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No: 67 (November 2013) p11-16
Development of Half-track Articulated Tractor for Peat and Soft Ground
Abd Rahim Shuib*; Mohd Ramdhan Khalid* and Maizan Ismail*

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Development of Half-track Articulated Tractor for Peat and Soft Ground

MPOB has recently redesigned the traction mechanism of the standard articulated tractor to get the optimum mobility on soft ground soils and peat areas. Blending the concepts of an articulated half-track and a traction mechanism, this prototype transporter shows a good potential to operate on soft ground. Since 1980s, many fabricators/importers had tested and evaluated their full track transporters/machines. The feedback received from the end-users pointed to the high maintenance cost of the track and transmission system as the major factors hindering their adoption. With the issues identified, MPOB started the development of a new track transporter with emphasis on compactness of the transporter design and material selection during fabrication with the aim of getting a reliable transporter for peat areas.


MPOB telah menghasilkan satu mekanisme pencengkam yang boleh dipasang pada traktor bersendi untuk mendapatkan pergerakan yang optimum di kawasan tanah gambut. Dengan mengadunkan konsep traktor bersendi dan mekanisme pencengkam, jentera prototaip pengangkut yang dihasilkan ini terbukti boleh beroperasi di tanah lembut/gambut. Sejak 1980-an, banyak pengeluar dan pengimport jentera telah memandu uji serta menilai jentera jenis bertrek. Maklum balas daripada pengguna adalah kos penyelenggaraan yang tinggi terutamanya sistem trek dan transmisi. Berpandukan maklumat ini, MPOB telah membangunkan sebuah jentera yang menekankan kesesuaian saiz reka bentuk dan pemilihan komponen di dalam fabrikasi untuk menghasilkan sebuah jentera yang ekonomik untuk kawasan tanah gambut.



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No: 67 (November 2013) p5-10
Sulphur Nutrition of Oil Palm in Indonesia – The Neglected Macronutrient
J Gerendás*; C R Donough**; T Oberthür**; Rahmadsyah***; Gatot Abdurrohim****; Kooseni Indrasuara‡; Ahmad Lubis‡‡ and Tenri Dolong‡‡‡

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Sulphur Nutrition of Oil Palm in Indonesia – The Neglected Macronutrient

Sulphur (S) has received limited attention by researchers, agronomists and planters involved in oil palm cultivation, despite the fact that the requirement at tissue level – as indicated by published critical concentrations in Frond #17 – is the same for S and magnesium (Mg) (0.2%). The continuous trend toward S-free fertilisers (urea, rock phosphate, KCl, dolomite) in Indonesia, together with high leaching rates of sulphate, have putatively reduced the S availability in many oil palm estates. However, this has rarely been addressed up to now. The BMP (Best Management Practice) project on sustainable oil palm intensification of the IPNI SEA programme carried out at six sites, which are representatives for current management practices in oil palm cultivation, revealed a very low S status throughout, as determined by the S concentration in Frond #17, with mean values of 0.12%-0.13% S. After evaluating available literature a downward adjustment of the published critical S concentration – considering a critical N:S ratio of 15:1 and a critical N concentration of 2.3% – 0.15% seems appropriate. Considering the more relevant adequate N concentration range of 2.4% - 2.8%, an adequate range for S of 0.16% - 0.19% is proposed. The results clearly indicate a very low S status even when evaluated using these adjusted critical S concentrations. Researchers, agronomists and planters are encouraged to pay more attention to the S supply and to the determination of S in foliar analysis. Until the proposed critical S concentrations are supported through experimental data, it is recommended that S-containing fertilisers are administered at S-deficient sites at about 1:10 of the N supply. Potentially, a wide range of S-containing fertilisers could be used. Kieserite (MgSO4 . H2O) seems particularly suitable due to its market availability and because both macronutrient elements contained are required in similar amounts by oil palm.


