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No: 65 (November 2012) p21-31
Protocol for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Peatlands in Malaysia
Mohd Haniff Harun

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Protocol for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Peatlands in Malaysia

Measurements of actual greenhouse gases (GHG) like CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from tropical peatlands in Malaysia are needed to understand the role of peatlands as carbon sequesters (sink) or source when establishing oil palm plantations on tropical peatland. Long-term eddy covariance (EC) measurements, together with carefully focused ecological measurements of meteorological and flux data, can potentially identify the relevant climatic factors and partition of the net GHG flux from the whole ecosystem into contributions from the various major components, and quantify the effects of climatic variations on seasonal and annual net uptake of CO2. Direct measurements of CO2 flux using the EC method involving air temperature, precipitation, windspeed, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), net radiation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) fluxes, sensible heat flux, latent heat and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), can define the magnitude of net CO2 fluxes and net ecosystem production on time scales ranging from hourly to seasonal, annual and inter-annual, for comparing intact and converted forest ecosystems into oil palm plantations. These observations are capable of elucidating the relationships between net CO2 sequestration and underlying environmental and ecosystem parameters, on time scales long enough to be highly relevant to climate issues. Therefore, the flux measurements provide unique fundamental mechanistic, process and environmental data for evaluating ecosystem models, and for assessing the role of terrestrial ecosystems in the global carbon balance. A sequence of actions are needed for a successful EC experimental set-up, data collection and processing, such as design of the experiment, implementation and data processing. A multidisciplinary, fully integrated and focused study team is needed for each site in order to obtain the full suite of observations, and to acquire an understanding of the underlying processes through the correct data collection, processing and interpretation. Some problems are anticipated during installation of an EC system on peatland, such as peat subsidence, varying peat depths and low bulk density as a result of the existence of a water table. The tower design should not obstruct air flow and affect the instruments’ sensors. The tower should be suitably placed at the study site so that the useful footprint from all winds is maximised. Instruments should be placed at a maximum height that still allows for a useful footprint. The maintenance plan should include periodic sensor cleaning and replacement, a calibration schedule, planned replacement of damaged cables and other repairs to the instrument system. Direct measurements of GHG such as CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from tropical peatlands in Malaysia can be done using the EC method, which must be supported by the chamber method to measure the influence of soil respiration on GHG emission and uptake rate from peatland converted to oil palm plantation. A suitable tower design with a strong tower foundation support can minimise damage to the study site. Together with a strict maintenance programme implemented during the duration of the study can ensure the successful collection of good data.

