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No: 59 (November 2009) p18-24
Physical properties of red palm-based ice cream
WAN ROSNANI Awang Isa ; NOR AINI Idris ; ABDUL RAHMAN Ibrahim

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Physical properties of red palm-based ice cream

Ice cream was formulated using a blend of non-fat milk solids and red palm olein. The purpose of adding red palm olein was to maximize the use of red palm oil in dairy products. Ice cream was produced using different percentages of red palm olein, namely, 10%, 8% and 5%. The samples were coded as S1, S2 and S3, respectively. The other samples were prepared using 10% fat from red palm olein:palm oil blends at 20:80, 50:50 and 80:20 ratios. The samples were coded as S4, S5 and S6, respectively. Physical and chemical characteristics of the ice cream mixes and ice cream such as viscosity, colour, overrun, meltability and structure were analysed. All the ice creams produced were yellowish in colour due to the presence of carotenoids. Overrun of the ice creams ranged from 35% to 50%, meltability was 95% to 99% and viscosity ranged from 450 to 500 centipoise (cPs). Red palm olein ice creams received higher scores compared to the control sample in terms of appearance, flavour, body and texture, and meltability.

Ais krim telah diformulasi dengan menggunakan campuran pepejal susu tanpa lemak dan minyak olein sawit merah. Tujuan penambahan minyak olein sawit merah ialah untuk memaksimumkan penggunaan minyak ini dalam hasil tenusu. Ais krim dihasilkan dengan menggunakan peratusan minyak olein sawit merah yang berbeza, iaitu 10%, 8% and 5%. Sampel ini masing-masing dikodkan sebagai S1, S2 dan S3. Sampel seterusnya disediakan dengan menggunakan 10% lemak daripada campuran minyak olein sawit merah:minyak sawit pada nisbah 20:80, 50:50 dan 80:20. Sampel masing-masing dikodkan sebagai S4, S5 dan S6. Sifat fizikal dan kimia campuran ais krim dan ais krim seperti kelikatan, warna, isi padu udara dan kecairan telah dianalisis. Kesemua ais krim yang dihasilkan menunjukkan warna kekuningan disebabkan oleh kandungan karotenoid. Ais krim yang dihasilkan mempunyai isi padu udara 35% hingga 50%, kecairan 95% hingga 99% dan kelikatan 450 hingga 500 centipoise (cPs). Ais krim daripada minyak olein sawit merah menerima pencapaian yang tinggi berbanding dengan ais krim kawalan dari segi rupa bentuk, cita rasa, struktur dan tekstur, serta sifat kecairannya.



Keyword(s): PALM OLEIN ; ICE CREAM ; FLAVOURS ; RED PALM OIL ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 59 (November 2009) p12-17
Palm emulsion in water (ew) - cypermerthrin insecticide against the rhinoceros beetle, oryctes rhinoceros in oil palm plantation
ISMAIL Ab Rahman * ; TEY, C.C. ** ; MOHD, A.A. ** ; TEE, B.H + ; TONG, C.H. + ; YEONG Shoot Kian * ; HAZIMAH Abu Hassan

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Abstract


Palm emulsion in water (ew) - cypermerthrin insecticide against the rhinoceros beetle, oryctes rhinoceros in oil palm plantation

The field performance of palm emulsion in water (EW)-cypermethrin against rhinoceros beetles, Oryctes rhinoceros in immature oil palm was studied with respect to its insecticidal activities and phytotoxic effect on young palms. The conventional emulsifiable concentrate (EC)-cypermethrin and another commercial product (gamma-cyhalothrin) were included for comparison. The trial was carried out on one-year-old replants in an oil palm estate (Sime Darby Plantation) in Labu, Negeri Sembilan. The chemicals were applied to the crown and spears of immature palms at two-weekly intervals, and the infestation by rhinoceros beetle was assessed at regular intervals for about nine months. During the trial period, no phytotoxic symptoms were observed in all treatments. Generally, beetle infestation in the trial plots declined over time. However, overall beetle damage in all treated plots was much lower than in the control. Statistical analysis on cumulative beetle attacks after three and eight months showed that palm EW-cypermethrin at 0.028% a.i. and 0.056% a.i. provided significant control (more than 80%) of the rhinoceros beetle. There was no significant difference between plots treated with palm EW-cypermethrin and the commercial products (i.e., EC-cypermethrin and capsulated suspension [(CS)-gamma-cyhalothrin]), in the control of the rhinoceros beetle.