Keperluan sulfur (S) bagi tanaman sawit tidak diberi perhatian yang sewajarnya oleh penanam sawit dan ahli agronomi walaupun fakta menunjukkan bahawa nilai kritikal kepekatan S dan Mg untuk Pelepah 17 adalah sama (0.2%). Di Indonesia, penggunaan berterusan baja tanpa kandungan S (urea, batuan fosfat, KCl dan dolomit) serta kadar larut resap sulfat yang tinggi telah menyebabkan kedapatan S berkurangan di kebanyakan ladang sawit. Bagaimanapun, isu ini jarang diperbincangkan sehingga kini. Pihak IPNI SEA programme yang menjalankan projek amalan pengurusan terbaik (BMP) bagi sawit mampan di enam kawasan telah mendedahkan berlakunya keadaan status S yang sangat rendah dengan kepekatan S Pelepah 17 pada nilai purata 0.12%-0.13%. Selepas penilaian bahan rujukan, pelarasan menurun terhadap nilai kritikal kepekatan S dengan nisbah kritikal N:S pada nilai 15:1, maka nilai kritikal kepekatan N antara 2.3% hingga 0.15% adalah sesuai. Berdasarkan julat nilai kepekatan N yang mencukupi iaitu antara 2.4%- 2.8%, maka dicadangkan julat nilai kepekatan S yang mencukupi adalah antara 0.16%-0.19%. Keputusan ini jelas menunjukkan bahawa status S adalah sangat rendah walaupun dinilai dengan menggunakan kepekatan kritikal S yang telah dilaraskan. Para penyelidik, ahli agronomi dan penanam sawit adalah digalakkan untuk memberi lebih perhatian terhadap bekalan S serta kepentingan penentuan status S dalam analisis daun. Sehingga nilai kritikal kepekatan S yang dicadangkan dapat disokong dengan data penyelidikan, maka disyorkan penggunaan baja mengandungi S di kawasan mengalami kekurangan S iaitu dengan nisbah 1:10 dari kadar penggunaan N. Terdapat beberapa baja yang mengandungi S yang boleh digunakan, ini termasuklah kieserit (MgSO4 . H2O) yang mudah diperoleh di pasaran serta mengandungi dua makronutrien yang diperlukan dengan jumlah yang sama bagi keperluan sawit.



Keyword(s): adequate range, critical concentration, oil palm, fertilisation, fertilisers, requirement, sulphur.

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No: 67 (November 2013) p1-4
Genetic Diversity of Commercial Oil Palm Seed Production Parents
Sri Wening*; Michael J Wilkinson**; Happyka Fillianti*; Jajan Djuhjana*; Brian P Forster‡; Stephen P C Nelson* and Peter D S Caligari‡

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Genetic Diversity of Commercial Oil Palm Seed Production Parents

A genetic diversity analysis was performed on 2039 dura seed palms and 25 pisifera pollen parents using eight Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers. The heterozygosity of the pisifera germplasm (mostly AVROS) was higher than the Deli dura seed palms. Variation was found in heterozygosity among the Deli dura progenies, selected for seed production. As expected, there was increased homozygosity in the dura material with each generation of selfing. Graphical genotyping was carried out to assist the genetic diversity analysis to identify candidate heterotic loci. In the screening of highly homozygous palms, there were 26 dura parental palms which were homozygous at 16 SSR marker loci used, which involved eight different unlinked markers in the first screening, followed by another eight different unlinked markers in the second screening.

Satu kajian mengenai keluasan genetik telah dijalankan ke atas 2039 pokok dura dan 25 pokok pisifera menggunakan lapan penanda molekul jujukan berulang ringkas (SSR). Kadar heterozigositi bagi germplasma pisifera (kebanyakannya adalah AVROS) didapati lebih tinggi berbanding pokok dura. Variasi juga telah didapati wujud dalam heterozigositi di antara progeni dura yang terpilih bagi penghasilan biji benih. Seperti jangkaan, kadar homozigositi bertambah dari generasi ke generasi bagi bahan tanaman kacukan sendiri dura. Gambaran genotip telah dibina bagi membantu analisis keluasan genetik dalam mengenalpasti lokus heterotik. Dalam imbasan ke atas pokok berhomozigositi tinggi, terdapat 26 induk dura yang homozigus pada 16 lokus penanda SSR yang digunakan, yang mana melibatkan lapan penanda tidak berkait yang berbeza pada imbasan pertama, diikuti dengan lapan lagi penanda yang tidak berkait dengan yang lain pada imbasan kedua



