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No: 61 (November 2010) p11-32
Alternative oil palm fertilizer sources and management
TEO Leng ; MUHAMMAD SHUKRI, Y ; ONG, K.P. ; ZAINURAH, A.

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Alternative oil palm fertilizer sources and management

The euphoric sentiment of the oil palm industry in 2007 till first half of 2008, generated by the historic high prices of crude palm oil (CPO) as influenced by the price escalation of fossil fuel and biofuel, has very quickly vaporized and been replaced by an awakening call for prudence. Inorganic fertilizer prices soared concurrently to historic high levels as well. Notwithstanding the problem of uncertainty that led to non-timely supply and delivery, the cost of fertilizer inputs in oil palm plantations has doubled to 50%-60% of the cost of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) production. Profitability of the oil palm plantation business is consequently squeezed as the business remains as a price taker for its produce and the purchase of inorganic fertilizers. The Malaysian oil palm industry’s dependence on inorganic fertilizer imports can only be partially mitigated by the use of organic fertilizers produced within the country. Recycling of solid and liquid wastes from palm oil mills is the logical alternative, and accepted as a standard good agricultural practice in the industry. There are, however, some obvious limitations in their utilization which must not be overlooked, particularly when the industry is moving toward sustainable development. The industry in Malaysia is poised to adopt awholesome green technology approach with several options that can achieve multiple objectives. Cocomposting of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) has the highest attractiveness while at the same time the compost / organic fertilizer produced can be applied over a much bigger area, especially in those areas of poorer growing conditions, that can benefit significantly in growth/yield as compared to what may be expected from the current EFB mulching and irrigation with treated POME. Concurrently, biogas capture with and without generation of renewable energy enhances CO2 emission reduction above the criterion of 35% as set by the EU Commission on Renewable Energy. Thus, palm oil will qualify as a feedstock for biofuel in the European market. The continuation of the clean development mechanism (CDM) beyond 2012 with the carbon credit incentive is critical for more ready adoption by the industry members. Composting systems and usage of compost for substitution of inorganic fertilizer, and the impact of compost on yield enhancement are described in the article. The 4 Rs approach to fertilizer management is also discussed in relation to compost usage. The oil palm industry is strongly urged to adopt the good agricultural practice of establishing leguminous cover crops for N fixation without fail in all new plantings/replantings. The choice of Mucuna bracteata over other conventional leguminous cover crops is strongly emphasized for reasons discussed. The potential usage of biochar, derivable from the oil palm biomass, is also highlighted as an area of research that can lead to its future exploitation for soil fertility improvement and long-term sequestration of CO2 in the soil.

Sentimen euforia industri sawit yang timbul pada tahun 2007 sehingga separuh pertama 2008, kerana peningkatan harga minyak sawit mentah (CPO) yang tertinggi dalam sejarah dan juga dipengaruhioleh peningkatan harga bahan api fosil serta bio bahan api, lenyap dengan pantas dan diganti pula dengan kesedaran untuk berhati-hati. Harga baja bukan organik (kimia/mineral) melambung naik ke paras yang tertinggi dalam sejarah. Di samping itu, masalah ketidakpastian pembekalan dan penghantaran baja yang tidak tepat pada waktunya telah menyebabkan kos input baja di ladang sawit meningkat ke 50%-60% dari kos penghasilan tandan buah segar (FFB). Keuntungan dalam perniagaan perladangan sawit akibatnya menguncup lanjutan dari kekangan kawalan kos pengeluaran hasil dan pembelian baja kimia/mineral. Kebergantungan industri sawit Malaysia pada baja kimia/mineral yang diimport hanya boleh dikurangkan sebahagiannya melalui penggunaan baja organik yang dihasilkan di dalam negara. Kitaran semula sisa-sisa cecair dan pejal dari kilangkilang minyak sawit merupakan alternatif yang munasabah dan diterima sebagai satu amalan pertanian piawai dalam industri. Walau bagaimanapun, terdapat kekangan yang jelas dalam penggunaannya, dan perlu diberi perhatian memandangkan industry sawit perlu bergerak untuk mencapai pembangunan mampan. Industri sawit menghampiri kepada penggunaan kaedah teknologi hijau yang sihat dengan pelbagai pilihan untuk mencapai berbilang objektif. Tandan kosong buah (EFB) yang dikomposkan bersama efluen kilang minyak sawit (POME) merupakan pilihan utama. Kompos yang dihasilkan boleh digunakan untuk keluasan yang lebih besar, terutamanya dalam keadaan persekitaran pertumbuhan yang tidak subur di mana ia boleh memberi faedah dengan ketara dalam pertumbuhan/hasil berbanding dengan kaedah sungkupan EFB dan pengairan dengan POME yang dirawat. Dalam masa yang sama, pengumpulan biogas untuk atau tanpa penjanaan tenaga yang boleh dibaharui boleh mendorong penurunan pelepasan CO2 sebanyak 35% sepertimana yang telah ditetapkan olehSuruhanjaya Kesatuan Eropah ke atas sumber tenaga boleh dibaharui. Oleh itu, minyak sawit layak sebagai bahan bekalan bio bahan api di pasaran Eropah. Perlanjutan mekanisme pembangunan bersih (CDM) selepas 2012 bersama insentif kredit karbon adalah kritikal bagi kegunaan industri. Sistem pengkomposan dan penggunaan kompos untuk menggantikan baja kimia dan kesannya ke atas pertambahan hasil dihuraikan dalam artikel ini. Pendekatan 4R merujuk kepada pengurusan baja dan berkaitan dengan penggunaan kompos turut dibincangkan. Industri sawit disarankan agar menggunakan amalan pertanian yang baik dalam penanaman kekacang tutup bumi untuk mengikat N dan menyuburkan tanah di semua kawasan tanaman baru/penanaman semula sawit. Pemilihan Mucuna bracteata sebagai tanaman kekacang tutup bumi berbanding dengan tanaman kekacang konvensional yang lain dijelaskan dengan terperinci. Potensi penggunaan bio-char yang boleh didapati dari biojisim sawit juga ditekankan sebagai satu bidang penyelidikan yang boleh membawa pembaikan kesuburan tanah pada masa hadapan dan pensekuesteran CO2 di dalam tanah untuk jangkamasa panjang.