Kajian keberkesanan racun serangga jenis emulsi minyak dalam air (EW)-cypermethrin untuk mengawal kumbang badak, Oryctes rhinoceros di ladang sawit muda telah dibuat dengan memberi tumpuan kepada aktiviti insektisid dan kesan fitotoksisiti pada pokok sawit. Racun serangga konvensional jenis emulsi terpekat (EC)-cypermethrin dan produk komersial suspensi kapsul (CS)-gamacyhalothrin diguna sebagai bandingan. Kajian telah dijalankan ke atas tanaman sawit semula di Ladang Labu(Sime Darby Plantation), Negeri Sembilan. Bahan kimia disembur ke atas pucuk atau umbut sawit muda sekali setiap dua minggu, dan pembiakan kumbang badak ditentukan dalam tempoh sembilan bulan. Semasa kajian dijalankan, tanda kesan fitotosik tidak diperhatikan pada semua rawatan. Pada umumnya, serangan kumbang badak di petak rawatan semakin berkurangan mengikut tempoh kajian. Walau bagaimanapun, kematian atau kerosakan pokok disebabkan oleh kumbang badak di petak rawatan adalah jauh lebih rendah berbanding dengan petak tanpa rawatan. Analisis statistik secara kumulatif ke atas serangan kumbang badak pada tiga dan lapan bulan selepas rawatan menunjukkan bahawa EW-cypermethrin pada kadar 0.028% dan 0.056% bahan aktif memberi kesan yang ketara (sehingga 80% kawalan) bagi mengawal kumbang badak. Tiada perbezaan yang ketara antara petak yang dirawat dengan EW-cypermethrin dan petak yang dirawat dengan produk komersial (EC-cypermethrin dan CS-gama-cyhalothrin) untuk mengawal kumbang badak.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; EMULSION IN WATER (EW) ; RHINOCEROS BEETLE ; INSECTICIDE

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No: 59 (November 2009) p5-11
Characteristics and properties of fatty acid distilaates from palm oil
BONNIE TAY Yen Ping ; MOHTAR Yusof

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Characteristics and properties of fatty acid distilaates from palm oil

The past surveys on the characteristics and properties of palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) from local refineries were conducted in 1983 and 1999. This article will update the information to monitor any quality parameters that have changed over the years. Results show that iodine value, free fatty acid (FFA), conventional mass per volume, titre, unsaponifiable matter, saponification value, fatty acid composition, trace metals content, e.g chromium, nickel and copper, for PFAD used in this study were only slightly different from the values reported in the survey in 1999. More obvious changes were noted for the water and iron (Fe) contents which had decreased over the years. The partial glycerides content was about two times higher than in the 1999 survey, but the quantity was less consistent. Tocopherols and tocotrienols contentswere also two times higher in this study.

Tinjauan telah diadakan pada 1983 dan 1999 ke atas ciri-ciri dan komposisi sulingan asid lemak minyak sawit dari kilang penapis tempatan. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memantau parameter yang berubah dengan edaran masa. Keputusan menunjukkan nilai iodin, asid lemak bebas, jisim per isi padu biasa, titer, bahan tanpa pensaponinan, nilai pensaponinan, komposisi asid lemak, komposisi logam surihan seperti kromium, nikel dan kuprum untuk sulingan asid lemak dalam kajian ini hanyasedikit berbeza daripada keputusan yang diperoleh pada 1999. Perubahan yang lebih ketara diperhatikan dalam kuantiti air dan besi (Fe) yang telah berkurangan sejak 1999. Kuantiti gliserid separa adalah dua kali ganda lebih tinggi daripada yang dilaporkan dalam tinjauan 1999, tetapi kuantitinya kurang seragam. Kuantiti tokoferol dan tokotrienol juga dua kali ganda dalam tinjauan ini.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM FATTY ACID DISTILLATE ; FFA ; PROPERTIES

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No: 59 (November 2009) p1-4
Determination of arsenic in palm glycerin using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer
MOHTAR Yusof

