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LIST OF ARTICLES

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No: 63 (November 2011) p33-42
Palm-based polyols and polyurethanes: two decades of experience
HAZIMAH Abu Hassan * ; KOSHEELA DEVI, Poo Palam. * ; TUAN NOOR MAZNEE TUAN iSMAIL * ; MOHD. NORHISHAM Sattar * ; HOONG Seng Soi * ; YEONG, S.K. * ; SALMIAH Ahmad + ; OOI Tian Lye #

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Palm-based polyols and polyurethanes: two decades of experience

Emerging technological knowledge is leading into new ventures. One such of these is the conversion of vegetable oils to polymers to augment the use of petroleum products as the source of polymeric raw materials. Vegetable oils, such as palm oil and soyabean oil, now mainly used in the food industry, could offer alternative applications for the industry. Recent works have studied new routes for the synthesis of polymers from natural oils. These polymers are considered excellent renewable sources of raw materials for the manufacture of polyurethane (PU) components with hydroxyl groups. In addition, the transformations of double bonds of triglycerides to hydroxyls and their application in PU have been the subject of many studies. The Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) started producing polyols from palm oil in the early 1990s. However, the early methods of preparing polyols from the vegetable oils suffer from certain drawbacks. The polyols were very viscous and of high acidity. The viscosity affects process parameters during production of PU foams and the acidity would influence the overall formulation’s performance. Furthermore, many conventional methods of preparing polyols from vegetable oils do not produce polyols having a significant content of hydroxyl groups and with desirable viscosity. After gaining two decades of experience, MPOB is now in a better position to offer improved versions of palm-based polyols and they are suitable for various applications in the PU industry. This article discusses MPOB’s experiences in the past decades in exploiting biopolyols from palm oil.

Ilmu pengetahuan berasaskan teknologi akan sentiasa menerajui bidang penyelidikan ke era baru. Salah satu daripadanya ialah penggunaan minyak sayuran untuk menghasilkan polimer bagi memperluaskan sumber bahan asas polimer yang biasanya dihasilkan daripada bahan petroleum. Kini, minyak sayuran seperti minyak sawit dan minyak kacang soya yang biasanya digunakan dalam produk makanan merupakan alternative untuk mensintesis polimer daripada minyak asli berasaskan minyak sayuran. Ia dianggap sebagai sumber yang boleh diperbaharui dan terbaik untuk penghasilan komponen poliuretana (PU) dengan kehadiran kumpulan berfungsi hidroksil. Transformasi ikatan dubel dalam trigliserida kepada kumpulan berfungsi hidroksil dan penggunaannya dalam bidang PU telah menjadi tumpuan kajian masa kini. Lembaga Minyak Sawit Malaysia (MPOB) mula menerajui penghasilan poliol daripada minyak sawit pada awal tahun 1990-an. Keasidan yang tinggi boleh mempengaruhi pengeluaran poliol tersebut. Walau bagaimanapun, selepas dua dekad menimba pengalaman, kini MPOB bersedia menawarkan versi terkini poliol berasaskan sawit yang telah diperbaiki dengan pelbagai ciri-ciri yang dapat memenuhi keperluan industri PU dengan lebih meluas. Artikel ini membincangkan pengalaman MPOB selama dua dekad dalam membangunkan bio-poliol daripada minyak sawit.


Keyword(s): POLYOLS ; POLYURETHANES ; OLEOCHEMICALS ; FATTY ACID ; MPOB VIVA COMMITTEE MEETING ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 63 (November 2011) p24-32
Pest management of bagworm in Southern Perak by aerial spraying with bacillus thuringiensis
MOHD MAZMIRA Mohd Masri ; SITI RAMLAH Ahmad Ali ; NAJIB, M.A. ; NORMAN Kamaruddin ; AHMAD KUSHAIRI Din ; MOHD BASRI Wahid

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Pest management of bagworm in Southern Perak by aerial spraying with bacillus thuringiensis

