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No: 63 (November 2011) p11-23
Characterisation of oil palm trunks and their holocellulose fibres for the manufacture of industrial commodities
KAMARUDIN Hasan * ; JAMALUDIN Kasim + ; ANIS Mokhtar * ; ASTIMAR Abdul Aziz *

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Abstract


Characterisation of oil palm trunks and their holocellulose fibres for the manufacture of industrial commodities

A total of 12 felled oil palm trunks (OPT) of tenera variety were obtained from the Sungei Kahang Estate owned by Sayong Plantation Sendirian Berhad, located between latitudes N2° 12’ 24” to N2° 12’ 55” and longitudes E103° 30’ 59”to E103° 31’ 05”. The physical and mechanical properties of OPT and their respective single holocellulose fibres, each taken at different bole heights were analysed by using various analytical techniques. Based on the results, variations in relation to the distance between the bole position gave variation in the moisture content, basic density and flexural strength distributions. As for single holocellulose fibres, the distance between a bole length gave variation in fibre dimension, shape and mechanical properties. These results collectively should provide some insight to the understanding of the mechanism of seasoning deformation (such as twisting, honey-combing, surface checks and collapse), which when combined with corresponding changes in fibre structure may point the way forward to a satisfactory conversion and efficient utilisation of OPT for various enduses.

Sebanyak 12 batang sawit jenis tenera telah diperoleh dari Estet Sungei Kahang kepunyaan Syarikat Sayong Plantation Sendirian Berhad, yang terletak di antara latitud N2° 12’ 24” ke N2° 12’ 55” dan longitud E103° 30’ 59” ke E103° 31’ 05”.Ciri-ciri kekuatan batang sawit dan serat holoselulosa mengikut paras perbezaan pada ketinggian pokok telah dianalisis dengan menggunakan pelbagai teknik analitikal. Berdasarkan hasil kajian, pola pertaburan bagi kandungan lembapan, kadar ketumpatan asas dan kekuatan fleksural bagi batang sawit adalah berbeza di antara satu dengan yang lain mengikut kedudukan sampel yang diperoleh. Bagi holoselulosa pula, serat tersebut mempunyai bentuk dimensi, ukuran dan kekuatan mekanik yang berbeza mengikut paras ketinggian pokok. Secara kolektif, hasil kajian ini boleh digunakan sebagai panduan mengenai mekanisme kecacatan bahan semasa proses pengeringan (seperti terpiuh, rekahan sarang lebah, rekah permukaan dan pengecutan yang tidak selaras). Faktor ini apabila dihubungkaitkan dengan perubahan pada struktur serat holoselulosa dapat mempertingkatkan penggunaan batang sawit dalam pelbagai produk nilai bertambah secara berkesan.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM TRUNKS ; PLANT FIIBRES ; CELLULOSE ; OIL PALM PRESS FIBRE (OPPF) ; MPOB VIVA COMMITTEE MEETING ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 63 (November 2011) p1-10
The potential means of biodiversity maintenance, conservation and enhancement in oil palm plantations
KHALID Haron ; CHAN Kok Weng

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The potential means of biodiversity maintenance, conservation and enhancement in oil palm plantations

Oil palm is one of the world’s most rapidly expanding crops mainly planted in the equatorial belt. The two largest oil palm-producing countries – Indonesia and Malaysia – are located in Southeast Asia, a region with numerous endemic and forest-dwelling species. As such, the potential impact of oil palm expansion on tropical forests and biodiversity in the region is a major conservation concern. Sustainable production of oil palm through good agricultural practices is an ideal solution to mitigate adverse effects on the environment such as land-use change, soil deterioration and erosion, water pollution, to maintain ecosystem biodiversity, and to avoid global warming. In Malaysia, the palm oil industry is committed to sustainable development through the protection of the environment and conservation of biodiversity. As biodiversity plays an important role in ensuring ecosystem resilience, which equates with the sustainability of the industry, prime consideration is given to all aspects of plantation operations commencing from land-use change onwards. Potential management practices and salient strategies that contribute to the maintenance, conservation and enhancement of biological diversity in oil palm ecosystems are being adopted, and have become a policy in plantation companies.