Keyword(s): oil palm, genetic diversity, SSR, graphical genotyping

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No: 66 (May 2013) p20-28
Innovative Machines for Compost Application in Oil Palm Plantations
Rahmat Kamisan*; Mohd Faiz Malik* and Mohd Rizal Rosslan*

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Innovative Machines for Compost Application in Oil Palm Plantations

The palm oil milling processes produce by-products or wastes in the form of empty fruit bunch (EFB) (23%), mesocarp fibres (12%), shell (5%), boiler ash, decanter cake, sludge and palm oil mill effluent (POME) (60%) for every tonne of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processed (Najafpour et al., 2005). These byproducts can be utilised as renewable resources with present technologies in harmony with the ecological system. Some examples of these renewable resources are biogas and biomass for the energy sector and composting for soil amelioration, in tandem with sustainable development for the oil palm industry.

Composting is indeed a viable means of converting oil palm organic wastes into organic fertilisers and soil conditioners that can be used safely and beneficially to supplement inorganic fertilisers. However, most producers encounter problems related to compost handling and applications, resulting in the extensive use of workers and the deployment of other conventional methods of applying compost in the plantation. Presently, getting workers to carry out harvesting of FFB is already a problem and will be compounded with compost production, handling and applications in the oil palm plantations.

Realising the imminent issues confronting compost application, Sime Darby Plantations has adopted various mechanisation application methods covering up to 35% of the targeted total compost production capacity. This article presents an overview of the various types of innovative machines used presently for the application of compost in Sime Darby plantations and their performances. The necessity to adopt various types of machines is simply to achieve larger coverage to accommodate the compost production volume and to effectively distribute the compost to the fields.

Proses pengilangan minyak sawit menghasilkan bahan sampingan atau buangan seperti buah tandan kosong (BTK) (23%), serat mesorkarpa (12%), tempurung (5%), abu dandang, kek dekanter, endapan dan efluen kilang minyak sawit (POME) (60%) bagi setiap tan buah tandan segar (BTS) yang diproses (Najafpour et al., 2005). Kesemua bahan sampingan ini boleh digunakan sebagai sumber boleh diperbaharui dengan teknologi masa kini seiring dengan sistem ekologi. Sebahagian daripada contoh sumber boleh diperbaharui adalah biogas dan biojisim untuk sektor tenaga dan kompos bagi penambahbaik tanah, selaras dengan pembangunan kelestarian untuk industri sawit. Pengkomposan adalah satu kaedah yang praktikal untuk mengubah bahan buangan organik sawit kepada baja organik dan perapi tanah yang selamat digunakan dan berfaedah sebagai tambahan kepada penggunaan baja inorganik. Namun, kebanyakan pengeluar menghadapi masalah berhubung dengan teknik mengendali dan mengaplikasi kompos, mengakibatkan penggunaan tenaga kerja yang ramai dan menggunapakai kaedah konvensional lain untuk mengaplikasi kompos di ladang. Pada masa kini, mendapatkan pekerja untuk menjalankan penuaian BTS merupakan satu masalah dan apatah lagi dengan adanya pengeluaran, kendalian dan aplikasi kompos di ladang.

Menyedari hakikat yang perlu ditangani mengenai pengaplikasian kompos, Sime Darby Plantations telah menggunakan pelbagai kaedah mekanisasi yang meliputi kawasan sehingga 35% keluasan yang disasarkan untuk kapasiti pengeluaran kompos. 