Aerial spraying with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) product in Estate A resulted in 50% reduction of the Pteroma pendula population by 30 days after treatment (DAT). In Estate B, the bagworm population was completely under control whilst at Estate C, bagworm larval instars decreased by 90% from 0 to 30 DAT. The Bt aerial spray successfully reduced the bagworm population below the threshold of five bagworms per frond in Estates A and B. In Estate C which had a heavy and extensive outbreak, application of the Bt product successfully reduced the bagworm population but the period of application would have to be extended to bring the population below the threshold level. Implementation of the integrated pest management (IPM) system contributed to the successful control of bagworm outbreaks. The aerial spray using Bt had a synergistic effect with beneficial insects in the presence of beneficial plants, and provides longterm control of the bagworm.

Selepas semburan udara, populasi ulat bungkus di Ladang A menurun sebanyak 50% daripada lima larva/pelepah 0 hari selepas rawatan (HSR) ke 2.5 larva/pelepah (30 HSR). Di Ladang B pula, populasi ulat bungkus telah dikawal sepenuhnya manakala di Ladang C, populasi ulat bungkus menurun sebanyak 90% dari 412 larva/pelepah (0 HSR) ke 40 larva/pelepah (30 HSR). Semburan udara Bt telah berjaya mengurangkan populasi ulat bungkus di bawah nilai ambang di Ladang A dan Ladang B, berbeza dengan Ladang C disebabkan serangan ulat bungkus yang amat serius di lading tersebut. Aplikasi susulan semburan udara Bt di Ladang C perlu dijalankan bagi mengurangkan populasi ulat bungkus di bawah nilai ambang iaitu 5 per pelepah. Amalan sistem pengurusan perosak bersepadu yang lestari juga menyumbang kepada kejayaan program semburan udara Bt. Gandingan yang serasi di antara tanaman berfaedah, serangga bermanfaat dan Bt memastikan kawalan jangka panjang dan mengelakkan serangan ulat bungkus berulang.



Keyword(s): BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ; BAGWORM ; PEST CONTROL ; FERTILISERS ; MPOB VIVA COMMITTEE MEETING ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 63 (November 2011) p11-23
Characterisation of oil palm trunks and their holocellulose fibres for the manufacture of industrial commodities
KAMARUDIN Hasan * ; JAMALUDIN Kasim + ; ANIS Mokhtar * ; ASTIMAR Abdul Aziz *

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Characterisation of oil palm trunks and their holocellulose fibres for the manufacture of industrial commodities

A total of 12 felled oil palm trunks (OPT) of tenera variety were obtained from the Sungei Kahang Estate owned by Sayong Plantation Sendirian Berhad, located between latitudes N2° 12’ 24” to N2° 12’ 55” and longitudes E103° 30’ 59”to E103° 31’ 05”. The physical and mechanical properties of OPT and their respective single holocellulose fibres, each taken at different bole heights were analysed by using various analytical techniques. Based on the results, variations in relation to the distance between the bole position gave variation in the moisture content, basic density and flexural strength distributions. As for single holocellulose fibres, the distance between a bole length gave variation in fibre dimension, shape and mechanical properties. These results collectively should provide some insight to the understanding of the mechanism of seasoning deformation (such as twisting, honey-combing, surface checks and collapse), which when combined with corresponding changes in fibre structure may point the way forward to a satisfactory conversion and efficient utilisation of OPT for various enduses.

