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No: 66 (May 2013) p13-19
Use of Palm Oil Products and By-products in Aquaculture Feeds for Tilapia - A Review
Nor Hassifi Shuib* and Wan Nooraida Wan Mohamed**

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Use of Palm Oil Products and By-products in Aquaculture Feeds for Tilapia - A Review

Fish oil has been widely used as one of the ingredients in the formulation of aquaculture feeds that provide source of energy and essential fatty acids. At present, the current global fish oil production has reached a maximum limit in supply and may not increase beyond current levels. As such, fish oil may be unable to meet the rapidly growing demands in aquafeed industry. Therefore, the aquafeed industry needs to find alternatives to fish oils. The expansion of oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries can offer a potential possibility and constant availability for fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. Large quantities of by-product from oil palm industry are generated during refining and milling activities and can also be utilised as alternatives feedstuffs in aquafeeds. The application of palm oil and its by-products for aquafeeds has generally shown encouraging results without negatively affecting growth performance, feed efficiency and reproductive performance of aquatic animal. As Malaysia is one of the biggest producers of palm oil, the use of palm oil-based products will offer a great opportunity and contribute to the development of cost-effective pelleted feeds for the aquaculture industry. Results obtained from studies conducted on the use of palm oil products and by-products in tilapia diets are reviewed.

Minyak ikan telah digunakan sebagai salah satu bahan dalam formulasi akuakultur yang membekalkan sumber tenaga dan asid lemak. Pada masa ini, pengeluaran minyak ikan global semasa telah mencapai had maksimum dan tidak akan meningkat melebihi paras semasa. Oleh itu, minyak ikan mungkin tidak dapat memenuhi permintaan akibat daripada pertumbuhan pesat dalam industri makanan akuatik. Oleh yang demikian, industri makanan akuatik perlu mencari alternatif untuk minyak ikan. Perkembangan penanaman sawit di Malaysia dan negara-negara tropika lain boleh menawarkan peluang yang berpotensi dan ketersediaan berterusan untuk penggantian minyak ikan dalam makanan akuatik. Selain itu, bahan sampingan daripada industri sawit yang dihasilkan dalam kuantiti yang besar semasa aktiviti penapisan dan pengilangan boleh digunakan sebagai bahan mentah alternatif dalam formulasi makanan akuatik. Secara amnya, penggunaan minyak sawit dan bahan sampingan industri sawit dalam makanan akuatik telah menunjukkan hasil yang memberangsangkan dari segi prestasi pertumbuhan, kecekapan makanan dan prestasi pembiakan bagi haiwan akuatik tanpa sebarang kesan negatif. Memandangkan Malaysia merupakan salah satu pengeluar terbesar minyak sawit, penggunaan produk berasaskan minyak sawit akan menawarkan peluang yang baik yang menyumbang kepada pembangunan makanan palet dalam industri akuakultur dengan kos yang efektif. Keputusan yang diperoleh daripada kajian yang dijalankan mengenai penggunaan produk minyak sawit dan bahan sampingan sawit dalam diet tilapia akan dibincangkan.



Keyword(s): aquafeed, fish oil, palm oil, tilapia

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No: 66 (May 2013) p8-12
Performance of SumBio Semi-clonal Progenies
Joko Handoko Hadi Prasetyo*; Baihaqi Sitepu*; Harry E Iswandar*; Jajan Djuhjana* and Stephen P C Nelson*

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Abstract


Performance of SumBio Semi-clonal Progenies

The increasing world demand for palm oil has generated rapid growth in the oil palm industry throughout the humid tropics and particularly in Indonesia and Malaysia. Sumatra Bioscience (SumBio) is selecting semi-clonal crosses for potential commercial planting to achieve higher yields and greater uniformity. The greater uniformity is because it is realistic to plant a single semi-clonal cross in one block rather than a mixture of seedling progenies. The planting of blocks of semi-clonal progenies provides the opportunity to improve management (harvesting and upkeep operations) and agronomic practices (optimize fertiliser recommendations for specific semiclonal crosses). There is also potential to exploit genotype x environment interactions and to select specific semi-clonal crosses for planting in certain environments.

