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LIST OF ARTICLES

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No: 60 (May 2010) p22-27
Biological nitrogen fixation by mucuna bracteata under oil palm filed environments
CHEAH, S.S. * ; ZAHARAH, A.R. ** ; AMINUDDIN, H. **

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Biological nitrogen fixation by mucuna bracteata under oil palm filed environments

In recent years, there has been a tremendous renewal of interest in incorporating the N-fixing creeping legume, Mucuna bracteata, in the oil palm production system. Although a considerable amount of work has been done on M. bracteata, the N-fixing capacity of this legume has not been fully studied. Hence, an experiment using the 15N isotopic dilution technique was laid out to quantify the N fixed by M. bracteata in a 3-year-old oil palm plantation where P. conjucatum and mixed broad-leaf weeds were used as non-N-fixing reference plants. The results revealed that M. bracteata planted on Jawa Series soil derived 67%-84% of its N from N-fixation. The finding confirmed that M. Bracteata has the potential to contribute to the N pool of the oil palm cropping system, and has potential to be used as a green manure or even as an alternative N source to inorganic N. The high percentage of N fixed by M. bracteata also indicates that competition for applied N and soil N between M. bracteata and oil palm, if any, would be insignificant.

 
Penggunaan kekacang penutup bumi, M. Bracteata dalam sistem pengeluaran sawit semakin mendapat perhatian kebelakangan ini. Walaupun banyak penyelidikan telah dijalankan ke atas M. bracteata, keupayaan untuk mengikat N daripada atmosfera belum dikaji dengan sepenuhnya. Sehubungan ini, satu kajian telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji keupayaan pengikatan N oleh M. bracteata di ladang sawit yang berumur tiga tahun. Dalam kajian ini, kaedah 15N isotopi digunakan untuk mengukur jumlah N yang diikat oleh M. bracteata yang ditanam di celah-celah barisan sawit, di mana P. conjucatum dan campuran rumpai berdaun lebar digunakan sebagai tumbuhan rujukan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan M. bracteata yang ditanam di atas tanah siri Jawa berupaya mengikat 67%-84% keperluan N daripada atmosfera.


Keyword(s): OIL PALM ESTATES & PLANTATION-Malaysia ; MUCUNA BRACTEATA ; FARM MECHANIZATIONS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 60 (May 2010) p17-21
A review on the production of glycol from glycerol
AZNIRA Alias * ; ROILA Awang

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A review on the production of glycol from glycerol

Crude glycerol is the primary by-product of the biodiesel industry and too costly to purify it into a higher quality product. However, glycerol can be converted into other useful products used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries such as trimethylene glycol (1,3-propanediol), propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol), ethylene glycol and ethanol through the hydrogenation process and the microbial fermentation process. This article reviews factors affecting glycerol conversion, glycol selectivity, concentration and conversion yield through both the hydrogenation and microbial fermentation processes.

 
Gliserol mentah merupakan hasil sampingan utama industri biodiesel yang terlalu mahal untuk ditukar menjadi produk yang bermutu tinggi. Gliserol boleh ditukarkan kepada beberapa produk berguna untuk industri farmaseutikal dan kosmetik seperti trimetilena glikol (1,3-propanediol), propilena glikol (1,2-propanediol), etilena glikol dan etanol melalui proses penghidrogenan dan proses fermentasi mikroorganisma. Artikel ini melaporkan faktor yang mempengaruhi penukaran gliserol, pemilihan kepekatan dan penghasilan glikol melalui proses penghidrogenan dan fermentasi mikroorganisma.