Artikel ini membentangkan pandangan menyeluruh pelbagai jentera inovatif yang  digunapakai masa kini untuk tujuan aplikasi kompos di Sime Darby Plantations serta prestasinya. Keperluan untuk mengguna pelbagai jentera adalah untuk mencapai keluasan yang besar untuk mengimbangi jumlah pengeluaran kompos serta pengagihan kompos yang berkesan di ladang.



Keyword(s): biomass, composting, soil conditioners, compost handling, mechanised methods.

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Article Info

No: 66 (May 2013) p13-19
Use of Palm Oil Products and By-products in Aquaculture Feeds for Tilapia - A Review
Nor Hassifi Shuib* and Wan Nooraida Wan Mohamed**

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Use of Palm Oil Products and By-products in Aquaculture Feeds for Tilapia - A Review

Fish oil has been widely used as one of the ingredients in the formulation of aquaculture feeds that provide source of energy and essential fatty acids. At present, the current global fish oil production has reached a maximum limit in supply and may not increase beyond current levels. As such, fish oil may be unable to meet the rapidly growing demands in aquafeed industry. Therefore, the aquafeed industry needs to find alternatives to fish oils. The expansion of oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries can offer a potential possibility and constant availability for fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. Large quantities of by-product from oil palm industry are generated during refining and milling activities and can also be utilised as alternatives feedstuffs in aquafeeds. The application of palm oil and its by-products for aquafeeds has generally shown encouraging results without negatively affecting growth performance, feed efficiency and reproductive performance of aquatic animal. As Malaysia is one of the biggest producers of palm oil, the use of palm oil-based products will offer a great opportunity and contribute to the development of cost-effective pelleted feeds for the aquaculture industry. Results obtained from studies conducted on the use of palm oil products and by-products in tilapia diets are reviewed.

Minyak ikan telah digunakan sebagai salah satu bahan dalam formulasi akuakultur yang membekalkan sumber tenaga dan asid lemak. Pada masa ini, pengeluaran minyak ikan global semasa telah mencapai had maksimum dan tidak akan meningkat melebihi paras semasa. Oleh itu, minyak ikan mungkin tidak dapat memenuhi permintaan akibat daripada pertumbuhan pesat dalam industri makanan akuatik. Oleh yang demikian, industri makanan akuatik perlu mencari alternatif untuk minyak ikan. Perkembangan penanaman sawit di Malaysia dan negara-negara tropika lain boleh menawarkan peluang yang berpotensi dan ketersediaan berterusan untuk penggantian minyak ikan dalam makanan akuatik. Selain itu, bahan sampingan daripada industri sawit yang dihasilkan dalam kuantiti yang besar semasa aktiviti penapisan dan pengilangan boleh digunakan sebagai bahan mentah alternatif dalam formulasi makanan akuatik. Secara amnya, penggunaan minyak sawit dan bahan sampingan industri sawit dalam makanan akuatik telah menunjukkan hasil yang memberangsangkan dari segi prestasi pertumbuhan, kecekapan makanan dan prestasi pembiakan bagi haiwan akuatik tanpa sebarang kesan negatif. Memandangkan Malaysia merupakan salah satu pengeluar terbesar minyak sawit, penggunaan produk berasaskan minyak sawit akan menawarkan peluang yang baik yang menyumbang kepada pembangunan makanan palet dalam industri akuakultur dengan kos yang efektif. Keputusan yang diperoleh daripada kajian yang dijalankan mengenai penggunaan produk minyak sawit dan bahan sampingan sawit dalam diet tilapia akan dibincangkan.



Keyword(s): aquafeed, fish oil, palm oil, tilapia

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No: 66 (May 2013) p8-12
Performance of SumBio Semi-clonal Progenies
Joko Handoko Hadi Prasetyo*; Baihaqi Sitepu*; Harry E Iswandar*; Jajan Djuhjana* and Stephen P C Nelson*

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Performance of SumBio Semi-clonal Progenies

The increasing world demand for palm oil has generated rapid growth in the oil palm industry throughout the humid tropics and particularly in Indonesia and Malaysia. Sumatra Bioscience (SumBio) is selecting semi-clonal crosses for potential commercial planting to achieve higher yields and greater uniformity. The greater uniformity is because it is realistic to plant a single semi-clonal cross in one block rather than a mixture of seedling progenies. The planting of blocks of semi-clonal progenies provides the opportunity to improve management (harvesting and upkeep operations) and agronomic practices (optimize fertiliser recommendations for specific semiclonal crosses). There is also potential to exploit genotype x environment interactions and to select specific semi-clonal crosses for planting in certain environments.