SumBio has used tissue culture protocols to clonally propagate dura palms for semi-clonal seed production. The resulting dura clones are field planted and crossed with provisionally selected pisifera (as male) to produce semi-clonal tenera (dura x pisifera) crosses. Semi-clonal planting material is new to Indonesia and allows the oil palm industry to gain value from the advances in oil palm tissue culture without the risk of flowering abnormality.

This article reports the results of a trial which compared the performance of progenies produced from a dura clone with dura seedling material. The dura seedling material used was coming from the selfings of the palm which had been cloned.

Peningkatan permintaan terhadap minyak sawit dunia telah menjana pertumbuhan yang pantas dalam industri sawit di sekitar kawasan tropika Sumatra Bioscience (SumBio) sedang membuat pemilihan kacukan semi-klonal untuk penanaman komersial bagi mencapai hasil yang lebih tinggi dan lebih sekata. Kesekataan yang tinggi adalah lebih bermakna untuk menanam kacukan semiklonal dalam satu blok berbanding gabungan beberapa progeni anak benih. Penanaman blok progeni semi-klonal memberi peluang untuk mempertingkatkan pengurusan (penuaian dan operasi penyelenggaraan) dan amalan agronomi (pengoptimuman pengesyoran baja untuk kacukan semi-klonal yang spesifik). Di samping itu, terdapat juga potensi untuk mengeksploitasi interaksi genotip x persekitaran dan memilih kacukan semi-klonal yang spesifik untuk penanaman di persekitaran tertentu.

SumBio telah mengguna protokol kultur tisu untuk membiak pokok dura secara tampang untuk menghasil biji benih semi-klonal. Klon dura yang dihasil ditanam di ladang dan dikacuk dengan pisifera terpilih (sebagai jantan) untuk menghasil kacukan tenera semi-klonal (dura x pisifera). Bahan tanaman semi-klonal adalah baru di Indonesia dan membolehkan industri sawit mendapat nilai tambah dari kemajuan kultur tisu tanpa risiko keabnormalan dalam pembungaan.

Artikel ini melaporkan keputusan daripada percubaan yang membandingkan prestasi progeny yang terhasil dari klon dura dengan bahan dari anak benih dura. Anak benih dura yang diguna diperoleh dari penyendirian pokok yang telah diklon.



Keyword(s): SumBio, oil palm, breeding, dura clones, semi-clonal seed

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No: 66 (May 2013) p1-7
The Malaysian Palm Oil Board’s Experience in Managing Oil Palm Gene Sequences
Rozana Rosli; Kuang-Lim Chan; Ab Halim Mohd- Amin; Norazah Azizi; Nagappan Jayanthi; Faizun Kadri and Eng-Ti L Low

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Abstract


The Malaysian Palm Oil Board’s Experience in Managing Oil Palm Gene Sequences

Oil palm was first introduced to South-east Asia in 1875 and has been grown for commercial purposes in Malaysia since 1917. To date, almost 60% of the country’s agricultural land is planted with oil palm, thus showing its importance to the Malaysian economy. There is a need to continuously improve yields to meet growing demand. However, improving oil palm productivity via conventional breeding is known to be a time-consuming task. As such, implementing genomics-guided breeding, deciphering the genome and mining the sequence information is useful. Data mining is an exciting research area in the field of bioinformatics, where the focus is to implement tools and techniques that allow for easy access to data. However, with the expansion of sequence data generated currently, this presents a formidable challenge. Therefore, it is imperative to have a system that is not only a data and information repository but also one that offers sophisticated and useful analytical tools.