ABSTRAK Sawit yang ditanam di kawasan khatulistiwa merupakan salah satu tanaman yang berkembang pesat di dunia. Indonesia dan Malaysia yang terletak di Asia Tenggara iaitu kawasan yang mempunyai pelbagai spesies endemik, flora dan fauna hutan adalah negara pengeluar sawit yang terbesar di dunia. Oleh itu, impak pembangunan kawasan sawit terhadap hutan tropika dan biodiversiti merupakan isu pemuliharaan yang sangat dititikberatkan. Pengeluaran sawit yang mapan melalui pertanian yang baik adalah kaedah yang baik untuk mengurangkan kesan negative terhadap alam sekitar seperti perubahan kegunaan tanah, kerosakan tanah dan hakisan, pencemaran air, dan penjagaan ekosistem biodiversiti bagi mengelakkan pemanasan global. Di Malaysia, industri sawit adalah komited dengan perkembangan mapan melalui perlindungan alam sekitar dan pemuliharaan biodiversiti. Biodiversiti memainkan peranan penting bagi memastikan ekosistem yang anjal, yang boleh disamakan dengan pertimbangan industri yang mapan dengan memberi semua aspek operasi lading bermula dari perubahan kegunaan tanah. Amalan pengurusan yang berpotensi meningkatkan kepelbagaian biologi dalam ekosistem sawit diguna pakai dan menjadi polisi syarikat perladangan.



Keyword(s): BIODIVERSITY ; BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ; NATURE CONSERVATION ; ECOSYSTEMS ; OIL PALM & ESTATES & PLANTATIONS ; MPOB VIVA COMMITTEE MEETING ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 62 (May 2011) p43-45
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

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No: 62 (May 2011) p33-42
Safety and Efficacy of Palm-based Ingredients in Cosmetic and Personal Care Products
Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan; Zainab Idris; Rosnah Ismail and Hazimah Abu Hassan

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Safety and Efficacy of Palm-based Ingredients in Cosmetic and Personal Care Products

Safety and efficacy evaluation of the active ingredients or the cosmetic products themselves is important to ensure customer safety, and to substantiate claims. As newly synthesized or extracted ingredients become available in the cosmetics and personal care industry, new cosmetics are continually being formulated to capture new market segments. The rapid development of new actives and formulated products has increased the demand for safety and efficacy evaluation so as to ensure the safe use and effectiveness of the products. Furthermore, safety and efficacy data are required by the regulating authority in order to ensure that the industry conforms to the cosmetic legislation. Palm-based cosmetics are formulated with oleochemicals and palm-based actives such as the tocopherol/tocotrienol fraction, dihydroxystearic acid and palm-based polyols. Although the components are mainly derived from plants, the palm-based cosmetics are also subjected to various safety and efficacy evaluations to ensure their safe use and to guarantee their efficacy.

 

ABSTRAK Ujian keselamatan dan keberkesanan bahan aktif dalam kosmetik atau produk kosmetik penting untuk melindungi keselamatan pengguna dan memastikan pernyataan berbukti. Apabila bahan sintesis atau bahan yang diekstrak semakin banyak dihasilkan untuk industri kosmetik dan dandanan diri, semakin banyak formulasi produk kosmetik baru dapat dihasilkan untuk memenuhi pasaran baru. Perkembangan pesat dalam pembangunan bahan aktif baru dan rumusan produk ini telah meningkatkan permintaan menjalankan ujian keselamatan dan keberkesanan produk. Selain itu, data keselamatan dan keberkesanan produk juga diperlukan oleh pihak berkuasa bagi memastikan industri kosmetik mematuhi peraturan perundangan. Produk kosmetik berasaskan sawit dirumus dengan menggunakan bahan oleokimia dan bahan aktif sawit seperti fraksi tokoferol/tokotrienol, asid dihidroksistearik dan poliol berasaskan sawit. Walaupun komponennya diperoleh daripada tumbuhan, namun produk kosmetik berasaskan sawit perlu juga diuji keselamatan penggunaannya dan juga untuk memastikan keberkesanannya.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM; SKIN CARE ; TOCOTRIENOL RICH FRACTION (TRF) ; COSMETICS & TOILETIRES ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 62 (May 2011) p25-32
Physiological Plant Stress and Responses in Oil Palm
Mohd Roslan Md Noor; Mohd Haniff Harun and Nur Maisarah Jantan

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Physiological Plant Stress and Responses in Oil Palm

Physiological plant stress, particularly water stress, is discussed in this article. Observations made on oil palm seedlings and in the field are included. Assessment of plant water status was done through observations for stress symptoms and measurements on canopy temperature. Physiological responses of oil palm under different soil conditions, seasonal drought and different planting materials were also discussed. Important aspects of respiration are also included in this article.

 

ABSTRAK Pelbagai kajian fisiologi ketegasan tanaman, terutama ketegasan air, dibincangkan dalam artikel ini. Pemerhatian yang dibuat ke atas anak pokok sawit dan di ladang juga dimasukkan. Penilaian status air dalam tumbuhan dibuat melalui pemerhatian simptom dan pengukuran suhu kanopi. Tindak balas fisiologi pokok sawit dalam pelbagai keadaan tanah, cuaca kering bermusim dan jenis bahan tanaman yang berlainan turut dibincangkan. Aspek-aspek respirasi yang penting turut dimuatkan dalam artikel ini.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM; WATER STRESS ; OIL PALM-Climatolgy ; IRRIGATION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 62 (May 2011) p12-24
Pheromone Trapping in Controlling Key Insect Pests: Progress and Prospects
Siti Nurulhidayah Ahmad and Norman Kamarudin

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Pheromone Trapping in Controlling Key Insect Pests: Progress and Prospects

In recent years, pheromone trapping has been employed in many pest management programmes worldwide. Pheromone trapping can assist decision making in integrated pest management (IPM) programmes. Considerable improvements have been made in the identification and formulation of blends of pheromones for the management of agricultural insect pests. The progress and prospects of using pheromone for monitoring, mass trapping and mating disruption are discussed, with emphasis on Lepidopteran and Coleopteran pests, as the main pests of oil palm in Malaysia fall within these two insect orders.