Keyword(s): BIODIESEL INDUSTRY ; GLYCEROL ; FERMENTATION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 60 (May 2010) p1-16
Impact of increases in fertilizer prices on long term-term economic vialibility of palm oil production
MOHD ARIF Simeh

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Impact of increases in fertilizer prices on long term-term economic vialibility of palm oil production

Surges in fertilizer prices in recent years have led to a sudden increase in the production cost of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) of oil palm as the share of fertilizer cost in the overall field cost has escalated from 30%-35% in 2007 to as high as 50% in 2008. This phenomenon created concerns among industry members because net revenue from FFB production was cost-squeezed to payback the initial capital outlay and to finance field operations. Increases in fertilizer prices can affect investment viability and the economic attractiveness of oil palm planting and replanting. This article attempts to give an overview of and evaluate the impact of rising fertilizer prices on the long-term viability of palm oil production in Malaysia. Evaluation of various scenarios of fertilizer price increases on investment payback period and on production cost (per hectare and per tonne of FFB), as well as the determination of threshold crude palm oil (CPO) prices for viable cultivation and replanting of oil palm were undertaken using system dynamics – a programmable master schedule known as e-FA (e-Fertilizer Application).

Peningkatan harga baja secara mendadak sepanjang tempoh 2007-2008 telah menyebabkan peratus kos pembajaan dalam keseluruhan kos pengeluaran buah tandan segar (BTS) meningkat dari 30%- 35% pada tahun 2007 kepada 60% pada tahun 2008. Fenomena ini telah menyebabkan industri sawit negara mengalami kemerosotan pulangan akibat pengeluaran BTS terjejas untuk membayar balik pelaburan awal dalam pembangunan lading atau penanaman semula dan juga untuk membiayai kos operasi di ladang. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memberi perspektif ekonomi kesan peningkatan harga baja ke atas daya saing pengeluaran minyak sawit untuk tempoh jangka panjang. Beberapa senario peningkatan harga baja dan kesannya terhadap pulangan pelaburan, kos pengeluaran BTS serta tahap harga minyak sawit mentah (MSM) yang berdaya maju telah dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis kos faedah.


Keyword(s): PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; PALM OIL-Production ; SOIL FERTILITY ; FERTILIZER ; PRODUCTION COSTS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 59 (November 2009) p25-28
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

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No: 59 (November 2009) p18-24
Physical properties of red palm-based ice cream
WAN ROSNANI Awang Isa ; NOR AINI Idris ; ABDUL RAHMAN Ibrahim

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Physical properties of red palm-based ice cream

Ice cream was formulated using a blend of non-fat milk solids and red palm olein. The purpose of adding red palm olein was to maximize the use of red palm oil in dairy products. Ice cream was produced using different percentages of red palm olein, namely, 10%, 8% and 5%. The samples were coded as S1, S2 and S3, respectively. The other samples were prepared using 10% fat from red palm olein:palm oil blends at 20:80, 50:50 and 80:20 ratios. The samples were coded as S4, S5 and S6, respectively. Physical and chemical characteristics of the ice cream mixes and ice cream such as viscosity, colour, overrun, meltability and structure were analysed. All the ice creams produced were yellowish in colour due to the presence of carotenoids. Overrun of the ice creams ranged from 35% to 50%, meltability was 95% to 99% and viscosity ranged from 450 to 500 centipoise (cPs). Red palm olein ice creams received higher scores compared to the control sample in terms of appearance, flavour, body and texture, and meltability.

Ais krim telah diformulasi dengan menggunakan campuran pepejal susu tanpa lemak dan minyak olein sawit merah. Tujuan penambahan minyak olein sawit merah ialah untuk memaksimumkan penggunaan minyak ini dalam hasil tenusu. Ais krim dihasilkan dengan menggunakan peratusan minyak olein sawit merah yang berbeza, iaitu 10%, 8% and 5%. Sampel ini masing-masing dikodkan sebagai S1, S2 dan S3. Sampel seterusnya disediakan dengan menggunakan 10% lemak daripada campuran minyak olein sawit merah:minyak sawit pada nisbah 20:80, 50:50 dan 80:20. Sampel masing-masing dikodkan sebagai S4, S5 dan S6. Sifat fizikal dan kimia campuran ais krim dan ais krim seperti kelikatan, warna, isi padu udara dan kecairan telah dianalisis. Kesemua ais krim yang dihasilkan menunjukkan warna kekuningan disebabkan oleh kandungan karotenoid. Ais krim yang dihasilkan mempunyai isi padu udara 35% hingga 50%, kecairan 95% hingga 99% dan kelikatan 450 hingga 500 centipoise (cPs). Ais krim daripada minyak olein sawit merah menerima pencapaian yang tinggi berbanding dengan ais krim kawalan dari segi rupa bentuk, cita rasa, struktur dan tekstur, serta sifat kecairannya.



