan telah menunjukkan potensi bagi membantu mengurangkan pengimportan daging dan mencapai kadar sara diri yang dikehendaki.



Keyword(s): oil palm plantation, double avenue planting, crop integration, goat integration, cattle integration, Napier, sorghum, kenaf

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No: 68 (May 2014) p25-26
MPOB News
-

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MPOB News

  • RM 294 Million Allocated for Sabah and Sarawak Oil Palm Smallholders

  • Waste to be the Alternative Sources of Fuel

  • Launch of Biodiesel in the Eastern and Northern Regions and Peninsular Malaysia

  • Palm Oil Economic Review & Outlook Seminar 2014

  • Oil Palm Smallholders Seminar



Keyword(s): -

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No: 68 (May 2014) p16-24
Chemical Control of Mucuna bracteata Dc. Ex Kurz Legume Cover Crop
Yit Kheng Goh*; Chin Hor Lai*; Tasren Nasir Mahamooth*; Huang Huang Gan*; You Keng Goh* and Kah Joo Goh*

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Chemical Control of Mucuna bracteata Dc. Ex Kurz Legume Cover Crop

Mucuna bracteata DC. ex Kurz is a fast growing leguminous ground cover planted in oil palm plantations for conserving soils, suppressing unwanted noxious weeds, recycling nutrients, and minimising rhinoceros beetles to young immature oil palm. However, its fast-growing nature and ability to regenerate very rapidly, if uncontrolled, can smother the palms. The effects of five major types of herbicides, namely glufosinate ammonium, metsulfuron methyl, glyphosate isopropylamine, paraquat dichloride, and disodium methyl arsenate, selective combination of them and the associated costs in M. bracteata control were evaluated to determine an economical and effective approach of managing M. bracteata cover in oil palm plantations. Treatments with contact herbicides were applied at four- to five-week intervals, but treatments with systemic chemicals, missed the third round of spraying because of low Mucuna coverage (below 70%). M. bracteata treated with contact herbicides showed high mortality in first week after application but the effect reduced over time and thus, had shorter control duration. Metsulfuron and other systemic chemicals caused low mortality to Mucuna at first but efficacy increased with time. Glufosinate ammonium (premium or original formulation) was more effective in suppressing M. bracteata compared to generic formulation. Selective contact disodium methyl arsenate was the least effective in legume control compared to other contact herbicides. Results showed that spraying with glyphosate+metsulfuron mixture followed by glufosinate gave longer duration of control efficacy, less labour-intensive and more economical compared with contact herbicides. This treatment is a good replacement for paraquat and the costlier repeated use of glufosinate.

 

Mucuna bracteata DC. ex Kurz adalah tanaman kekacang penutup bumi yang mempunyai kadar pertumbuhan yang tinggi dan ditanam di ladang sawit untuk memelihara tanah, mengawal pertumbuhan rumpai yang tidak diingini, mengitar semula nutrien dan mengurangkan serangan kumbang badak pada sawit yang belum matang. Namun begitu, kadar pertumbuhannya yang tinggi dan keupayaan untuk tumbuh semula dengan cepat boleh melitupi sawit jika tidak dikawal. Kesan lima jenis racun rumpai utama, iaitu glufosinat ammonium, metsulfuron metil, glifosat isoprolamin, parakuat diklorid dan disodium metil arsenat (DSMA) serta gabungan terpilih di antara racun rumpai tersebut dan kos yang berkaitan dengan kawalan M. bracteata telah dinilai untuk menentukan pendekatan ekonomi dan keberkesanan racun rumpai tersebut dalam mengawal pertumbuhan M. bracteata di ladang sawit. Rawatan dengan menggunakan racun rumpai sentuhan telah digunakan pada selang empat hingga lima minggu, tetapi rawatan dengan racun kimia sistemik, terlepas semburan pusingan ketiga kerana liputan Mucuna yang rendah (bawah 70%). Kadar kematian M. bracteata yang tinggi dicatatkan pada minggu pertama selepas dirawat dengan racun rumpai sentuhan tetapi kesannya berkurangan dari semasa ke semasa dan dengan itu, mempunyai tempoh kawalan yang lebih pendek. Metsulfuron dan bahan kimia sistemik lain menyebabkan kadar kematian Mucuna rendah pada mulanya tetapi keberkesanan meningkat dengan masa. Glufosinat ammonium (premium atau formulasi asal) adalah lebih berkesan dalam mengawal M. bracteata berbanding formulasi generik. Racun rumpai DSMA secara terpilih adalah paling kurang berkesan dalam kawalan kekacang berbanding dengan racun rumpai sentuhan yang lain. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa semburan campuran glifosat+metsulfuron diikuti dengan glufosinat memberikan tempoh keberkesanan yang lebih panjang, kurang penggunaan buruh dan lebih ekonomi berbanding dengan racun rumpai sentuhan. Rawatan ini adalah pengganti yang baik untuk parakuat dan penggunaan berulang glufosinat yang kosnya lebih mahal.