Sawit mula diperkenalkan di Asia Tenggara pada tahun 1875 dan telah ditanam bagi tujuan komersial di Malaysia semenjak tahun 1917. Hampir 60% daripada kawasan pertanian Malaysia ditanam dengan sawit dan ini menunjukkan kepentingannya terhadap ekonomi negara. Oleh itu, usaha perlu diteruskan untuk meningkatkan penghasilan demi memenuhi permintaan yang kian bertambah. Walau bagaimanapun, penambahbaikan produktiviti pengeluaran sawit melalui pembiakbakaan konvensional merupakan satu tugas yang memakan masa. Untuk melaksanakan pembiakbakaan berpandukan genomik, pentafsiran jujukan genom dan eksploitasi maklumat jujukan ini amat berguna. Perlombongan data merupakan cabang kajian penyelidikan yang menarik dalam bidang bioinformatik di mana tumpuan adalah pada penggunaan peralatan perisian dan teknik untuk memudahkan pencapaian data. Walau bagaimanapun, peningkatan data yang dihasilkan pada masa kini telah memberikan satu cabaran yang besar. Oleh itu, dalam menangani kesemua cabaran, adalah penting untuk mempunyai sistem yang bukan hanya dapat menyimpan data dan maklumat tetapi juga menawarkan sistem perisian analisis yang terkini dan berguna.



Keyword(s): gene sequences, databases, data mining, bioinformatics

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Article Info

No: 65 (November 2012) p32-35
MPOB News
-

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Abstract


MPOB News

 

  • Jelajah Janji Ditepati Programme
  • Palm Oil Familiarisation Programme
  • Closing and Certificate Presentations of the FarmMechanisation Operators’ Course
  • MPOB presented Oil Palm Replanting Cheque
  • Highlights of Confefences, Seminars, Meetings and Courses


Keyword(s):

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No: 65 (November 2012) p21-31
Protocol for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Peatlands in Malaysia
Mohd Haniff Harun

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Protocol for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Peatlands in Malaysia

Measurements of actual greenhouse gases (GHG) like CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from tropical peatlands in Malaysia are needed to understand the role of peatlands as carbon sequesters (sink) or source when establishing oil palm plantations on tropical peatland. Long-term eddy covariance (EC) measurements, together with carefully focused ecological measurements of meteorological and flux data, can potentially identify the relevant climatic factors and partition of the net GHG flux from the whole ecosystem into contributions from the various major components, and quantify the effects of climatic variations on seasonal and annual net uptake of CO2. Direct measurements of CO2 flux using the EC method involving air temperature, precipitation, windspeed, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), net radiation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) fluxes, sensible heat flux, latent heat and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), can define the magnitude of net CO2 fluxes and net ecosystem production on time scales ranging from hourly to seasonal, annual and inter-annual, for comparing intact and converted forest ecosystems into oil palm plantations. These observations are capable of elucidating the relationships between net CO2 sequestration and underlying environmental and ecosystem parameters, on time scales long enough to be highly relevant to climate issues. Therefore, the flux measurements provide unique fundamental mechanistic, process and environmental data for evaluating ecosystem models, and for assessing the role of terrestrial ecosystems in the global carbon balance. A sequence of actions are needed for a successful EC experimental set-up, data collection and processing, such as design of the experiment, implementation and data processing. A multidisciplinary, fully integrated and focused study team is needed for each site in order to obtain the full suite of observations, and to acquire an understanding of the underlying processes through the correct data collection, processing and interpretation. Some problems are anticipated during installation of an EC system on peatland, such as peat subsidence, varying peat depths and low bulk density as a result of the existence of a water table. The tower design should not obstruct air flow and affect the instruments’ sensors. The tower should be suitably placed at the study site so that the useful footprint from all winds is maximised. Instruments should be placed at a maximum height that still allows for a useful footprint. The maintenance plan should include periodic sensor cleaning and replacement, a calibration schedule, planned replacement of damaged cables and other repairs to the instrument system. Direct measurements of GHG such as CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from tropical peatlands in Malaysia can be done using the EC method, which must be supported by the chamber method to measure the influence of soil respiration on GHG emission and uptake rate from peatland converted to oil palm plantation. A suitable tower design with a strong tower foundation support can minimise damage to the study site. Together with a strict maintenance programme implemented during the duration of the study can ensure the successful collection of good data.