Keyword(s): PALM OLEIN ; ICE CREAM ; FLAVOURS ; RED PALM OIL ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 59 (November 2009) p12-17
Palm emulsion in water (ew) - cypermerthrin insecticide against the rhinoceros beetle, oryctes rhinoceros in oil palm plantation
ISMAIL Ab Rahman * ; TEY, C.C. ** ; MOHD, A.A. ** ; TEE, B.H + ; TONG, C.H. + ; YEONG Shoot Kian * ; HAZIMAH Abu Hassan

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Palm emulsion in water (ew) - cypermerthrin insecticide against the rhinoceros beetle, oryctes rhinoceros in oil palm plantation

The field performance of palm emulsion in water (EW)-cypermethrin against rhinoceros beetles, Oryctes rhinoceros in immature oil palm was studied with respect to its insecticidal activities and phytotoxic effect on young palms. The conventional emulsifiable concentrate (EC)-cypermethrin and another commercial product (gamma-cyhalothrin) were included for comparison. The trial was carried out on one-year-old replants in an oil palm estate (Sime Darby Plantation) in Labu, Negeri Sembilan. The chemicals were applied to the crown and spears of immature palms at two-weekly intervals, and the infestation by rhinoceros beetle was assessed at regular intervals for about nine months. During the trial period, no phytotoxic symptoms were observed in all treatments. Generally, beetle infestation in the trial plots declined over time. However, overall beetle damage in all treated plots was much lower than in the control. Statistical analysis on cumulative beetle attacks after three and eight months showed that palm EW-cypermethrin at 0.028% a.i. and 0.056% a.i. provided significant control (more than 80%) of the rhinoceros beetle. There was no significant difference between plots treated with palm EW-cypermethrin and the commercial products (i.e., EC-cypermethrin and capsulated suspension [(CS)-gamma-cyhalothrin]), in the control of the rhinoceros beetle.

Kajian keberkesanan racun serangga jenis emulsi minyak dalam air (EW)-cypermethrin untuk mengawal kumbang badak, Oryctes rhinoceros di ladang sawit muda telah dibuat dengan memberi tumpuan kepada aktiviti insektisid dan kesan fitotoksisiti pada pokok sawit. Racun serangga konvensional jenis emulsi terpekat (EC)-cypermethrin dan produk komersial suspensi kapsul (CS)-gamacyhalothrin diguna sebagai bandingan. Kajian telah dijalankan ke atas tanaman sawit semula di Ladang Labu(Sime Darby Plantation), Negeri Sembilan. Bahan kimia disembur ke atas pucuk atau umbut sawit muda sekali setiap dua minggu, dan pembiakan kumbang badak ditentukan dalam tempoh sembilan bulan. Semasa kajian dijalankan, tanda kesan fitotosik tidak diperhatikan pada semua rawatan. Pada umumnya, serangan kumbang badak di petak rawatan semakin berkurangan mengikut tempoh kajian. Walau bagaimanapun, kematian atau kerosakan pokok disebabkan oleh kumbang badak di petak rawatan adalah jauh lebih rendah berbanding dengan petak tanpa rawatan. Analisis statistik secara kumulatif ke atas serangan kumbang badak pada tiga dan lapan bulan selepas rawatan menunjukkan bahawa EW-cypermethrin pada kadar 0.028% dan 0.056% bahan aktif memberi kesan yang ketara (sehingga 80% kawalan) bagi mengawal kumbang badak. Tiada perbezaan yang ketara antara petak yang dirawat dengan EW-cypermethrin dan petak yang dirawat dengan produk komersial (EC-cypermethrin dan CS-gama-cyhalothrin) untuk mengawal kumbang badak.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; EMULSION IN WATER (EW) ; RHINOCEROS BEETLE ; INSECTICIDE