Pengukuran pelepasan gas rumah hijau (GHG) seperti CO2, CH4 dan N2O dari tanah gambut tropika di Malaysia perlu untuk memahami fungsi tanah gambut sebagai penyerap (penyimpan) atau pelepas karbon apabila ladang sawit dibangunkan di tanah gambut tersebut. Pengukuran jangka panjang sistem Eddy Covariance (EC) dengan pengukuran ekologi terperinci seperti data meteorologi dan data fluks, berpotensi untuk mengenal pasti faktor iklim yang penting serta agihan bersih GHG dari keseluruhan ekosistem kepada pelbagai bahagian penyumbang dan mengukur kesan kepelbagaian iklim terhadap pengambilan CO2 secara bermusim dan tahunan. Pengukuran secara terus fluks CO2 dengan menggunakan kaedah EC merangkumi suhu udara, hujan, kelajuan angin, defisit tekanan wap, radiasi net, radiasi aktif fotosintesis (PAR), fluks haba sensibel, haba laten dan pertukaran ekosistem CO2 net (NEE), boleh menentukan magnitude fluks bersih CO2 dan pengeluaran bersih ekosistem mengikut skala masa bermula dari jam ke musim, tahunan dan silih tahun, untuk membandingkan ekosistem hutan utuh dengan hutan yang telah dibangunkan sebagai ladang sawit. Pemerhatian ini mampu menjelaskan hubungan antara penyerapan bersih CO2 yang berasaskan persekitaran dan parameter ekosistem pada skala jangka masa panjang untuk mendapatkan data yang cukup untuk dikaitkan dengan isu perubahan iklim. Oleh itu, pengukuran fluks ini menyediakan maklumat asas yang unik bagi mekanisasi, proses dan persekitaran untuk menilai model ekosistem dan potensi ekosistem daratan dalam keseimbangan karbon dunia. Bagaimanapun, beberapa langkah perlu diambil untuk menjamin kejayaan menggunakan EC seperti pengumpulan dan pemprosesan data, reka bentuk eksperimen dan pelaksanaan data. Kepelbagaian disiplin yang bersepadu dan kumpulan kajian yang terperinci amat diperlukan bagi setiap tapak kajian untuk memenuhi kehendak pemerhatian penuh, pemahaman proses asas melalui pengumpulan, pemprosesan dan pentafsiran data yang betul. Sesetengah masalah yang dijangka semasa pemasangan sistem EC di tanah gambut, seperti penyusutan gambut, pelbagai kedalaman gambut dan ketumpatan pukal yang rendah akibat kewujudan air gambut. Reka bentuk menara tidak seharusnya menghalang aliran udara dan menjejaskan sensor peralatan. Menara harus diletak di tapak kajian yang sesuai supaya faktor daripada semua arah angin adalah dimaksimumkan. Peralatan harus diletak di had ketinggian yang maksimum untuk menggambarkan keadaan sebenar kawasan kajian. Pelan penyelenggaraan yang diperlukan termasuk pembersihan dan penggantian sensor, jadual kalibrasi, penggantian kabel yang rosak dan pembaikan lain untuk sistem peralatan. Pengukuran secara langsung GHG seperti fluks CO2, CH4 dan N2O dari tanah gambut tropika di Malaysia boleh dijalankan dengan menggunakan kaedah EC, dibantu oleh kaedah kebuk untuk mengukur pengaruh respirasi tanah terhadap pelepasan GHG dan kadar pengambilannya dari tanah gambut yang telah dibangunkan sebagai ladang sawit. Reka bentuk menara yang sesuai dengan sokongan asas menara yang kuat boleh meminimumkan kerosakan di tapak kajian manakala program penyelenggaraan yang dilaksanakan secara tegas sepanjang tempoh kajian boleh memastikan pengumpulan data yang baik.



Keyword(s): EDDY COVARIANCE (EC), GREENHOUSE GASES (GHG), NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE (NEE), CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2), METHANE (CH4).

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No: 65 (November 2012) p12-20
Effects of Salinity on Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) Production and Oil-to-bunch Ratio of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Planted in Reclaimed Mangrove Swamp Areas in Sabah
Winner Henry* and Hoong Hak Wan*

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Abstract


Effects of Salinity on Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) Production and Oil-to-bunch Ratio of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Planted in Reclaimed Mangrove Swamp Areas in Sabah

The planting of oil palm was quite extensively carried out in the ex-mangrove swamp areas in Sabah before environmental and sustainability issues were taken into consideration in land development. This article examines the approach on reclamation and its weaknesses in two plantations: one in the Kunak district and the other in the Semporna district in the east coast of Sabah. The subsequent influx of sea water caused by tidal flooding and seepages through tide-gates and bunds, had significantly affected the performance of palms both in fresh fruit bunch (FFB) production and oil extraction rate. The distribution of areas affected by salinity above 5 m2 cm-1 was determined through soil surveys and mapping using ArcGIS. Based on the distribution, FFB yields for the last five years from the affected fields was found to be around 16.5 t ha-1 per annum and the normal areas was 23.5 t ha-1 per annum. The harvested bunches were randomly collected for fruit set and bunch analysis was carried out over a five-month period. The oil-to-bunch was found to be significantly affected by the salinity even in a situation where no difference in fruit set was observed. Oil-to-bunch ranging from 16.5%-18.7% was obtained from the saline areas when compared to the range of 22.2%-22.4% from the non-saline areas of the ex-mangrove areas. Besides the negative impact on the environment and ecology from the reclamation of mangrove swamps, a lower economic return was attained, due to the difficulties in ensuring that the intrusion of sea water would not occur.