Pengukuran pelepasan gas rumah hijau (GHG) seperti CO2, CH4 dan N2O dari tanah gambut tropika di Malaysia perlu untuk memahami fungsi tanah gambut sebagai penyerap (penyimpan) atau pelepas karbon apabila ladang sawit dibangunkan di tanah gambut tersebut. Pengukuran jangka panjang sistem Eddy Covariance (EC) dengan pengukuran ekologi terperinci seperti data meteorologi dan data fluks, berpotensi untuk mengenal pasti faktor iklim yang penting serta agihan bersih GHG dari keseluruhan ekosistem kepada pelbagai bahagian penyumbang dan mengukur kesan kepelbagaian iklim terhadap pengambilan CO2 secara bermusim dan tahunan. Pengukuran secara terus fluks CO2 dengan menggunakan kaedah EC merangkumi suhu udara, hujan, kelajuan angin, defisit tekanan wap, radiasi net, radiasi aktif fotosintesis (PAR), fluks haba sensibel, haba laten dan pertukaran ekosistem CO2 net (NEE), boleh menentukan magnitude fluks bersih CO2 dan pengeluaran bersih ekosistem mengikut skala masa bermula dari jam ke musim, tahunan dan silih tahun, untuk membandingkan ekosistem hutan utuh dengan hutan yang telah dibangunkan sebagai ladang sawit. Pemerhatian ini mampu menjelaskan hubungan antara penyerapan bersih CO2 yang berasaskan persekitaran dan parameter ekosistem pada skala jangka masa panjang untuk mendapatkan data yang cukup untuk dikaitkan dengan isu perubahan iklim. Oleh itu, pengukuran fluks ini menyediakan maklumat asas yang unik bagi mekanisasi, proses dan persekitaran untuk menilai model ekosistem dan potensi ekosistem daratan dalam keseimbangan karbon dunia. Bagaimanapun, beberapa langkah perlu diambil untuk menjamin kejayaan menggunakan EC seperti pengumpulan dan pemprosesan data, reka bentuk eksperimen dan pelaksanaan data. Kepelbagaian disiplin yang bersepadu dan kumpulan kajian yang terperinci amat diperlukan bagi setiap tapak kajian untuk memenuhi kehendak pemerhatian penuh, pemahaman proses asas melalui pengumpulan, pemprosesan dan pentafsiran data yang betul. Sesetengah masalah yang dijangka semasa pemasangan sistem EC di tanah gambut, seperti penyusutan gambut, pelbagai kedalaman gambut dan ketumpatan pukal yang rendah akibat kewujudan air gambut. Reka bentuk menara tidak seharusnya menghalang aliran udara dan menjejaskan sensor peralatan. Menara harus diletak di tapak kajian yang sesuai supaya faktor daripada semua arah angin adalah dimaksimumkan. Peralatan harus diletak di had ketinggian yang maksimum untuk menggambarkan keadaan sebenar kawasan kajian. Pelan penyelenggaraan yang diperlukan termasuk pembersihan dan penggantian sensor, jadual kalibrasi, penggantian kabel yang rosak dan pembaikan lain untuk sistem peralatan. Pengukuran secara langsung GHG seperti fluks CO2, CH4 dan N2O dari tanah gambut tropika di Malaysia boleh dijalankan dengan menggunakan kaedah EC, dibantu oleh kaedah kebuk untuk mengukur pengaruh respirasi tanah terhadap pelepasan GHG dan kadar pengambilannya dari tanah gambut yang telah dibangunkan sebagai ladang sawit. Reka bentuk menara yang sesuai dengan sokongan asas menara yang kuat boleh meminimumkan kerosakan di tapak kajian manakala program penyelenggaraan yang dilaksanakan secara tegas sepanjang tempoh kajian boleh memastikan pengumpulan data yang baik.