SumBio has used tissue culture protocols to clonally propagate dura palms for semi-clonal seed production. The resulting dura clones are field planted and crossed with provisionally selected pisifera (as male) to produce semi-clonal tenera (dura x pisifera) crosses. Semi-clonal planting material is new to Indonesia and allows the oil palm industry to gain value from the advances in oil palm tissue culture without the risk of flowering abnormality.

This article reports the results of a trial which compared the performance of progenies produced from a dura clone with dura seedling material. The dura seedling material used was coming from the selfings of the palm which had been cloned.

Peningkatan permintaan terhadap minyak sawit dunia telah menjana pertumbuhan yang pantas dalam industri sawit di sekitar kawasan tropika Sumatra Bioscience (SumBio) sedang membuat pemilihan kacukan semi-klonal untuk penanaman komersial bagi mencapai hasil yang lebih tinggi dan lebih sekata. Kesekataan yang tinggi adalah lebih bermakna untuk menanam kacukan semiklonal dalam satu blok berbanding gabungan beberapa progeni anak benih. Penanaman blok progeni semi-klonal memberi peluang untuk mempertingkatkan pengurusan (penuaian dan operasi penyelenggaraan) dan amalan agronomi (pengoptimuman pengesyoran baja untuk kacukan semi-klonal yang spesifik). Di samping itu, terdapat juga potensi untuk mengeksploitasi interaksi genotip x persekitaran dan memilih kacukan semi-klonal yang spesifik untuk penanaman di persekitaran tertentu.

SumBio telah mengguna protokol kultur tisu untuk membiak pokok dura secara tampang untuk menghasil biji benih semi-klonal. Klon dura yang dihasil ditanam di ladang dan dikacuk dengan pisifera terpilih (sebagai jantan) untuk menghasil kacukan tenera semi-klonal (dura x pisifera). Bahan tanaman semi-klonal adalah baru di Indonesia dan membolehkan industri sawit mendapat nilai tambah dari kemajuan kultur tisu tanpa risiko keabnormalan dalam pembungaan.

Artikel ini melaporkan keputusan daripada percubaan yang membandingkan prestasi progeny yang terhasil dari klon dura dengan bahan dari anak benih dura. Anak benih dura yang diguna diperoleh dari penyendirian pokok yang telah diklon.



Keyword(s): SumBio, oil palm, breeding, dura clones, semi-clonal seed

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Article Info

No: 66 (May 2013) p1-7
The Malaysian Palm Oil Board’s Experience in Managing Oil Palm Gene Sequences
Rozana Rosli; Kuang-Lim Chan; Ab Halim Mohd- Amin; Norazah Azizi; Nagappan Jayanthi; Faizun Kadri and Eng-Ti L Low

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The Malaysian Palm Oil Board’s Experience in Managing Oil Palm Gene Sequences

Oil palm was first introduced to South-east Asia in 1875 and has been grown for commercial purposes in Malaysia since 1917. To date, almost 60% of the country’s agricultural land is planted with oil palm, thus showing its importance to the Malaysian economy. There is a need to continuously improve yields to meet growing demand. However, improving oil palm productivity via conventional breeding is known to be a time-consuming task. As such, implementing genomics-guided breeding, deciphering the genome and mining the sequence information is useful. Data mining is an exciting research area in the field of bioinformatics, where the focus is to implement tools and techniques that allow for easy access to data. However, with the expansion of sequence data generated currently, this presents a formidable challenge. Therefore, it is imperative to have a system that is not only a data and information repository but also one that offers sophisticated and useful analytical tools.