 

Penanaman sawit di kawasan bekas paya bakau di Sabah telah dilaksanakan agak meluas sebelum isu alam sekitar dan kelestarian diambil kira dalam pembangunan tanah. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pendekatan ke atas penebusgunaan dan kelemahannya di dua ladang di pantai timur Sabah: satu terletak di daerah Kunak manakala satu lagi terletak di daerah Semporna. Kebanjiran air laut akibat banjir pasang surut dan penyusupan melalui pintu air pasang surut dan permatang telah menjejaskan prestasi pengeluaran buah tandan segar (BTS) dan kadar perahan minyak dengan ketara. Taburan kawasan yang terjejas akibat paras kemasinan melebihi 5 m2 cm-1 telah ditentukan melalui kaji selidik tanah dan pemetaan dengan menggunakan ArcGIS. Berdasarkan taburan kawasan, hasil BTS untuk tempoh lima tahun terakhir di kawasan terjejas adalah pada purata 16.5 t ha-1 thn-1 berbanding 23.5 t ha-1 thn-1 di kawasan normal. Dalam tempoh lima bulan, tandan yang dituai diambil secara rawak untuk menjalankan analisis komponen buah dan tandan. Kesan paras kemasinan telah menjejaskan nisbah minyak:tandan tetapi tiada perbezaan terhadap nisbah komponen buah. Di kawasan terjejas dengan air masin, nisbah minyak:tandan direkodkan pada kadar 16.5%-18.7% berbanding 22.2%-22.4% di kawasan normal. Selain daripada impak negative terhadap alam sekitar dan ekologi, penebusgunaan kawasan hutan paya bakau memberikan pulangan ekonomi yang lebih rendah kerana usaha menghalang penyusupan air laut ke dalam lading adalah sukar dan melibatkan kos yang tinggi.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM; FRESH FRUIT BUNCH(FFB); SALINITY; RECLAIMED MANGROVE SWAMP; OIL-TO-BUNCH RATIO

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No: 65 (November 2012) p6-11
Comparison of the Effects of Different Types of P Fertiliser Applied to Oil Palm in Sumatra
M Mahadani Lubis*; Budi Martua Sitorus* and Foster, H L*

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Abstract


Comparison of the Effects of Different Types of P Fertiliser Applied to Oil Palm in Sumatra

Application of P fertiliser is essential to achieve optimal oil palm yield production throughout Sumatra. Two trials were carried out in Sumatra, one in the north on a typical acid volcanic soil dominated by rhyolite and the other in the south on a representative acid volcanic/sedimentary soil dominated by dacite, to determine the most suitable P fertiliser type in these locations. The trials compared the effects of triple super phosphate (TSP), Egyptian rock phosphate (ERP), Christmas Island rock phosphate (CIRP) and China rock phosphate (CRP), which have soluble P contents in that order, in conjunction with two rates of muriate of potash (MOP).

As expected from its highly soluble P content, TSP increased leaf and rachis P more effectively than all the other rock phosphates tested in both trials. Thus, in the trial in the north, rock phosphate is required at a higher P2O5 rate to achieve the same yield. A similar optimal yield and rachis P level in this trial was obtained at 1.9 kg TSP (0.9 kg P2O5), 4.5 kg CIRP (1.4 kg P2O5) and 3.4 kg CRP (1.0 kg P2O5) per palm per year. However, because TSP generally costs more than twice the costs of rock phosphates, it is usually more economic to use the latter.

In the trial in the south, both CIRP and ERP were surprisingly found to be as effective as TSP in increasing yield when applied at the same P2O5 rate, despite having less effect on leaf and rachis P levels. The optimal yields in this trial were obtained with 2.7 kg TSP (1.2 kg P2O5), 6 kg CIRP (1.8 kg P2O5) and 3.6 kg ERP (1.0 kg P2O5) per palm per year. At typical fertiliser prices, ERP was the most economic and TSP the least economic. The reason for the poorer performance of TSP in this trial is explained by its depressive effect on leaf K, due to its higher soluble Ca content (although it has a lower Comparison of the Effects of Different Types of P Fertiliser Applied to Oil Palm in Sumatra total Ca content). ERP, in contrast to CIRP, did not depress leaf K and increased rachis P more due to its higher soluble P content, so was the more effective rock phosphate fertiliser. 

Although TSP is always more effective in increasing tissue P levels of oil palm, it is usually the poor choice as a P fertiliser due to its high cost and depressive effect on palm K status on soils low in reserve K (as in the south of Sumatra but not in the north). Any rock phosphate is usually a better choice than TSP and in these trials, ERP, which had a higher soluble P content, was the most effective and economic.