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Determination of arsenic in palm glycerin using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

A method for the determination of arsenic in palm glycerin using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) was developed. Samples were dissolved in distilled water and injected directly into the graphite furnace AAS fitted with an arsenic electrode-less discharge lamp. The AAS furnace temperatures were set at 120oC, 800oC and 2400oC for drying, charring and atomization, respectively, and at 2500oC for cleaning the tube before the next injection. Calibration was performed using arsenic standards in distilled water. A matrix modifier, that is a mixture of palladium nitrate and magnesium nitrate in water, had to be added to the standard or sample. The correlation coefficient for the arsenic standards at 3, 6, 9, 15 and 20 ng ml-1 was 0.9994. One gram of sample was dissolved in 10 ml distilled water for determination of arsenic. The recoveries at 0.01 ppm to 5.0 ppm arsenic in glycerin were in the range of 72.5% to 98.6%. This method can be an alternative method for the determination of arsenic in glycerin.

Kaedah bagi penentuan arsenik dalam gliserin sawit menggunakan relau grafit (AAS) telah dibangunkan. Sampel dilarutkan dalam air suling dan disuntik terus ke dalam AAS yang dipadankan dengan lampu pembebasan arsenik tanpa elektrod. Suhu AAS ditetapkan pada 120°C, 800°C dan 2400°C masing-masing untuk pengeringan, pembakaran sehingga hangus, pengatoman dan pada suhu 2500°C untuk tujuan pembersihan tiub sebelum suntikan yang seterusnya. Menentukur dibuat dengan menggunakan larutan piawai arsenik dalam air suling. Matrik ubah suai, yang merupakan campuran antara paladium nitrat dan magnesium nitrat dalam air ditambahkan ke dalam larutan piawai atau sampel. Korelasi secara pekali bagi larutan piawai arsenik pada 3, 6, 9, 15 dan 20 ng ml-1 ialah 0.9994. Satu gram sampel dilarutkan dalam 10 ml air suling bagi penentuan arsenik. Perolehan kembali arsenik dalam gliserin pada 0.01 bpj hingga 5.0 bpj adalah antara 72.5% hingga 98.6%. Kaedah ini boleh dijadikan sebagai kaedah alternatif bagi penentuan arsenik dalam gliserin.



Keyword(s): ARSENIC ; GLYCERIN ; GFAAS (GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTRMENTER) ; OLEOCHEMICALS

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Article Info

No: 58 (May 2009) p53-56
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

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No: 58 (May 2009) p46-52
Bakery fats from palm oil products and soyabean oil for short crust pastry
NOR AINI Idris ; MISKANDAR Mat Sahri ; HANIRAH, H ; CHE MAIMON, C. H.

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Bakery fats from palm oil products and soyabean oil for short crust pastry

A study was carried out to characterize bakery fats made from palm oil products and soyabean oil, and to evaluate their potential for the production of sweet short crust pastry. The three bakery fats were coded as 783, 784 and 785. They consisted of 50% soft palm stearin (IV 40), 20% palm oil and 30% soyabean oil (sample 783); 60% soft palm stearin (IV 40), 10% palm kernel oil and 30% soyabean oil (sample 784); and 40% hard palm stearin (IV 28), 10% palm kernel oil and 50% soyabean oil (sample 785). Results showed that the slip melting point of the fats ranged from 44.7°C to 48.8°C, and their dropping points ranged from 43.4°C to 48.6°C. Samples 783 and 784 had steeper solid fat content curves than sample 785. In terms of consistency, sample 783 was the softest while sample 784 was the firmest. The three bakery fats were rich in palmitic acid (33.5% to 39.8%) and oleic acids (22.3% to 30.8%). Sample 783 contained both â and â’crystals while the other two samples contained only â crystals. Sensory evaluation results by Hedonic Scoring on the short crusts showed that all samples received scores greater than 6, indicating that they were all acceptable and that the three bakery fats were suitable for making sweet short crust.