Sebanyak 12 batang sawit jenis tenera telah diperoleh dari Estet Sungei Kahang kepunyaan Syarikat Sayong Plantation Sendirian Berhad, yang terletak di antara latitud N2° 12’ 24” ke N2° 12’ 55” dan longitud E103° 30’ 59” ke E103° 31’ 05”.Ciri-ciri kekuatan batang sawit dan serat holoselulosa mengikut paras perbezaan pada ketinggian pokok telah dianalisis dengan menggunakan pelbagai teknik analitikal. Berdasarkan hasil kajian, pola pertaburan bagi kandungan lembapan, kadar ketumpatan asas dan kekuatan fleksural bagi batang sawit adalah berbeza di antara satu dengan yang lain mengikut kedudukan sampel yang diperoleh. Bagi holoselulosa pula, serat tersebut mempunyai bentuk dimensi, ukuran dan kekuatan mekanik yang berbeza mengikut paras ketinggian pokok. Secara kolektif, hasil kajian ini boleh digunakan sebagai panduan mengenai mekanisme kecacatan bahan semasa proses pengeringan (seperti terpiuh, rekahan sarang lebah, rekah permukaan dan pengecutan yang tidak selaras). Faktor ini apabila dihubungkaitkan dengan perubahan pada struktur serat holoselulosa dapat mempertingkatkan penggunaan batang sawit dalam pelbagai produk nilai bertambah secara berkesan.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM TRUNKS ; PLANT FIIBRES ; CELLULOSE ; OIL PALM PRESS FIBRE (OPPF) ; MPOB VIVA COMMITTEE MEETING ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 63 (November 2011) p1-10
The potential means of biodiversity maintenance, conservation and enhancement in oil palm plantations
KHALID Haron ; CHAN Kok Weng

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The potential means of biodiversity maintenance, conservation and enhancement in oil palm plantations

Oil palm is one of the world’s most rapidly expanding crops mainly planted in the equatorial belt. The two largest oil palm-producing countries – Indonesia and Malaysia – are located in Southeast Asia, a region with numerous endemic and forest-dwelling species. As such, the potential impact of oil palm expansion on tropical forests and biodiversity in the region is a major conservation concern. Sustainable production of oil palm through good agricultural practices is an ideal solution to mitigate adverse effects on the environment such as land-use change, soil deterioration and erosion, water pollution, to maintain ecosystem biodiversity, and to avoid global warming. In Malaysia, the palm oil industry is committed to sustainable development through the protection of the environment and conservation of biodiversity. As biodiversity plays an important role in ensuring ecosystem resilience, which equates with the sustainability of the industry, prime consideration is given to all aspects of plantation operations commencing from land-use change onwards. Potential management practices and salient strategies that contribute to the maintenance, conservation and enhancement of biological diversity in oil palm ecosystems are being adopted, and have become a policy in plantation companies.

ABSTRAK Sawit yang ditanam di kawasan khatulistiwa merupakan salah satu tanaman yang berkembang pesat di dunia. Indonesia dan Malaysia yang terletak di Asia Tenggara iaitu kawasan yang mempunyai pelbagai spesies endemik, flora dan fauna hutan adalah negara pengeluar sawit yang terbesar di dunia. Oleh itu, impak pembangunan kawasan sawit terhadap hutan tropika dan biodiversiti merupakan isu pemuliharaan yang sangat dititikberatkan. Pengeluaran sawit yang mapan melalui pertanian yang baik adalah kaedah yang baik untuk mengurangkan kesan negative terhadap alam sekitar seperti perubahan kegunaan tanah, kerosakan tanah dan hakisan, pencemaran air, dan penjagaan ekosistem biodiversiti bagi mengelakkan pemanasan global. Di Malaysia, industri sawit adalah komited dengan perkembangan mapan melalui perlindungan alam sekitar dan pemuliharaan biodiversiti. Biodiversiti memainkan peranan penting bagi memastikan ekosistem yang anjal, yang boleh disamakan dengan pertimbangan industri yang mapan dengan memberi semua aspek operasi lading bermula dari perubahan kegunaan tanah. Amalan pengurusan yang berpotensi meningkatkan kepelbagaian biologi dalam ekosistem sawit diguna pakai dan menjadi polisi syarikat perladangan.