 

Abstrak Kebelakangan ini, perangkap feromon kian banyak digunakan dalam program pengurusan perosak di seluruh dunia. Perangkap feromon boleh membantu dalam menyokong keputusan bagi program pengurusan perosak bersepadu (IPM). Terdapat kemajuan yang agak memberangsangkan dalam bidang pengenalpastian dan formulasi campuran feromon bagi penggunaan dalam pengurusan serangga perosak pertanian. Perkembangan dan prospek penggunaan feromon untuk pemantauan, penangkapan pukal, dan gangguan persenyawaan dibincangkan dalam artikel ini. Keutamaan diberikan kepada serangga perosak dari order Lepidoptera dan Coleoptera, memandangkan perosak utama bagi tanaman sawit di Malaysia tergolong dalam kedua-dua order tersebut.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM; PHEROMONE TRAPS ; INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT ; OIL PALM PEST ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 62 (May 2011) p1-11
Implications of Delayed Replanting of Old Palms
Azman Ismail and Mohd Arif Simeh

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Implications of Delayed Replanting of Old Palms

Accelerated replanting of ageing and less productive palms has been identified under the National Key Economic Area (NKEA) as a way forward to sustain the competitiveness of the Malaysian palm oil supply chain towards attaining the National High Income target. The increased proportion of old palms in the country, among other factors, has contributed to the stagnation of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield, which only averaged at 19.01 t ha-1 yr-1 over the last 20 years. The annual rate of oil palm replanting is rather slow at only 1.18%, which is attributed mainly to economic reasons, such as the prevailing higher FFB prices. This article, in highlighting the significance of replanting, the staggering accumulation of old and ageing palms, and the possible occurrence of a ‘rush to replant’, elucidates that there is a need for the industry to practice continued accelerated replanting at a rate of at least 155 000 ha yr-1.

 

ABSTRAK Mempercepatkan penanaman semula pokok sawit tua dan kurang produktif telah dikenal pasti di bawah bidang ekonomi utama nasional (NKEA) sebagai salah satu pendekatan untuk mengekalkan daya saing rantaian penawaran industri minyak sawit negara bagi mencapai sasaran pendapatan tinggi negara. Peningkatan peratusan pokok sawit tua di samping beberapa faktor lain telah dikenal pasti sebagai punca purata hasil buah tandan segar (BTS) tidak meningkat atau berada pada paras yang setara iaitu sekitar 19.01 t ha-1 thn-1 sejak 20 tahun yang lalu. Faktor ekonomi seperti harga BTS yang tinggi merupakan penyumbang utama kepada kadar tanam semula yang rendah iaitu sekitar 1.18% setahun. Selain menekankan kepentingan tanam semula pokok tua dan kemungkinan berlaku keadaan tanam semula secara serentak atau tergesagesa, artikel ini juga cuba menjelaskan kepentingan tanam semula secara berkala iaitu pada satu kadar sekurang-kurangnya 155 000 ha thn-1 bagi memastikan kesejahteraan industri sawit Negara terus dapat berkembang dan berdaya saing pada peringkat antarabangsa.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM INDUSTRY; REPLANTING ; NKEA (NATIONAL KEY ECONOMIC AREA) ; PRICES ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 61 (November 2010) p45-48
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

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No: 61 (November 2010) p38-44
Developments in edible oil modification for the production of trans-free food fats
DE GREYT, W. ; GIBON, V. ; MAES, J. ; KELLENS, M

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Developments in edible oil modification for the production of trans-free food fats