Aplikasi baja P penting untuk mencapai hasil pengeluaran sawit yang optimum di seluruh Sumatra. Dua kajian telah dijalankan di Sumatra, di bahagian utara di tanah asid gunung berapi biasa yang didominasi oleh riyolik (rhyolite) dan di tanah asid gunung berapi/tanah sedimentari di bahagian selatan yang didominasi oleh dasik (dacite), untuk menentukan jenis baja P yang paling sesuai di lokasi tersebut. Kajian ini membandingkan kesan penggunaan triple super phosphate (TSP), Egyptian rock phosphate (ERP), Christmas Island rock phosphate (CIRP) dan China rock phosphate (CRP), yang mempunyai kandungan P larut mengikut susunan dan kombinasi dengan dua kadar peletakan muriate of potash (MOP).
Seperti yang dijangka daripada kandungan P larut yang tinggi, TSP lebih berkesan meningkatkan kandungan P di daun dan rakis berbanding dengan rawatan batuan fosfat dalam dua kajian tersebut. Oleh itu, kajian di bahagian utara memerlukan batuan fosfat pada kadar P2O5 yang lebih tinggi untuk mencapai hasil yang sama. Hasil optimum dan tahap P rakis yang sama dalam kajian ini boleh diperoleh melalui penggunaan 1.9 kg TSP (0.9 kg P2O5), 4.5 kg CIRP (1.4 kg P2O5) dan 3.4 kg CRP (1.0 kg P2O5) per pokok setahun. Walau bagaimanapun, memandangkan kos TSP adalah lebih dua kali ganda daripada kos batuan fos fat, maka penggunaan batuan fosfat menjadi lebih ekonomik.

Dalam kajian di bahagian selatan, kesan CIRP dan ERP dalam meningkatkan hasil didapati sama seperti TSP apabila diaplikasi dengan kadar P2O5 yang sama, walaupun menunjukkan tahap kandungan P daun dan rakis adalah rendah. Hasil optimum dalam kajian ini diperoleh dengan penggunaan 2.7 kg TSP (1.2 kg P2O5), 6 kg CIRP (1.8 kg P2O5) dan 3.6 kg ERP (1.0 kg P2O5) per pokok setahun. Berdasarkan harga baja secara umum, penggunaan ERP adalah paling ekonomik manakala  penggunaan TSP adalah sebaliknya. Punca kurang dengan kesan tekanan pada K daun, akibat kandungan Ca larut yang tinggi (walaupun mempunyai jumlah kandungan Ca yang rendah). Berbeza dengan CIRP, ERP tidak menimbulkan tekanan pada K daun tetapi lebih meningkatkan P rakis kerana kandungan P larut yang lebih tinggi, maka bertindak sebagai baja batuan fosfat yang lebih berkesan. 

Walaupun TSP sentiasa didapati lebih berkesan dalam meningkatkan tahap P tisu sawit, namum ia tidak merupakan pilihan yang tepat sebagai baja P berikutan kos yang tinggi dan kesan tekanan pada K daun di tanah di mana kandungan K adalah rendah (seperti di selatan Sumatra tetapi tidak di kawasan utara). Sebarang batuan fosfat biasanya lebih berkesan berbanding dengan TSP dan dalam kajian ini, ERP yang mengandungi kandungan P larut yang paling tinggi, merupakan pilihan yang lebih berkesan dan ekonomik.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM; ROCK PHOSPHATE; SUPERPHOSPHATE, P FERTILIZER; PROFITABILITY; ANTAGONISTIC

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No: 65 (November 2012) p1-5
Homozygosity of Parental Palms Used in Single Seed Descent Programmes
Sri Wening*; Happyka Fillianti*; Joko H H Prasetyo*; Brian P Forster**; Stephen P C Nelson* and Peter D S Caligari ‡

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Abstract


Homozygosity of Parental Palms Used in Single Seed Descent Programmes

Recurrent cycles of inbreeding (self or sib crosses) have been commonly used in conventional breeding to produce highly homozygous lines in a range of  crop species. Thirty-two Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were involved in assessing the homozygosity of 23 oil palm Single Seed Descent (SSD) programmes which involved 509 parents. From the complete genotype data, there were 21 dura parental palms which were assessed as more than 90% homozygous and only one tenera palm  which was more than 90% homozygous using 32 markers. The tenera palm was from Ekona breeding material (restricted origin) and from a self cross. Genotypic identification allows the prediction of palms and/or progenies which could be used to produce uniform commercial planting material and exploit heterosis. The homozygosity estimates were from a sample of 29 SSR markers (out of the 32 SSR markers used in this study) and were positively correlated (R2= 0.85; p0.001) with the results from a sample of 107 SSR markers. This strongly suggests that the sample of 32 SSR markers used in this study would provide a reliable estimate of hmozygosity.