Sawit mula diperkenalkan di Asia Tenggara pada tahun 1875 dan telah ditanam bagi tujuan komersial di Malaysia semenjak tahun 1917. Hampir 60% daripada kawasan pertanian Malaysia ditanam dengan sawit dan ini menunjukkan kepentingannya terhadap ekonomi negara. Oleh itu, usaha perlu diteruskan untuk meningkatkan penghasilan demi memenuhi permintaan yang kian bertambah. Walau bagaimanapun, penambahbaikan produktiviti pengeluaran sawit melalui pembiakbakaan konvensional merupakan satu tugas yang memakan masa. Untuk melaksanakan pembiakbakaan berpandukan genomik, pentafsiran jujukan genom dan eksploitasi maklumat jujukan ini amat berguna. Perlombongan data merupakan cabang kajian penyelidikan yang menarik dalam bidang bioinformatik di mana tumpuan adalah pada penggunaan peralatan perisian dan teknik untuk memudahkan pencapaian data. Walau bagaimanapun, peningkatan data yang dihasilkan pada masa kini telah memberikan satu cabaran yang besar. Oleh itu, dalam menangani kesemua cabaran, adalah penting untuk mempunyai sistem yang bukan hanya dapat menyimpan data dan maklumat tetapi juga menawarkan sistem perisian analisis yang terkini dan berguna.



Keyword(s): gene sequences, databases, data mining, bioinformatics

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Article Info

No: 65 (November 2012) p32-35
MPOB News
-

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MPOB News

 

  • Jelajah Janji Ditepati Programme
  • Palm Oil Familiarisation Programme
  • Closing and Certificate Presentations of the FarmMechanisation Operators’ Course
  • MPOB presented Oil Palm Replanting Cheque
  • Highlights of Confefences, Seminars, Meetings and Courses


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No: 65 (November 2012) p21-31
Protocol for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Peatlands in Malaysia
Mohd Haniff Harun

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Protocol for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Peatlands in Malaysia

Measurements of actual greenhouse gases (GHG) like CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from tropical peatlands in Malaysia are needed to understand the role of peatlands as carbon sequesters (sink) or source when establishing oil palm plantations on tropical peatland. Long-term eddy covariance (EC) measurements, together with carefully focused ecological measurements of meteorological and flux data, can potentially identify the relevant climatic factors and partition of the net GHG flux from the whole ecosystem into contributions from the various major components, and quantify the effects of climatic variations on seasonal and annual net uptake of CO2. Direct measurements of CO2 flux using the EC method involving air temperature, precipitation, windspeed, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), net radiation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) fluxes, sensible heat flux, latent heat and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), can define the magnitude of net CO2 fluxes and net ecosystem production on time scales ranging from hourly to seasonal, annual and inter-annual, for comparing intact and converted forest ecosystems into oil palm plantations. These observations are capable of elucidating the relationships between net CO2 sequestration and underlying environmental and ecosystem parameters, on time scales long enough to be highly relevant to climate issues. Therefore, the flux measurements provide unique fundamental mechanistic, process and environmental data for evaluating ecosystem models, and for assessing the role of terrestrial ecosystems in the global carbon balance. A sequence of actions are needed for a successful EC experimental set-up, data collection and processing, such as design of the experiment, implementation and data processing. A multidisciplinary, fully integrated and focused study team is needed for each site in order to obtain the full suite of observations, and to acquire an understanding of the underlying processes through the correct data collection, processing and interpretation. Some problems are anticipated during installation of an EC system on peatland, such as peat subsidence, varying peat depths and low bulk density as a result of the existence of a water table. The tower design should not obstruct air flow and affect the instruments’ sensors. The tower should be suitably placed at the study site so that the useful footprint from all winds is maximised. Instruments should be placed at a maximum height that still allows for a useful footprint. The maintenance plan should include periodic sensor cleaning and replacement, a calibration schedule, planned replacement of damaged cables and other repairs to the instrument system. Direct measurements of GHG such as CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from tropical peatlands in Malaysia can be done using the EC method, which must be supported by the chamber method to measure the influence of soil respiration on GHG emission and uptake rate from peatland converted to oil palm plantation. A suitable tower design with a strong tower foundation support can minimise damage to the study site. Together with a strict maintenance programme implemented during the duration of the study can ensure the successful collection of good data.