Keyword(s): BIODIVERSITY ; BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ; NATURE CONSERVATION ; ECOSYSTEMS ; OIL PALM & ESTATES & PLANTATIONS ; MPOB VIVA COMMITTEE MEETING ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 62 (May 2011) p43-45
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

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No: 62 (May 2011) p33-42
Safety and Efficacy of Palm-based Ingredients in Cosmetic and Personal Care Products
Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan; Zainab Idris; Rosnah Ismail and Hazimah Abu Hassan

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Safety and Efficacy of Palm-based Ingredients in Cosmetic and Personal Care Products

Safety and efficacy evaluation of the active ingredients or the cosmetic products themselves is important to ensure customer safety, and to substantiate claims. As newly synthesized or extracted ingredients become available in the cosmetics and personal care industry, new cosmetics are continually being formulated to capture new market segments. The rapid development of new actives and formulated products has increased the demand for safety and efficacy evaluation so as to ensure the safe use and effectiveness of the products. Furthermore, safety and efficacy data are required by the regulating authority in order to ensure that the industry conforms to the cosmetic legislation. Palm-based cosmetics are formulated with oleochemicals and palm-based actives such as the tocopherol/tocotrienol fraction, dihydroxystearic acid and palm-based polyols. Although the components are mainly derived from plants, the palm-based cosmetics are also subjected to various safety and efficacy evaluations to ensure their safe use and to guarantee their efficacy.

 

ABSTRAK Ujian keselamatan dan keberkesanan bahan aktif dalam kosmetik atau produk kosmetik penting untuk melindungi keselamatan pengguna dan memastikan pernyataan berbukti. Apabila bahan sintesis atau bahan yang diekstrak semakin banyak dihasilkan untuk industri kosmetik dan dandanan diri, semakin banyak formulasi produk kosmetik baru dapat dihasilkan untuk memenuhi pasaran baru. Perkembangan pesat dalam pembangunan bahan aktif baru dan rumusan produk ini telah meningkatkan permintaan menjalankan ujian keselamatan dan keberkesanan produk. Selain itu, data keselamatan dan keberkesanan produk juga diperlukan oleh pihak berkuasa bagi memastikan industri kosmetik mematuhi peraturan perundangan. Produk kosmetik berasaskan sawit dirumus dengan menggunakan bahan oleokimia dan bahan aktif sawit seperti fraksi tokoferol/tokotrienol, asid dihidroksistearik dan poliol berasaskan sawit. Walaupun komponennya diperoleh daripada tumbuhan, namun produk kosmetik berasaskan sawit perlu juga diuji keselamatan penggunaannya dan juga untuk memastikan keberkesanannya.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM; SKIN CARE ; TOCOTRIENOL RICH FRACTION (TRF) ; COSMETICS & TOILETIRES ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 62 (May 2011) p25-32
Physiological Plant Stress and Responses in Oil Palm
Mohd Roslan Md Noor; Mohd Haniff Harun and Nur Maisarah Jantan

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Physiological Plant Stress and Responses in Oil Palm

Physiological plant stress, particularly water stress, is discussed in this article. Observations made on oil palm seedlings and in the field are included. Assessment of plant water status was done through observations for stress symptoms and measurements on canopy temperature. Physiological responses of oil palm under different soil conditions, seasonal drought and different planting materials were also discussed. Important aspects of respiration are also included in this article.

 

ABSTRAK Pelbagai kajian fisiologi ketegasan tanaman, terutama ketegasan air, dibincangkan dalam artikel ini. Pemerhatian yang dibuat ke atas anak pokok sawit dan di ladang juga dimasukkan. Penilaian status air dalam tumbuhan dibuat melalui pemerhatian simptom dan pengukuran suhu kanopi. Tindak balas fisiologi pokok sawit dalam pelbagai keadaan tanah, cuaca kering bermusim dan jenis bahan tanaman yang berlainan turut dibincangkan. Aspek-aspek respirasi yang penting turut dimuatkan dalam artikel ini.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM; WATER STRESS ; OIL PALM-Climatolgy ; IRRIGATION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 62 (May 2011) p12-24
Pheromone Trapping in Controlling Key Insect Pests: Progress and Prospects
Siti Nurulhidayah Ahmad and Norman Kamarudin