 

Kitaran penginbredan secara berulang (penyendirian atau kacukan sib) telah biasa digunakan dalam biak baka konvensional untuk menghasilkan barisan amat homozigus untuk pelbagai spesies tanaman. Tiga puluh dua penanda Ulangan Jujukan Ringkas (SSR) telah digunakan untuk menilai kehomozigusan bagi 23 program Penurunan Biji Benih Tunggal (SSD) sawit yang melibatkan 509 induk. Dari data genotip yang lengkap, sebanyak 21 induk sawit dura telah dikenal pasti mempunyai peratusan homozigusiti melebihi 90% manakala hanya sebatang pokok tenera mempunyai peratusan yang sama berdasar penggunaan 32 penanda. Pokok tenera tersebut adalah daripada bahan biak baka Ekona (populasi biak baka sumber terhad) dan daripada kacukan penyendirian. Pengenalpastian genotip membolehkan ramalan terhadap pokok sawit dan/atau progeni yang boleh diguna untuk menghasilkan bahan tanaman komersial yang seragam serta mengeksploitasikan heterosis. Anggaran kehomozigusan daripada sampel melibatkan 29 penanda SSR (daripada 32 penanda SSR yang digunakan dalam kajian ini) dan menunjukkan korelasi positif (R2= 0.85; p<0.001) dengan keputusan daripada sampel yang melibatkan 107 penanda SSR. Keputusan ini mencadangkan bahawa sampel 32 penanda SSR yang digunakan dalam kajian ini berupaya memberikan anggaran yang boleh diterimapakai tentang homozigusan.



Keyword(s): SSR; SINGLE SEED DESCENT; OIL PALM; HOMOZYGOSITY

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Article Info

No: 64 (May 2012) p53-57
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

  • Launching of B5 Programme for the Central Region - Selangor
  • Anugerah Kualiti 2011 (Qualiy Awards 2011)
  • MPOB Annual Dinner
  • Launching of B5 for the Fisheries Sector, Central Region
  • MPOB Presented Oil Palm Replanting Scheme Cheque
  • ...


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No: 64 (May 2012) p41-52
Food safety challenges in the Malaysian oil palm industry
TUAN FAUZAN Tuan Omar ; AINIE Kuntom ; MOHD MOKMIN Bahri

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Food safety challenges in the Malaysian oil palm industry

The issue of food safety is a major concern in the oil palm industry. Consumers today are more knowledgeable and aware of the paramount importance of food safety with regard to food intake. Their demand for safe food is to ensure their food is free from any contamination and is healthy to consume. Palm oil products as one of the raw materials in food must address these food safety challenges. These products must fulfil the food laws, acts, regulations and standards enforced by the authorities at both national and international levels so that they are accepted as food ingredients. It is the responsibility of the Malaysian palm oil industry to ensure that the processes used or applied do not compromise the food safety of the palm oil products. MPOB has a role to monitor and ensure that palm oil products can indeed address these food safety requirements.


Isu berkaitan dengan keselamatan makanan mendapat perhatian utama pada masa sekarang. Kesedaran masyarakat terhadap isu ini semakin meningkat dan pengguna semakin mendesak dalam memastikan bahan makanan yang diambil adalah bebas daripada sebarang pencemaran. Produk sawit yang merupakan salah satu daripada bahan makanan juga menghadapi isu tersebut. Produk sawit yang dihasilkan oleh industri sawit Malaysia mesti mematuhi undang-undang, akta, peraturan dan piawai yang dikuatkuasa sama ada di dalam atau di luar negara supaya produk tersebut boleh diterima sebagai bahan makanan. MPOB sebagai entiti yang menjagaindustri sawit Malaysia bertanggungjawab dalam mengendalikan isu keselamatan makanan yang dihadapi oleh industri sawit. Penubuhan Unit Keselamatan Makanan dan Kod Amalan Persijilan telah meningkatkan lagi peranan MPOB dalam menguruskan isu tersebut secara lebih berkesan.