Pengukuran pelepasan gas rumah hijau (GHG) seperti CO2, CH4 dan N2O dari tanah gambut tropika di Malaysia perlu untuk memahami fungsi tanah gambut sebagai penyerap (penyimpan) atau pelepas karbon apabila ladang sawit dibangunkan di tanah gambut tersebut. Pengukuran jangka panjang sistem Eddy Covariance (EC) dengan pengukuran ekologi terperinci seperti data meteorologi dan data fluks, berpotensi untuk mengenal pasti faktor iklim yang penting serta agihan bersih GHG dari keseluruhan ekosistem kepada pelbagai bahagian penyumbang dan mengukur kesan kepelbagaian iklim terhadap pengambilan CO2 secara bermusim dan tahunan. Pengukuran secara terus fluks CO2 dengan menggunakan kaedah EC merangkumi suhu udara, hujan, kelajuan angin, defisit tekanan wap, radiasi net, radiasi aktif fotosintesis (PAR), fluks haba sensibel, haba laten dan pertukaran ekosistem CO2 net (NEE), boleh menentukan magnitude fluks bersih CO2 dan pengeluaran bersih ekosistem mengikut skala masa bermula dari jam ke musim, tahunan dan silih tahun, untuk membandingkan ekosistem hutan utuh dengan hutan yang telah dibangunkan sebagai ladang sawit. Pemerhatian ini mampu menjelaskan hubungan antara penyerapan bersih CO2 yang berasaskan persekitaran dan parameter ekosistem pada skala jangka masa panjang untuk mendapatkan data yang cukup untuk dikaitkan dengan isu perubahan iklim. Oleh itu, pengukuran fluks ini menyediakan maklumat asas yang unik bagi mekanisasi, proses dan persekitaran untuk menilai model ekosistem dan potensi ekosistem daratan dalam keseimbangan karbon dunia. Bagaimanapun, beberapa langkah perlu diambil untuk menjamin kejayaan menggunakan EC seperti pengumpulan dan pemprosesan data, reka bentuk eksperimen dan pelaksanaan data. Kepelbagaian disiplin yang bersepadu dan kumpulan kajian yang terperinci amat diperlukan bagi setiap tapak kajian untuk memenuhi kehendak pemerhatian penuh, pemahaman proses asas melalui pengumpulan, pemprosesan dan pentafsiran data yang betul. Sesetengah masalah yang dijangka semasa pemasangan sistem EC di tanah gambut, seperti penyusutan gambut, pelbagai kedalaman gambut dan ketumpatan pukal yang rendah akibat kewujudan air gambut. Reka bentuk menara tidak seharusnya menghalang aliran udara dan menjejaskan sensor peralatan. Menara harus diletak di tapak kajian yang sesuai supaya faktor daripada semua arah angin adalah dimaksimumkan. Peralatan harus diletak di had ketinggian yang maksimum untuk menggambarkan keadaan sebenar kawasan kajian. Pelan penyelenggaraan yang diperlukan termasuk pembersihan dan penggantian sensor, jadual kalibrasi, penggantian kabel yang rosak dan pembaikan lain untuk sistem peralatan. Pengukuran secara langsung GHG seperti fluks CO2, CH4 dan N2O dari tanah gambut tropika di Malaysia boleh dijalankan dengan menggunakan kaedah EC, dibantu oleh kaedah kebuk untuk mengukur pengaruh respirasi tanah terhadap pelepasan GHG dan kadar pengambilannya dari tanah gambut yang telah dibangunkan sebagai ladang sawit. Reka bentuk menara yang sesuai dengan sokongan asas menara yang kuat boleh meminimumkan kerosakan di tapak kajian manakala program penyelenggaraan yang dilaksanakan secara tegas sepanjang tempoh kajian boleh memastikan pengumpulan data yang baik.