Kajian telah dijalankan untuk mengenal pasti ciriciri lemak bakeri yang diperbuat daripada produk minyak sawit dan minyak soya, dan untuk menilai potensi bagi pengeluaran sweet short crust pastry. Lemak bakeri ini diberi kod 783, 784 dan 785. Produk ini terdiri daripada 50% stearin sawit lembut (IV 40), 20% minyak sawit dan 30% minyak soya (sampel 783); 60% stearin sawit lembut (IV 40), 10% minyak isirung sawit dan 30% minyak soya (sampel 784); dan 40% stearin sawit keras (IV 28), 10% minyak isirung sawit dan 50% minyak soya (sampel 785). Keputusan menunjukkan takat lebur lemak adalah di antara 44.7oC hingga 48.8oC, dan takat gelincir di antara 43.4oChingga 48.6oC. Sampel 783 dan 784 mempunyai keluk kandungan lemak yang lebih curam berbanding sampel 785. Dari segi konsistensi, sampel 783 adalah paling lembut manakala sampel 784 lebih keras. Ketiga-tiga lemak bakeri ini mempunyai asid palmitik (33.5% ke 39.8%) dan asid oleik (22.3% ke 30.8%) yang tinggi. Sampel 783 mengandungi kedua-dua kristal â dan â’ manakala dua sample yang lain hanya mengandungi â kristal. Keputusan penilaian sensori menggunakan Skala Hedonic menunjukkan kesemua sampel mendapat skor melebihi 6. Ini menunjukkan bahawa kesemuanya boleh diterima dan ketiga-tiga lemak bakeri ini amat sesuai dalam pembuatan sweet short crust pastry.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; SOLID FAT CONTENT (SFC) ; BAKERY SHORTENING ; PALM OIL PRODUCTS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 58 (May 2009) p46-52
Bakery fats from palm oil products and soyabean oil for short crust pastry
NOR AINI Idris ; MISKANDAR Mat Sahri ; HANIRAH, H ; CHE MAIMON, C. H.

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Abstract


Bakery fats from palm oil products and soyabean oil for short crust pastry

A study was carried out to characterize bakery fats made from palm oil products and soyabean oil, and to evaluate their potential for the production of sweet short crust pastry. The three bakery fats were coded as 783, 784 and 785. They consisted of 50% soft palm stearin (IV 40), 20% palm oil and 30% soyabean oil (sample 783); 60% soft palm stearin (IV 40), 10% palm kernel oil and 30% soyabean oil (sample 784); and 40% hard palm stearin (IV 28), 10% palm kernel oil and 50% soyabean oil (sample 785). Results showed that the slip melting point of the fats ranged from 44.7°C to 48.8°C, and their dropping points ranged from 43.4°C to 48.6°C. Samples 783 and 784 had steeper solid fat content curves than sample 785. In terms of consistency, sample 783 was the softest while sample 784 was the firmest. The three bakery fats were rich in palmitic acid (33.5% to 39.8%) and oleic acids (22.3% to 30.8%). Sample 783 contained both â and â’crystals while the other two samples contained only â crystals. Sensory evaluation results by Hedonic Scoring on the short crusts showed that all samples received scores greater than 6, indicating that they were all acceptable and that the three bakery fats were suitable for making sweet short crust.

Kajian telah dijalankan untuk mengenal pasti ciriciri lemak bakeri yang diperbuat daripada produk minyak sawit dan minyak soya, dan untuk menilai potensi bagi pengeluaran sweet short crust pastry. Lemak bakeri ini diberi kod 783, 784 dan 785. Produk ini terdiri daripada 50% stearin sawit lembut (IV 40), 20% minyak sawit dan 30% minyak soya (sampel 783); 60% stearin sawit lembut (IV 40), 10% minyak isirung sawit dan 30% minyak soya (sampel 784); dan 40% stearin sawit keras (IV 28), 10% minyak isirung sawit dan 50% minyak soya (sampel 785). Keputusan menunjukkan takat lebur lemak adalah di antara 44.7oC hingga 48.8oC, dan takat gelincir di antara 43.4oChingga 48.6oC. Sampel 783 dan 784 mempunyai keluk kandungan lemak yang lebih curam berbanding sampel 785. Dari segi konsistensi, sampel 783 adalah paling lembut manakala sampel 784 lebih keras. Ketiga-tiga lemak bakeri ini mempunyai asid palmitik (33.5% ke 39.8%) dan asid oleik (22.3% ke 30.8%) yang tinggi. Sampel 783 mengandungi kedua-dua kristal â dan â’ manakala dua sample yang lain hanya mengandungi â kristal. Keputusan penilaian sensori menggunakan Skala Hedonic menunjukkan kesemua sampel mendapat skor melebihi 6. Ini menunjukkan bahawa kesemuanya boleh diterima dan ketiga-tiga lemak bakeri ini amat sesuai dalam pembuatan sweet short crust pastry.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; SOLID FAT CONTENT (SFC) ; BAKERY SHORTENING ; PALM OIL PRODUCTS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 58 (May 2009) p37-45
Prediction of solid fat content in a palm-based fluid shortening production by FT-IR spectroscopy
MISKANDAR Mat Sahri * ; CHE MAN, Y. B. + ; ABDUL RAHMAN, R + ; NOR AINI Idris * ; MOHD SURIA AFANDI Yusoff **