Keyword(s): OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; FOOD SAFETY ; PALM OIL PRODUCTS ; FSCC (FOOD SAFETY AND CODE OF PRACTICE CERTIFICATION UNIT), MPOB ; MPOB PUBLICATION

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No: 64 (May 2012) p29-40
Pathogen interaction: towards understanding and controling basal stem rot in oil palm
NOOR AZMI Shaharuddin ** ; MOHAMAD ARIF Abd Manaf *

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Pathogen interaction: towards understanding and controling basal stem rot in oil palm

Ganoderma boninense has been identified as a ‘white rot’ pathogen that causes basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm. In spite of numerous reports on the severity of BSR and its effect on the oil palm industry, no single treatment has effectively tackled the problem. Most control measures have to date continued to give variable and inconsistent results. The current major drawback in combating BSR in oil palm is the lack of sufficient information on the defining mode of action of the fungus and its relationship with oil palm. To gain a deeper insight into the Ganoderma-oil palm interaction, we review here some of the current knowledge in both the physical infection process and the molecular consequences, with reference to general interactions of other pathogenic species towards their host plants.


Ganoderma boninense telah dikenal pasti sebagai patogen ‘reput putih’ yang menyebabkan penyakit reput pangkal batang (RPB) sawit. Walaupun banyak laporan mengenai kemudaratan RPB dan kesannya pada industri sawit, namun tiada rawatan tunggal yang berkesan boleh menangani masalah tersebut. Kebanyakan langkah kawalan yang telah dilaksanakan kini tidak memberi keputusan yang konsisten. Kelemahan utama dalam memerangi RPB ialah kekurangan maklumat lengkap mengenai proses interaksi antara kulat patogen tersebut dan sawit. Untuk mendapatkan gambaran yang lebih menyeluruh, artikel ini mengupas secara terperinci proses fizikal dan molekular yang berlaku semasa infeksi, disulam dengan rujukan terhadap interaksi spesis patogenik yang lain.


Keyword(s): OIL PALM ; BASAL STEM ROT ; GANODERMA BONINENSE ; OIL PALM DISEASE ; MPOB PUBLICATION

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No: 64 (May 2012) p13-28
Methods towaards establishing oil palm haploid technology
MARIA Madon * ; CLYDE, M.M. ** ; AHMAD TARMIZI Hashim * ; AHMAD RAFDHI, M.H. ** ; AHAMAD TAJUDDIN, A **

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Methods towaards establishing oil palm haploid technology

Screening for natural haploids by flow cytometry and chromosome counts on 518 culled tissue culture plantlets and 13 twin germinated seeds yielded no haploids. In anther culture experiments, anthers bearing pollen mother cells (PMC) at the uninucleate and tetrad stages were collected and stored at 4oC for one, two, four, six, eight, 10 and 12 days to bring about stress for callus induction. In these experiments, anthers from dura and tenera palms were cultured on two types of media, namely, the modified N6 and, Murashige and Skoog (MS) media. Observations were made based on the qualitative responses of the anthers, and MS medium was found to be more suitable as N6 took 28 weeks to induce any response from the anthers. For dura anthers, the most positive response was obtained from anthers containing uninucleate PMC after four and 10 days of cold pre-treatment while for anthers containing tetrad PMC, the best responses were obtained after eight days of cold pre-treatment when cultured on N6 media. When cultured on modified MS induction media, the best response percentages were obtained from dura anthers containing uninucleate PMC after eight days of cold pre-treatment while anthers containing tetrad PMC showed the best response after four days of cold pre-treatment. Tenera anthers containing tetrad PMC showed the best response after six days of cold pre-treatment when cultured on MS induction media. An experiment was also conducted to determine suitable sucrose levels (3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 15%) in modified MS media, and to observe the effect of orientation of the anthers bearing tetrad PMC (abaxial surface facing down or up) on callus induction response. It was observed that 3% sucrose and anthers cultured with the abaxial surface facing up are the most suitable conditions for oil palm anther culture. Microspore culture was carried out next as anther culture is very laborious. Various stress factors were used to induce the sporophytic pathway, these being: (1) cold shock, with male flowers incubated at 4oC for one and six days, (2) heat shock at 35°C, 38°C, 42°C and 46°C, (3) immersion of the flower buds in 0.3 M mannitol for one and six days, (4) combinations of 0.3 M mannitol with cold shock (at 4oC) and 0.3 M mannitol with heat shock (at 35oC) for one and six days, and finally (5) anti-tubulin pre-treatment of isolated microspores with 2.5 mg ml-1 colchicine or 50 ìg ml-1 oryzalin. These treatments were followedby culture in two types of media –modified MS media with 5 or 10 mg litre-1 NAA – at 27oC in the dark with continuous shaking. None of the stress factors was able to induce microspore embryogenesis in the oil palm microspores studied.