Keyword(s): EDDY COVARIANCE (EC), GREENHOUSE GASES (GHG), NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE (NEE), CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2), METHANE (CH4).

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No: 65 (November 2012) p12-20
Effects of Salinity on Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) Production and Oil-to-bunch Ratio of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Planted in Reclaimed Mangrove Swamp Areas in Sabah
Winner Henry* and Hoong Hak Wan*

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Effects of Salinity on Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) Production and Oil-to-bunch Ratio of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Planted in Reclaimed Mangrove Swamp Areas in Sabah

The planting of oil palm was quite extensively carried out in the ex-mangrove swamp areas in Sabah before environmental and sustainability issues were taken into consideration in land development. This article examines the approach on reclamation and its weaknesses in two plantations: one in the Kunak district and the other in the Semporna district in the east coast of Sabah. The subsequent influx of sea water caused by tidal flooding and seepages through tide-gates and bunds, had significantly affected the performance of palms both in fresh fruit bunch (FFB) production and oil extraction rate. The distribution of areas affected by salinity above 5 m2 cm-1 was determined through soil surveys and mapping using ArcGIS. Based on the distribution, FFB yields for the last five years from the affected fields was found to be around 16.5 t ha-1 per annum and the normal areas was 23.5 t ha-1 per annum. The harvested bunches were randomly collected for fruit set and bunch analysis was carried out over a five-month period. The oil-to-bunch was found to be significantly affected by the salinity even in a situation where no difference in fruit set was observed. Oil-to-bunch ranging from 16.5%-18.7% was obtained from the saline areas when compared to the range of 22.2%-22.4% from the non-saline areas of the ex-mangrove areas. Besides the negative impact on the environment and ecology from the reclamation of mangrove swamps, a lower economic return was attained, due to the difficulties in ensuring that the intrusion of sea water would not occur.

 

Penanaman sawit di kawasan bekas paya bakau di Sabah telah dilaksanakan agak meluas sebelum isu alam sekitar dan kelestarian diambil kira dalam pembangunan tanah. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pendekatan ke atas penebusgunaan dan kelemahannya di dua ladang di pantai timur Sabah: satu terletak di daerah Kunak manakala satu lagi terletak di daerah Semporna. Kebanjiran air laut akibat banjir pasang surut dan penyusupan melalui pintu air pasang surut dan permatang telah menjejaskan prestasi pengeluaran buah tandan segar (BTS) dan kadar perahan minyak dengan ketara. Taburan kawasan yang terjejas akibat paras kemasinan melebihi 5 m2 cm-1 telah ditentukan melalui kaji selidik tanah dan pemetaan dengan menggunakan ArcGIS. Berdasarkan taburan kawasan, hasil BTS untuk tempoh lima tahun terakhir di kawasan terjejas adalah pada purata 16.5 t ha-1 thn-1 berbanding 23.5 t ha-1 thn-1 di kawasan normal. Dalam tempoh lima bulan, tandan yang dituai diambil secara rawak untuk menjalankan analisis komponen buah dan tandan. Kesan paras kemasinan telah menjejaskan nisbah minyak:tandan tetapi tiada perbezaan terhadap nisbah komponen buah. Di kawasan terjejas dengan air masin, nisbah minyak:tandan direkodkan pada kadar 16.5%-18.7% berbanding 22.2%-22.4% di kawasan normal. Selain daripada impak negative terhadap alam sekitar dan ekologi, penebusgunaan kawasan hutan paya bakau memberikan pulangan ekonomi yang lebih rendah kerana usaha menghalang penyusupan air laut ke dalam lading adalah sukar dan melibatkan kos yang tinggi.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM; FRESH FRUIT BUNCH(FFB); SALINITY; RECLAIMED MANGROVE SWAMP; OIL-TO-BUNCH RATIO