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Prediction of solid fat content in a palm-based fluid shortening production by FT-IR spectroscopy

Crystal development during batch process of palm oil-based fluid shortening was determined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) of Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The molten fat was cooled, heated and cooled again while agitating at constant speed. Samples for solid fat content (SFC) measurements by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and FT-IR spectroscopy were taken during the crystallization process at 20ºC and heating process at 30ºC. Standard samples having the best coefficient of determination (R2) and standard error of estimations were calibrated with the spectrum obtained by FT-IR spectroscopy using partial least square (PLS) chemometric analysis. They were then selected as the PLS model. The model was independently validated by leave one out method. It had an acceptable accuracy and repeatability with R2> 0.9 at 20ºC and 30ºC, thus provided good SFC estimates during the production of palm oil-based fluid shortening. The method even though not as good as NMR, could be further studied as alternative way of measuring solid development during a fluid shortening production.

Pengesanan pembentukan hablur semasa pemprosesan lelemak cecair berasaskan sawit telah diperoleh dengan menggunakan Spektroskopi Transformasi Sinar-jingga Fourier (FT-IR) dengan jumlah refleksi dipermudah (ATR). Lemak yang cair telah disejukkan, dipanaskan dan kemudian disejukkan semula sambil diadukkan pada kelajuan yang seragam. Sampel untuk pengukuran kandungan lemak pejal (SFC) menggunakan alatresonan nuklear bermagnet (NMR) dan spektroskopi FT-IR telah diambil semasa proses penghabluran pada suhu 20ºC dan pemanasan pada suhu 30ºC. Sampel piawai yang menghasilkan penentuan korelasi pekali (R2) dan standard error of estimation telah dikalibrasi dengan menggunakan spektrum yang dihasilkan oleh spektroskopi FT-IR menggunakan analisis kemometrik partial least square (PLS). Sampel piawai ini telah dipilih sebagai model PLS. Model telah disahkan secara bebas menggunakan kaedah leave one out. Keputusan menunjukkan ketepatan dan ulangan R2> 0.9 pada 20ºC dan 30ºC, lalu menghasilkan jangkaan SFC yang baik semasa pemprosesan lelemak cecair berasaskan sawit. Kaedah ini sungguhpun tidak sebaik NMR, namun, boleh dikaji lagi sebagai kaedah alternatif untuk mengukur pembentukan pepejal semasa pemprosesan lelemak cecair.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; SOLID FAT CONTENT (SFC) ; BAKERY SHORTENING ; NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 58 (May 2009) p14-36
Life cycle assessment - a tool for sustainability and business opportunity
TAN Yew AI ; SUBRAMANIAN, Vijaya ; PUAH, C.W. ; ZULKIFLI Hashim ; HALIMAH Mohamed ; MA An Ngan ; CHOO Yuan May

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Life cycle assessment - a tool for sustainability and business opportunity

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool used to determine the complex interaction between a product, service or process with the environment. Results from a full LCA study provide the basis for improvement of environmental performance as the study identifies the key ecological impacts and stages of the life cycle of the product which contribute to environmental consequences. The many practical applications of LCA include its use in improving a product or process, material selection, eco-labelling and as a marketing strategy. As LCA is still a developing field, there are limitations in performing the study, the major issues being the availability of inventory data and uncertainties in impact assessment methodologies. The main aim of this article is to provide the background necessary for understanding the application and relevance of LCA in sustainable development of the palm oil industry.