 

Penyaringan haploid sawit semula jadi telah dijalankan dengan menggunakan teknik sitometri aliran dan pengiraan kromosom ke atas 518 anak pokok kultur tisu sawit yang telah ditakai dan 13 biji benih cambah berkembar namun tiada haploid semula jadi ditemui. Untuk kajian kultur anter, anter yang mengandungi sel induk debunga (SID) pada peringkat uninukleat dan tetrad telah dieram pada suhu 4oC selama satu, dua, empat, enam, lapan, 10 dan 12 hari sebagai perlakuan tekanan bagi induksi kalus. Bagi kajian ini, anter dari dura dan tenera telah dikultur di atas dua jenis media iaitu media N6 dan Murashige dan Skoog (MS) yang telah diubah suai. Pencerapan telah dilakukan berdasarkan tindak balas kualitatif anter dan didapati media MS lebih bersesuaian kerana N6 mengambil masa 28 minggu untuk menghasilkan sebarang tindak balas. Bagi anter dura, tindak balas terbaik didapati daripada anter yang mengandungi SID peringkat uninukleat yang telah dieram selama empat dan 10 hari pada suhu 4oC manakala anter yang mengandungi SID peringkat tetrad, tindak balas terbaik didapati daripada anter yang telah dieram selama lapan hari pada suhu 4oC dan dikultur menggunakan media N6. Pengkulturan menggunakan media MS pula menunjukkan peratus tindak balas terbaik didapati daripada anter dura yang mengandungi SID peringkat uninukleat yang telah dieram selama lapan hari pada suhu sejuk manakala anter yang mengandungi SID tetrad menunjukkan tindak balas terbaik setelah pengeraman empat hari pada suhu sejuk. Anter tenera yang mengandungi SID peringkat tetrad menunjukkan tindak balas terbaik setelah enam hari pengeraman pada suhu sejuk dan dikultur atas media MS. Satu kajian juga dijalankan untuk mendapatkan tahap sukrosa yang sesuai (3%, 6%, 9%, 12% dan 15%) dalam media MS diubah suai dan juga orientasi anter (permukaan abaksial ke atas atau ke bawah) yang mengandungi SID peringkat tetrad ke atas respon induksi kalus. Peringkat sukrosa 3% dan anter yang dikultur dengan permukaan abaksial ke atas adalah yang paling sesuai untuk kultur anter sawit. Selanjutnya, kajian kultur mikrospora pula telah dilakukan memandangkan kajian kultur anter melibatkan langkah-langkah yang sukar dilakukan. Pelbagai faktor tekanan dilakukan untuk mengaruh laluan sporofitik mikrospora iaitu: (1) kejutan sejuk di mana bunga jantan telah dieram pada 4oC untuk satu dan enam hari, (2) kejutan haba pada 35oC, 38°C, 42°C dan 46°C, (3) pengeraman bunga jantan dalam larutan 0.3 M mannitol untuk satu dan enam hari, (4) kombinasi 0.3 M mannitol dengan kejutan sejuk (4oC) dan 0.3 M mannitol dengan kejutan haba (35oC) selama satu dan enam hari dan akhirnya (5) praperlakuan mikrospora dengan antitubulin 2.5 mg ml-1 kolkisin atau 50ìg ml-1 orizalin. Ini diikuti oleh pengkulturan didalam dua jenis media iaitu MS media dengan 5 atau 10 mg liter-1 NAA pada 27oC di dalam gelap dan dengan goyangan berterusan. Walau bagaimanapun, tiada faktor tekanan berjaya mendorong embriogenesis mikrospora sawit yang telah dikaji.