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No: 65 (November 2012) p6-11
Comparison of the Effects of Different Types of P Fertiliser Applied to Oil Palm in Sumatra
M Mahadani Lubis*; Budi Martua Sitorus* and Foster, H L*

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Comparison of the Effects of Different Types of P Fertiliser Applied to Oil Palm in Sumatra

Application of P fertiliser is essential to achieve optimal oil palm yield production throughout Sumatra. Two trials were carried out in Sumatra, one in the north on a typical acid volcanic soil dominated by rhyolite and the other in the south on a representative acid volcanic/sedimentary soil dominated by dacite, to determine the most suitable P fertiliser type in these locations. The trials compared the effects of triple super phosphate (TSP), Egyptian rock phosphate (ERP), Christmas Island rock phosphate (CIRP) and China rock phosphate (CRP), which have soluble P contents in that order, in conjunction with two rates of muriate of potash (MOP).

As expected from its highly soluble P content, TSP increased leaf and rachis P more effectively than all the other rock phosphates tested in both trials. Thus, in the trial in the north, rock phosphate is required at a higher P2O5 rate to achieve the same yield. A similar optimal yield and rachis P level in this trial was obtained at 1.9 kg TSP (0.9 kg P2O5), 4.5 kg CIRP (1.4 kg P2O5) and 3.4 kg CRP (1.0 kg P2O5) per palm per year. However, because TSP generally costs more than twice the costs of rock phosphates, it is usually more economic to use the latter.

In the trial in the south, both CIRP and ERP were surprisingly found to be as effective as TSP in increasing yield when applied at the same P2O5 rate, despite having less effect on leaf and rachis P levels. The optimal yields in this trial were obtained with 2.7 kg TSP (1.2 kg P2O5), 6 kg CIRP (1.8 kg P2O5) and 3.6 kg ERP (1.0 kg P2O5) per palm per year. At typical fertiliser prices, ERP was the most economic and TSP the least economic. The reason for the poorer performance of TSP in this trial is explained by its depressive effect on leaf K, due to its higher soluble Ca content (although it has a lower Comparison of the Effects of Different Types of P Fertiliser Applied to Oil Palm in Sumatra total Ca content). ERP, in contrast to CIRP, did not depress leaf K and increased rachis P more due to its higher soluble P content, so was the more effective rock phosphate fertiliser. 

Although TSP is always more effective in increasing tissue P levels of oil palm, it is usually the poor choice as a P fertiliser due to its high cost and depressive effect on palm K status on soils low in reserve K (as in the south of Sumatra but not in the north). Any rock phosphate is usually a better choice than TSP and in these trials, ERP, which had a higher soluble P content, was the most effective and economic.

Aplikasi baja P penting untuk mencapai hasil pengeluaran sawit yang optimum di seluruh Sumatra. Dua kajian telah dijalankan di Sumatra, di bahagian utara di tanah asid gunung berapi biasa yang didominasi oleh riyolik (rhyolite) dan di tanah asid gunung berapi/tanah sedimentari di bahagian selatan yang didominasi oleh dasik (dacite), untuk menentukan jenis baja P yang paling sesuai di lokasi tersebut. Kajian ini membandingkan kesan penggunaan triple super phosphate (TSP), Egyptian rock phosphate (ERP), Christmas Island rock phosphate (CIRP) dan China rock phosphate (CRP), yang mempunyai kandungan P larut mengikut susunan dan kombinasi dengan dua kadar peletakan muriate of potash (MOP).
Seperti yang dijangka daripada kandungan P larut yang tinggi, TSP lebih berkesan meningkatkan kandungan P di daun dan rakis berbanding dengan rawatan batuan fosfat dalam dua kajian tersebut. Oleh itu, kajian di bahagian utara memerlukan batuan fosfat pada kadar P2O5 yang lebih tinggi untuk mencapai hasil yang sama. Hasil optimum dan tahap P rakis yang sama dalam kajian ini boleh diperoleh melalui penggunaan 1.9 kg TSP (0.9 kg P2O5), 4.5 kg CIRP (1.4 kg P2O5) dan 3.4 kg CRP (1.0 kg P2O5) per pokok setahun. Walau bagaimanapun, memandangkan kos TSP adalah lebih dua kali ganda daripada kos batuan fos fat, maka penggunaan batuan fosfat menjadi lebih ekonomik.