New developments in edible oil modification technology are necessary to enable the production of food fats with significantly lower trans fatty acid (TFA) levels which can be used without affecting the functional properties of the final product. Reducing TFA levels by changing the process conditions during hydrogenation is only possible to a certain extent. A lower reaction temperature (e.g. below 100°C), a high hydrogen pressure (e.g. 20 bar) and/or the use of a precious metal (Pd, Pt, etc.) catalyst substantially reduce TFA-formation.However, these process conditions also give rise to more unselective hydrogenation resulting in a higher saturated fatty acid content and worse physicochemical characteristics.Enzymatic interesterification (EIE) was recently successfully introduced on an industrial scale. ‘Random’ EIE produces products with similar physicochemical characteristics as those obtained by chemical interesterification (CIE), but which have better nutritional quality and oxidative stability. New developments are now underway in the potential application of sn 1,3-specific enzymes for the controlled production of food fats with improved nutritional quality and/or specific functional properties.Developments in dry fractionation have resulted in new, more efficient crystallizer designs and higher performing separation technologies (high pressure filter presses, improved centrifugal separators, etc.). These improvements together with fine-tuned production routes have resulted in higher quality fractions with a broader range of application in various food products. Dry fractionation combined with EIE, and eventually full hydrogenation, is applied today for the production of low and/or zero trans food fats for use in frying fats, margarines or shortenings.

 
Perkembangan kemajuan dalam teknologi pemindaan minyak makanan penting untuk membolehkan pengeluaran lemak makanan yang mengandungi asid lemak trans (TFA) yang lebih rendah dan boleh digunakan tanpa mempengaruhi kefungsian produk akhir. Penurunan TFA melalui pengubahan kaedah pemprosesan semasa penghidrogenan hanya boleh dilakukan sehingga ke satu tahap yang terhad sahaja. Suhu tindak balas yang rendah (seperti di bawah 100°C), tekanan gas hidrogen yang tinggi (seperti 20 bar) dan/atau penggunaan logam yang berharga (pd, pt, dan lain-lain) sebagai pemangkin boleh menurunkan pembentukan TFA. Walau bagaimanapun, proses ini boleh menimbulkan kesan fisiko-kimia yang lebih buruk kerana peningkatan penghidrogenan tidak terpilih akan menghasilkan peningkatan asid lemak tepu. Pengesteran berenzim (EIE) telah diperkenalkan dalam skala industri dewasa ini. EIE rawak boleh menghasilkan produk yang serupa dari segi fisikokimianya sebagaimana yang dihasilkan melalui pengesteran kimia (CIE). Di samping itu, kaedah EIE juga mempunyai nilai pemakanan dan kestabilan oksidatif yang lebih baik. Pembangunan baru dalam aplikasi sn-1, 3-enzim sedang dijalankan untuk menghasilkan lemak makanan yang lebih baik dan terkawal dengan nilai pemakanan dan kefungsian yang tertentu. Perkembangan dalam teknologi pemeringkatan kering juga telah menghasilkan reka bentuk penghablur yang baru yang lebih berkesan di samping teknologi emparan yang ditambah baik Oil Palm Bulletin 61 (November 2010) p. 38 – 44 39 (penapisan bertekanan tinggi, pemisahan emparan yang ditambah baik dan sebagainya). Ini bersama dengan kaedah laluan pemprosesan yang ditambah baik telah menghasilkan produk yang bermutu tinggi dengan rangkaian penggunaan yang lebih luas dalam produk makanan. Teknologi pemeringkatan, EIE dan penghidrogenan, kini digunakan dalam pengeluaran lemak makanan trans sifar untuk lemak penggorengan, marjerin atau lelemak.


Keyword(s): TRANS FATTY ACIDS ; INTERESTERIFICATION ; PALM OIL-Fractionation ; HYDROGENATION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 61 (November 2010) p33-37
NoveLin - a nutritious palm-based oil with cold stability
SIEW Wai Lin ; CHEAH Kien Yoo

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NoveLin - a nutritious palm-based oil with cold stability

NoveLin is a new line of liquid oils formulated from palm oils with other vegetable oils, in ratios such that fatty acid compositions reflect requirements suited for healthy life-style. The oils have low saturation, and are also enriched in omega -3 fatty acids. The cold stability of the oil allows for marketing in temperate countries as retail cooking oils. Clinical studies using the oil have shown that it enhances the good HDL cholesterol, while reducing the bad LDL cholesterol. Being rich in tocopherols and tocotrienols, the oil has good stability. NoveLin has all the features of nutritious healthy oil.

 
NoveLin adalah minyak baru yang mengandungi campuran minyak sawit dan minyak sayuran lain dengan nisbahnya menunjukkan komposisi asid lemak yang sesuai bagi gaya hidup sihat manusia. NoveLin memiliki asid lemak yang bertepu rendah dan kaya dengan omega-3. Kestabilan sejuk NoveLin membolehkan ia dipasarkan sebagai minyak masak di negara beriklim sejuk. Kajian klinikal menunjukkan NoveLin mampu meningkatkan kolesterol HDL dan menurunkan kolesterol LDL dalam badan manusia. Ia mengandungi tokoferol dan tokotrienol yang tinggi dengan kestabilan yang baik. NoveLin mempunyai semua ciri-ciri sebagai minyak yang sihat dan berkhasiat.


Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; COLD STABILITY ; FATTY ACIDS CONTENT ; NUTRITIONAL VALUES ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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