Keyword(s): OIL PALM ; BREEDING & GENETIC ; HYBRIDIZATION ; CHROMOSOME ; MPOB PUBLICATION

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No: 64 (May 2012) p1-12
Structure, roles, challenges and opportunities of the oil palm industry in Indonesia: the significance of oil palm smallholders
BAMBANG Dradjat

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Structure, roles, challenges and opportunities of the oil palm industry in Indonesia: the significance of oil palm smallholders

This article aims at: (1) to give wider and more in-depth information related to the structural development of the oil palm industry in Indonesia, (2) to explain the structure and socio-economic roles of the oil palm industry in Indonesia, (3) to explore the challenges encountered and emerging opportunities in recent and future development of the oil palm industry, and (4) to give emphasis to the future roles of the oil palm smallholders. A desk study was employed to search for previous findings and to gather other relevant information. The results show that the structure of the oil palm industry has changed historically since the era of colonialism. The traditional roles of the industry include various socio-economic contributions such as job opportunities, revenues for smallholders and oil palm companies, export earnings and tax revenue for the government, economic growth, and, more importantly poverty alleviation for the poor living in rural areas. Environment issues and social conflicts are among the challenges faced by the industry, whereas, the emerging issues relating to food, feed, fuel and fibre are among the opportunities potentially to be gained by the industry. Oil palm planting by smallholders to some extent has proven to contribute significantly to poverty alleviation as well as other socio-economic development. The smallholders are a part of the sustainable development of the oil palm industry. In response to the future dynamics of a strategic environment, there will be a need for an adjustment process in the Indonesian oil palm industry. While gaining from opportunities, the demands for social and environment protection should be internalized in the development of the oil palm industry. The development of smallholders should be part and parcel of the industry development otherwise the existing current issues will remain unchanged. The key to the implementation of sustainable development lies with the policies of the government of Indonesia towards sustainable development of the oil palm industry.

 

Artikel ini bertujuan untuk: (1) memberi maklumat yang lebih tepat dan mendalam mengenai struktur pembangunan industri sawit di Indonesia, (2) untuk menerangkan fungsi struktur dan sosio-ekonomi industri sawit di Indonesia, (3) untuk meneroka cabaran dan peluang baru yang bakal muncul pada masa kini dan akan datang dalam pembangunan industri sawit, dan (4) untuk memberi penekanan tentang kepentingan masa hadapan pekebun kecil sawit. Kajian dijalankan untuk mendapat maklumat tentang kajian yang dijalankan dahulu dan mengumpul maklumat yang berkaitan. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa struktur indusri sawit telah berubah dari segi sejarahnya sejak era kolonialisme. Peranan tradisi industri merangkumi pelbagai sumbangan sosio-ekonomi seperti peluang pekerjaan, keuntungan kepada pekebun kecil dan syarikat sawit, pendapatan daripada eksport dan keuntungan cukai kepada kerajaan, pertumbuhan ekonomi dan yang paling penting dapat mengurangkan kadar kemiskinan di kawasan luar bandar. Isu alam sekitar dan konflik sosial adalah antara cabaran yang dihadapi oleh industri, manakala, isu-isu baru berkaitan dengan makanan, bekalan makanan, bahan api dan fiber adalah antara isu-isu yang berpotensi untuk dikembangkan oleh industri. Penglibatan pekebun kecil dalam industri sawit telah terbukti menyumbang kepada pengurangan kadar kemiskinan seiring dengan pembangunan sosioekonomi yang lain. Pekebun kecil merupakan salah satu bahagian penting dalam pembangunan industri sawit mampan. Sebagai tindak balas terhadap mewujudkan strategi persekitaran yang dinamik, industri sawit di Indonesia pada masa hadapan, perlu melaksanakan proses pelarasan. Dalam memenuhi peluang ini, permintaan terhadap perlindungan sosial dan persekitaran perlu dihayati dalam pembangunan industri minyak sawit. Pembangunan pekebun kecil perlu menjadi sebahagian daripada pembangunan industri, jika tidak, isu-isu semasa yang sedia ada akan kekal tidak berubah. Kunci kepada pelaksanaan pembangunan industri sawit mampan Indonesia bergantung pada dasar kerajaan Indonesia.


Keyword(s): OIL PALM & PALM OIL INDUSTRY-Indonesia ; SMALLHOLDERS ; OIL PALM -Cultivation ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 63 (November 2011) p43-51
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

  • Briefing on the Oil Palm Industry and NKEA of the Palm Oil Sector
  • Dialogue between MPOB Chairman and Smallholders
  • Licensing of Palm Oil Transporters
  • Launching of Pusat Latihan Sawit Malaysia (PLASMA), Keratong
  • ...


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