Dalam kajian di bahagian selatan, kesan CIRP dan ERP dalam meningkatkan hasil didapati sama seperti TSP apabila diaplikasi dengan kadar P2O5 yang sama, walaupun menunjukkan tahap kandungan P daun dan rakis adalah rendah. Hasil optimum dalam kajian ini diperoleh dengan penggunaan 2.7 kg TSP (1.2 kg P2O5), 6 kg CIRP (1.8 kg P2O5) dan 3.6 kg ERP (1.0 kg P2O5) per pokok setahun. Berdasarkan harga baja secara umum, penggunaan ERP adalah paling ekonomik manakala  penggunaan TSP adalah sebaliknya. Punca kurang dengan kesan tekanan pada K daun, akibat kandungan Ca larut yang tinggi (walaupun mempunyai jumlah kandungan Ca yang rendah). Berbeza dengan CIRP, ERP tidak menimbulkan tekanan pada K daun tetapi lebih meningkatkan P rakis kerana kandungan P larut yang lebih tinggi, maka bertindak sebagai baja batuan fosfat yang lebih berkesan. 

Walaupun TSP sentiasa didapati lebih berkesan dalam meningkatkan tahap P tisu sawit, namum ia tidak merupakan pilihan yang tepat sebagai baja P berikutan kos yang tinggi dan kesan tekanan pada K daun di tanah di mana kandungan K adalah rendah (seperti di selatan Sumatra tetapi tidak di kawasan utara). Sebarang batuan fosfat biasanya lebih berkesan berbanding dengan TSP dan dalam kajian ini, ERP yang mengandungi kandungan P larut yang paling tinggi, merupakan pilihan yang lebih berkesan dan ekonomik.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM; ROCK PHOSPHATE; SUPERPHOSPHATE, P FERTILIZER; PROFITABILITY; ANTAGONISTIC

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No: 65 (November 2012) p1-5
Homozygosity of Parental Palms Used in Single Seed Descent Programmes
Sri Wening*; Happyka Fillianti*; Joko H H Prasetyo*; Brian P Forster**; Stephen P C Nelson* and Peter D S Caligari ‡

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Homozygosity of Parental Palms Used in Single Seed Descent Programmes

Recurrent cycles of inbreeding (self or sib crosses) have been commonly used in conventional breeding to produce highly homozygous lines in a range of  crop species. Thirty-two Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were involved in assessing the homozygosity of 23 oil palm Single Seed Descent (SSD) programmes which involved 509 parents. From the complete genotype data, there were 21 dura parental palms which were assessed as more than 90% homozygous and only one tenera palm  which was more than 90% homozygous using 32 markers. The tenera palm was from Ekona breeding material (restricted origin) and from a self cross. Genotypic identification allows the prediction of palms and/or progenies which could be used to produce uniform commercial planting material and exploit heterosis. The homozygosity estimates were from a sample of 29 SSR markers (out of the 32 SSR markers used in this study) and were positively correlated (R2= 0.85; p0.001) with the results from a sample of 107 SSR markers. This strongly suggests that the sample of 32 SSR markers used in this study would provide a reliable estimate of hmozygosity.