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No: 59 (November 2009) p5-11
Characteristics and properties of fatty acid distilaates from palm oil
BONNIE TAY Yen Ping ; MOHTAR Yusof

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Characteristics and properties of fatty acid distilaates from palm oil

The past surveys on the characteristics and properties of palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) from local refineries were conducted in 1983 and 1999. This article will update the information to monitor any quality parameters that have changed over the years. Results show that iodine value, free fatty acid (FFA), conventional mass per volume, titre, unsaponifiable matter, saponification value, fatty acid composition, trace metals content, e.g chromium, nickel and copper, for PFAD used in this study were only slightly different from the values reported in the survey in 1999. More obvious changes were noted for the water and iron (Fe) contents which had decreased over the years. The partial glycerides content was about two times higher than in the 1999 survey, but the quantity was less consistent. Tocopherols and tocotrienols contentswere also two times higher in this study.

Tinjauan telah diadakan pada 1983 dan 1999 ke atas ciri-ciri dan komposisi sulingan asid lemak minyak sawit dari kilang penapis tempatan. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memantau parameter yang berubah dengan edaran masa. Keputusan menunjukkan nilai iodin, asid lemak bebas, jisim per isi padu biasa, titer, bahan tanpa pensaponinan, nilai pensaponinan, komposisi asid lemak, komposisi logam surihan seperti kromium, nikel dan kuprum untuk sulingan asid lemak dalam kajian ini hanyasedikit berbeza daripada keputusan yang diperoleh pada 1999. Perubahan yang lebih ketara diperhatikan dalam kuantiti air dan besi (Fe) yang telah berkurangan sejak 1999. Kuantiti gliserid separa adalah dua kali ganda lebih tinggi daripada yang dilaporkan dalam tinjauan 1999, tetapi kuantitinya kurang seragam. Kuantiti tokoferol dan tokotrienol juga dua kali ganda dalam tinjauan ini.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM FATTY ACID DISTILLATE ; FFA ; PROPERTIES

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No: 59 (November 2009) p1-4
Determination of arsenic in palm glycerin using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer
MOHTAR Yusof

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Determination of arsenic in palm glycerin using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

A method for the determination of arsenic in palm glycerin using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) was developed. Samples were dissolved in distilled water and injected directly into the graphite furnace AAS fitted with an arsenic electrode-less discharge lamp. The AAS furnace temperatures were set at 120oC, 800oC and 2400oC for drying, charring and atomization, respectively, and at 2500oC for cleaning the tube before the next injection. Calibration was performed using arsenic standards in distilled water. A matrix modifier, that is a mixture of palladium nitrate and magnesium nitrate in water, had to be added to the standard or sample. The correlation coefficient for the arsenic standards at 3, 6, 9, 15 and 20 ng ml-1 was 0.9994. One gram of sample was dissolved in 10 ml distilled water for determination of arsenic. The recoveries at 0.01 ppm to 5.0 ppm arsenic in glycerin were in the range of 72.5% to 98.6%. This method can be an alternative method for the determination of arsenic in glycerin.

Kaedah bagi penentuan arsenik dalam gliserin sawit menggunakan relau grafit (AAS) telah dibangunkan. Sampel dilarutkan dalam air suling dan disuntik terus ke dalam AAS yang dipadankan dengan lampu pembebasan arsenik tanpa elektrod. Suhu AAS ditetapkan pada 120°C, 800°C dan 2400°C masing-masing untuk pengeringan, pembakaran sehingga hangus, pengatoman dan pada suhu 2500°C untuk tujuan pembersihan tiub sebelum suntikan yang seterusnya. Menentukur dibuat dengan menggunakan larutan piawai arsenik dalam air suling. Matrik ubah suai, yang merupakan campuran antara paladium nitrat dan magnesium nitrat dalam air ditambahkan ke dalam larutan piawai atau sampel. Korelasi secara pekali bagi larutan piawai arsenik pada 3, 6, 9, 15 dan 20 ng ml-1 ialah 0.9994. Satu gram sampel dilarutkan dalam 10 ml air suling bagi penentuan arsenik. Perolehan kembali arsenik dalam gliserin pada 0.01 bpj hingga 5.0 bpj adalah antara 72.5% hingga 98.6%. Kaedah ini boleh dijadikan sebagai kaedah alternatif bagi penentuan arsenik dalam gliserin.