 



Keyword(s): contact, Elaeis guineensis, leguminous cover crops, herbicide, systemic, Mucuna bracteata

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No: 68 (May 2014) p8-15
Persistence of Mineral Fertility Carried over from the First Crop Cycle in Two Oil Palm Plantations in South America
Bernard Dubos* and Albert Flori**

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Persistence of Mineral Fertility Carried over from the First Crop Cycle in Two Oil Palm Plantations in South America

In South America, factorial fertilisation trials were set up on oil palm estates managed by Palmeras de los Andes in Ecuador and Indupalma S.A. In Colombia to control fertilisation during the two oil palm crop cycles. These experiments were designed to determine the optimal leaf contents of N, P, K, Mg and Cl, in recent planting materials and to assess the impacts of the first crop cycle on the following cycle.

In the two presented trials, nitrogen and chlorine treatments were found to have the greatest impact on production after 10 years of monitoring. The observed leaf N and Cl deficiencies resulted in a significant effect on the average bunch weight, but these differences did not lead to significant differences in yield. However, after 10 years of monitoring, it was found that the yield differences between the highest and the lowest nitrogen rates (N2-N0) and between the highest and the lowest chlorine rates (Cl2-Cl0), increased steadily until reaching a threshold at which some authors consider that supplementary fertilisation is required. In both experiments, soil mineral reserves had not been tapped during the first oil palm crop cycle, which had benefitted from mean rational fertiliser rates of 3 - 5 kg palm-1 yr-1. These reserves were sufficient to limit a yield decline in the non-fertilised treatments. We also noted that it took a long time for the differences in leaf mineral content and yields to become significant, thus confirming that these are long-term effects. Hence, in a suitably fertilised plantation, it is very unlikely that the effects of fertiliser applications during previous years could be reflected by inter-annual yield variations. However, there is no reason to consider that the depressive effect of poor climatic conditions, such as prolonged drought, could be overcome by increasing early fertilisation.

 

Di Amerika Selatan, kajian pembajaan faktorial telah dijalankan di ladang sawit di bawah pengurusan Palmeras de los Andes di Ecuador dan Indupalma SA di Colombia bagi menyelia pembajaan dalam tempoh dua kitaran hayat sawit. Kajian ini direka untuk menentukan kandungan daun optimum N, P, K, Mg dan Cl dalam bahan tanaman terkini serta untuk menilai impak kitaran tanaman pertama pada kitaran berikut.

Setelah 10 tahun pemantauan, keputusan dua kajian tersebut menunjukkan nitrogen dan klorin mempunyai impak terbesar dalam pengeluaran hasil. Kekurangan N dan Cl dalam daun telah menyebabkan kesan yang ketara terhadap purata berat tandan tetapi tidak membawa kepada perbezaan hasil yang ketara. Walau bagaimanapun, selepas 10 tahun pemantauan, didapati bahawa perbezaan hasil antara kadar yang tertinggi dan yang terendah bagi nitrogen (N2-N0) dan klorin (Cl2-Cl0) meningkat dengan ketara sehingga mencapai suatu ambang yang memerlukan pembajaan tambahan. Kandungan rizab mineral dalam tanah didapati tidak digunakan semasa sawit dalam kitaran hayat yang pertama, yang mana sawit telah mendapat manfaat daripada kadar purata baja yang dibekalkan sebanyak 3 - 5 kg pokok-1 thn-1. Simpanan mineral ini mencukupi untuk menghadkan penurunan hasil sepertimana dalam plot tanpa rawatan baja. Kajian menunjukkan bahawa perbezaan dalam kandungan mineral daun dan hasil mengambil masa yang lama untuk menjadi ketara, sekali gus mengesahkan bahawa ini adalah kesan jangka panjang. Oleh itu, adalah sukar untuk membuktikan variasi hasil tahunan adalah terhasil daripada kesan pembajaan tahun-tahun sebelumnya. Namun begitu, pelaksanaan pembajaan awal bukanlah langkah yang perlu dipertimbangkan bagi mengatasi masalah yang boleh merendahkan hasil seperti kemarau yang berpanjangan.



Keyword(s): oil palm, yield response, mineral deficiency, mineral reserves

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