 

Kitaran penginbredan secara berulang (penyendirian atau kacukan sib) telah biasa digunakan dalam biak baka konvensional untuk menghasilkan barisan amat homozigus untuk pelbagai spesies tanaman. Tiga puluh dua penanda Ulangan Jujukan Ringkas (SSR) telah digunakan untuk menilai kehomozigusan bagi 23 program Penurunan Biji Benih Tunggal (SSD) sawit yang melibatkan 509 induk. Dari data genotip yang lengkap, sebanyak 21 induk sawit dura telah dikenal pasti mempunyai peratusan homozigusiti melebihi 90% manakala hanya sebatang pokok tenera mempunyai peratusan yang sama berdasar penggunaan 32 penanda. Pokok tenera tersebut adalah daripada bahan biak baka Ekona (populasi biak baka sumber terhad) dan daripada kacukan penyendirian. Pengenalpastian genotip membolehkan ramalan terhadap pokok sawit dan/atau progeni yang boleh diguna untuk menghasilkan bahan tanaman komersial yang seragam serta mengeksploitasikan heterosis. Anggaran kehomozigusan daripada sampel melibatkan 29 penanda SSR (daripada 32 penanda SSR yang digunakan dalam kajian ini) dan menunjukkan korelasi positif (R2= 0.85; p<0.001) dengan keputusan daripada sampel yang melibatkan 107 penanda SSR. Keputusan ini mencadangkan bahawa sampel 32 penanda SSR yang digunakan dalam kajian ini berupaya memberikan anggaran yang boleh diterimapakai tentang homozigusan.



Keyword(s): SSR; SINGLE SEED DESCENT; OIL PALM; HOMOZYGOSITY

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Article Info

No: 64 (May 2012) p53-57
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

  • Launching of B5 Programme for the Central Region - Selangor
  • Anugerah Kualiti 2011 (Qualiy Awards 2011)
  • MPOB Annual Dinner
  • Launching of B5 for the Fisheries Sector, Central Region
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No: 64 (May 2012) p41-52
Food safety challenges in the Malaysian oil palm industry
TUAN FAUZAN Tuan Omar ; AINIE Kuntom ; MOHD MOKMIN Bahri

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Abstract


Food safety challenges in the Malaysian oil palm industry

The issue of food safety is a major concern in the oil palm industry. Consumers today are more knowledgeable and aware of the paramount importance of food safety with regard to food intake. Their demand for safe food is to ensure their food is free from any contamination and is healthy to consume. Palm oil products as one of the raw materials in food must address these food safety challenges. These products must fulfil the food laws, acts, regulations and standards enforced by the authorities at both national and international levels so that they are accepted as food ingredients. It is the responsibility of the Malaysian palm oil industry to ensure that the processes used or applied do not compromise the food safety of the palm oil products. MPOB has a role to monitor and ensure that palm oil products can indeed address these food safety requirements.


Isu berkaitan dengan keselamatan makanan mendapat perhatian utama pada masa sekarang. Kesedaran masyarakat terhadap isu ini semakin meningkat dan pengguna semakin mendesak dalam memastikan bahan makanan yang diambil adalah bebas daripada sebarang pencemaran. Produk sawit yang merupakan salah satu daripada bahan makanan juga menghadapi isu tersebut. Produk sawit yang dihasilkan oleh industri sawit Malaysia mesti mematuhi undang-undang, akta, peraturan dan piawai yang dikuatkuasa sama ada di dalam atau di luar negara supaya produk tersebut boleh diterima sebagai bahan makanan. MPOB sebagai entiti yang menjagaindustri sawit Malaysia bertanggungjawab dalam mengendalikan isu keselamatan makanan yang dihadapi oleh industri sawit. Penubuhan Unit Keselamatan Makanan dan Kod Amalan Persijilan telah meningkatkan lagi peranan MPOB dalam menguruskan isu tersebut secara lebih berkesan.


Keyword(s): OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; FOOD SAFETY ; PALM OIL PRODUCTS ; FSCC (FOOD SAFETY AND CODE OF PRACTICE CERTIFICATION UNIT), MPOB ; MPOB PUBLICATION

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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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