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Pheromone Trapping in Controlling Key Insect Pests: Progress and Prospects

In recent years, pheromone trapping has been employed in many pest management programmes worldwide. Pheromone trapping can assist decision making in integrated pest management (IPM) programmes. Considerable improvements have been made in the identification and formulation of blends of pheromones for the management of agricultural insect pests. The progress and prospects of using pheromone for monitoring, mass trapping and mating disruption are discussed, with emphasis on Lepidopteran and Coleopteran pests, as the main pests of oil palm in Malaysia fall within these two insect orders.

 

Abstrak Kebelakangan ini, perangkap feromon kian banyak digunakan dalam program pengurusan perosak di seluruh dunia. Perangkap feromon boleh membantu dalam menyokong keputusan bagi program pengurusan perosak bersepadu (IPM). Terdapat kemajuan yang agak memberangsangkan dalam bidang pengenalpastian dan formulasi campuran feromon bagi penggunaan dalam pengurusan serangga perosak pertanian. Perkembangan dan prospek penggunaan feromon untuk pemantauan, penangkapan pukal, dan gangguan persenyawaan dibincangkan dalam artikel ini. Keutamaan diberikan kepada serangga perosak dari order Lepidoptera dan Coleoptera, memandangkan perosak utama bagi tanaman sawit di Malaysia tergolong dalam kedua-dua order tersebut.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM; PHEROMONE TRAPS ; INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT ; OIL PALM PEST ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 62 (May 2011) p1-11
Implications of Delayed Replanting of Old Palms
Azman Ismail and Mohd Arif Simeh

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Implications of Delayed Replanting of Old Palms

Accelerated replanting of ageing and less productive palms has been identified under the National Key Economic Area (NKEA) as a way forward to sustain the competitiveness of the Malaysian palm oil supply chain towards attaining the National High Income target. The increased proportion of old palms in the country, among other factors, has contributed to the stagnation of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield, which only averaged at 19.01 t ha-1 yr-1 over the last 20 years. The annual rate of oil palm replanting is rather slow at only 1.18%, which is attributed mainly to economic reasons, such as the prevailing higher FFB prices. This article, in highlighting the significance of replanting, the staggering accumulation of old and ageing palms, and the possible occurrence of a ‘rush to replant’, elucidates that there is a need for the industry to practice continued accelerated replanting at a rate of at least 155 000 ha yr-1.

 

ABSTRAK Mempercepatkan penanaman semula pokok sawit tua dan kurang produktif telah dikenal pasti di bawah bidang ekonomi utama nasional (NKEA) sebagai salah satu pendekatan untuk mengekalkan daya saing rantaian penawaran industri minyak sawit negara bagi mencapai sasaran pendapatan tinggi negara. Peningkatan peratusan pokok sawit tua di samping beberapa faktor lain telah dikenal pasti sebagai punca purata hasil buah tandan segar (BTS) tidak meningkat atau berada pada paras yang setara iaitu sekitar 19.01 t ha-1 thn-1 sejak 20 tahun yang lalu. Faktor ekonomi seperti harga BTS yang tinggi merupakan penyumbang utama kepada kadar tanam semula yang rendah iaitu sekitar 1.18% setahun. Selain menekankan kepentingan tanam semula pokok tua dan kemungkinan berlaku keadaan tanam semula secara serentak atau tergesagesa, artikel ini juga cuba menjelaskan kepentingan tanam semula secara berkala iaitu pada satu kadar sekurang-kurangnya 155 000 ha thn-1 bagi memastikan kesejahteraan industri sawit Negara terus dapat berkembang dan berdaya saing pada peringkat antarabangsa.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM INDUSTRY; REPLANTING ; NKEA (NATIONAL KEY ECONOMIC AREA) ; PRICES ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 61 (November 2010) p45-48
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

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in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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