Keyword(s): ARSENIC ; GLYCERIN ; GFAAS (GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTRMENTER) ; OLEOCHEMICALS

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No: 58 (May 2009) p53-56
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

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No: 58 (May 2009) p46-52
Bakery fats from palm oil products and soyabean oil for short crust pastry
NOR AINI Idris ; MISKANDAR Mat Sahri ; HANIRAH, H ; CHE MAIMON, C. H.

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Bakery fats from palm oil products and soyabean oil for short crust pastry

A study was carried out to characterize bakery fats made from palm oil products and soyabean oil, and to evaluate their potential for the production of sweet short crust pastry. The three bakery fats were coded as 783, 784 and 785. They consisted of 50% soft palm stearin (IV 40), 20% palm oil and 30% soyabean oil (sample 783); 60% soft palm stearin (IV 40), 10% palm kernel oil and 30% soyabean oil (sample 784); and 40% hard palm stearin (IV 28), 10% palm kernel oil and 50% soyabean oil (sample 785). Results showed that the slip melting point of the fats ranged from 44.7°C to 48.8°C, and their dropping points ranged from 43.4°C to 48.6°C. Samples 783 and 784 had steeper solid fat content curves than sample 785. In terms of consistency, sample 783 was the softest while sample 784 was the firmest. The three bakery fats were rich in palmitic acid (33.5% to 39.8%) and oleic acids (22.3% to 30.8%). Sample 783 contained both â and â’crystals while the other two samples contained only â crystals. Sensory evaluation results by Hedonic Scoring on the short crusts showed that all samples received scores greater than 6, indicating that they were all acceptable and that the three bakery fats were suitable for making sweet short crust.

Kajian telah dijalankan untuk mengenal pasti ciriciri lemak bakeri yang diperbuat daripada produk minyak sawit dan minyak soya, dan untuk menilai potensi bagi pengeluaran sweet short crust pastry. Lemak bakeri ini diberi kod 783, 784 dan 785. Produk ini terdiri daripada 50% stearin sawit lembut (IV 40), 20% minyak sawit dan 30% minyak soya (sampel 783); 60% stearin sawit lembut (IV 40), 10% minyak isirung sawit dan 30% minyak soya (sampel 784); dan 40% stearin sawit keras (IV 28), 10% minyak isirung sawit dan 50% minyak soya (sampel 785). Keputusan menunjukkan takat lebur lemak adalah di antara 44.7oC hingga 48.8oC, dan takat gelincir di antara 43.4oChingga 48.6oC. Sampel 783 dan 784 mempunyai keluk kandungan lemak yang lebih curam berbanding sampel 785. Dari segi konsistensi, sampel 783 adalah paling lembut manakala sampel 784 lebih keras. Ketiga-tiga lemak bakeri ini mempunyai asid palmitik (33.5% ke 39.8%) dan asid oleik (22.3% ke 30.8%) yang tinggi. Sampel 783 mengandungi kedua-dua kristal â dan â’ manakala dua sample yang lain hanya mengandungi â kristal. Keputusan penilaian sensori menggunakan Skala Hedonic menunjukkan kesemua sampel mendapat skor melebihi 6. Ini menunjukkan bahawa kesemuanya boleh diterima dan ketiga-tiga lemak bakeri ini amat sesuai dalam pembuatan sweet short crust pastry.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; SOLID FAT CONTENT (SFC) ; BAKERY SHORTENING ; PALM OIL PRODUCTS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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