Keyword(s): EDDY COVARIANCE (EC), GREENHOUSE GASES (GHG), NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE (NEE), CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2), METHANE (CH4).

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Article Info

No: 65 (November 2012) p12-20
Effects of Salinity on Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) Production and Oil-to-bunch Ratio of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Planted in Reclaimed Mangrove Swamp Areas in Sabah
Winner Henry* and Hoong Hak Wan*

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Abstract


Effects of Salinity on Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) Production and Oil-to-bunch Ratio of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Planted in Reclaimed Mangrove Swamp Areas in Sabah

The planting of oil palm was quite extensively carried out in the ex-mangrove swamp areas in Sabah before environmental and sustainability issues were taken into consideration in land development. This article examines the approach on reclamation and its weaknesses in two plantations: one in the Kunak district and the other in the Semporna district in the east coast of Sabah. The subsequent influx of sea water caused by tidal flooding and seepages through tide-gates and bunds, had significantly affected the performance of palms both in fresh fruit bunch (FFB) production and oil extraction rate. The distribution of areas affected by salinity above 5 m2 cm-1 was determined through soil surveys and mapping using ArcGIS. Based on the distribution, FFB yields for the last five years from the affected fields was found to be around 16.5 t ha-1 per annum and the normal areas was 23.5 t ha-1 per annum. The harvested bunches were randomly collected for fruit set and bunch analysis was carried out over a five-month period. The oil-to-bunch was found to be significantly affected by the salinity even in a situation where no difference in fruit set was observed. Oil-to-bunch ranging from 16.5%-18.7% was obtained from the saline areas when compared to the range of 22.2%-22.4% from the non-saline areas of the ex-mangrove areas. Besides the negative impact on the environment and ecology from the reclamation of mangrove swamps, a lower economic return was attained, due to the difficulties in ensuring that the intrusion of sea water would not occur.

 

Penanaman sawit di kawasan bekas paya bakau di Sabah telah dilaksanakan agak meluas sebelum isu alam sekitar dan kelestarian diambil kira dalam pembangunan tanah. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pendekatan ke atas penebusgunaan dan kelemahannya di dua ladang di pantai timur Sabah: satu terletak di daerah Kunak manakala satu lagi terletak di daerah Semporna. Kebanjiran air laut akibat banjir pasang surut dan penyusupan melalui pintu air pasang surut dan permatang telah menjejaskan prestasi pengeluaran buah tandan segar (BTS) dan kadar perahan minyak dengan ketara. Taburan kawasan yang terjejas akibat paras kemasinan melebihi 5 m2 cm-1 telah ditentukan melalui kaji selidik tanah dan pemetaan dengan menggunakan ArcGIS. Berdasarkan taburan kawasan, hasil BTS untuk tempoh lima tahun terakhir di kawasan terjejas adalah pada purata 16.5 t ha-1 thn-1 berbanding 23.5 t ha-1 thn-1 di kawasan normal. Dalam tempoh lima bulan, tandan yang dituai diambil secara rawak untuk menjalankan analisis komponen buah dan tandan. Kesan paras kemasinan telah menjejaskan nisbah minyak:tandan tetapi tiada perbezaan terhadap nisbah komponen buah. Di kawasan terjejas dengan air masin, nisbah minyak:tandan direkodkan pada kadar 16.5%-18.7% berbanding 22.2%-22.4% di kawasan normal. Selain daripada impak negative terhadap alam sekitar dan ekologi, penebusgunaan kawasan hutan paya bakau memberikan pulangan ekonomi yang lebih rendah kerana usaha menghalang penyusupan air laut ke dalam lading adalah sukar dan melibatkan kos yang tinggi.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM; FRESH FRUIT BUNCH(FFB); SALINITY; RECLAIMED MANGROVE SWAMP; OIL-TO-BUNCH RATIO

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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
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in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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