Penilaian kitaran hayat (LCA) adalah suatu kaedah yang digunakan untuk menentukan interaksi kompleks di antara produk, perkhidmatan atau proses dengan alam sekitar. Kajian LCA yang lengkap merupakan asas dalam melaksanakan pemuliharaan alam sekitar, di mana ia dapat mengenal pasti impak ekologi utama dan peringkat kitaran hayat produk yang memberi kesan kepada alam sekitar. Antara penggunaan LCA yang dipratikkan termasuk penggunaan dalam usaha penambahbaikan produk atau proses, pemilihan bahan, melabelkan eko dan juga sebagai strategi pemasaran. Namun begitu, LCA merupakan satu bidang yang masih pada peringkat awal. Oleh itu, data inventori yang diperlukan untuk menjalankan kajian ini masih terhad. Ketidakpastian dalam kaedah penilaian impak juga merupakan antara masalah yang dihadapi. Tujuan utama penulisan ini ialah untuk memberikan maklumat asas bagi memahami penggunaan dan kaitan LCA dalam pembangunan industri sawit yang mampan.



Keyword(s): LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) ; SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ; ISO 14040 ; PALM OIL INDUSTRY ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 58 (May 2009) p1-13
Experiences in peat development for oil palm planting in the MPOB Research Station at Sessang, Sarawak
HASNOL Othman ; FARAWAHIDA Mohamad Darus ; AHMAD TARMIZI Mohammed

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Experiences in peat development for oil palm planting in the MPOB Research Station at Sessang, Sarawak

The rapid expansion of the oil palm industry and the depletion of prime land for oil palm cultivation have caused planters to resort to the marginal areas such as peat. Peatland with an area totaling approximately 2.6 million hectares is considered a problematic soil in Malaysia, but has potential for oil palm cultivation.

The poor inherent physical properties of peat such as low bulk density, high water-table and rapid subsidence rate make its development for oil palm cultivation difficult and costly as compared to mineral soils. Through research and development carried out by various research institutions including the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), planting of oil palm on drained peat has been successful and oil palm yield on peat is comparable to those from mineral soils. Various aspects of work or disciplines have been covered especially on land preparation techniques, drainage and water management, planting density and fertilizer requirements.

The adoption of the results obtained over time has resulted in the better performance of oil palm especially on deep peat. From recent achievements, oil palm yields on peat are equal if not better than those from some of the mineral soils. This article discusses MPOB’s experiences in planting oil palm on peat at the MPOB Research Station at Sessang, Sarawak.

Kekurangan tanah yang sesuai serta kepesatan pembangunan industri sawit telah menyebabkan usaha penanaman sawit di tanah marginal seperti tanah gambut. Di Malaysia, tanah gambut dengan keluasan hampir 2.6 juta hektar merupakan tanah bermasalah tetapi berpotensi untuk penanaman sawit.

Ciri-ciri fizikal tanah gambut seperti kepadatan pukal yang rendah, paras air tinggi dan susutan tanah menyebabkan usaha penanaman sawit menjadi sukar dan memerlukan perbelanjaan yang tinggi berbanding dengan penanaman di tanah mineral. Hasil penyelidikan yang dijalankan oleh pelbagai pihak termasuk Lembaga Minyak Sawit Malaysia (MPOB) telah berjaya meningkatkan pengeluaran hasil sawit di tanah gambut ke tahap setanding dengan di tanah mineral.

Kejayaan penanaman sawit di tanah gambut, khususnya gambut dalam sangat bergantung pada tahap perlaksanaan teknologi yang diperkenalkan, terutama dari aspek kaedah penyediaan kawasan, teknik dan jarak penanaman, pengurusan air serta pembajaan sawit. Artikel ini membincang pengalaman MPOB dalam usaha penanaman sawit di tanah gambut di Stesen Penyelidikan MPOB Sessang, Sarawak.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM PLANTING ; PEAT SOIL ; OIL PALM SOIL ; YIELD ; WATER MANAGEMENT ; TERMITES ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
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in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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