Keyword(s): OIL PALM-Nutrition ; FERTILZERS ; WASTE MANAGEMENT ; OIL PALM BIOMASS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 61 (November 2010) p1-10
Enhancing field mechanization in oil palm management
ABD RAHIM Shuib ; MOHD RAMDHAN Khalid ; MOHD SOLAH Deraman

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Enhancing field mechanization in oil palm management

Advancements in field mechanization for the oil palm plantation industry have, over the years, involved the introduction of machines and implements that are adapted to local terrain conditions. A suitable choice of machines is dependant on land size, terrain conditions, management preferences and economic returns. Currently, mechanization approaches vary from plantation to plantation with the major aim of overcoming labour shortage. In the 1990s, due to restrictions in the importation of labour, many organizations embarked on mechanization. Various machines of different makes were field-tested by the plantations. Some were locally developed while others were imported. Some of these machines are still in commercial use. However, in the post- 2000 era, labour availability for the industry has eased through government-to-government arrangements on foreign labour supply, with the result that the pace of mechanization has slowed down. Though in-field transportation of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) has progressed well, there is still room for improvement. This article discusses the intensification of work on mechanization in areas which mainly focus on in-field FFB evacuation and transportation of the harvested crop to the mill. Past and present experiences using various types of machines will be reported. On research and development, the article highlights some salient points to be considered to further intensify cooperation between the machine fabricator and the potential user, in the search for better machines for the future.

 
Kemajuan dalam bidang mekanisasi lading telah berkembang dengan pesat di mana jentera dan alatan telah diperkenalkan serta diterimapakai bersesuaian dengan keadaan fizikal ladang di negara kita. Pemilihan jentera bergantung pada keluasan kawasan, keadaan fizikal ladang, kecenderungan pengurusan dan pulangan ekonomik sesebuah jentera. Dewasa ini, pendekatan mekanisasi walaupun berbeza tetapi bertujuan untuk mengurangkan tenaga buruh. Pada tahun 1990-an, banyak organisasi perladangan telah memekanisasikan operasi lading mereka akibat kekangan terhadap pengambilan tenaga buruh. Pelbagai jenis jentera yang diimport atau dikeluarkan oleh pengeluar tempatan telah diuji di ladang. Jentera yang menunjukkan keberkesanan kos telah digunakan secara komersial. Walau bagaimanapun, pada era pasca 2000, proses membawa masuk tenaga buruh asing menjadi lebih mudah melalui persetujuan dengan kerajaan yang menyediakan tenaga buruh. Ini telah menurunkan kadar penggunaan mekanisasi di ladang. Mekanisasi pengangkutan buah tandan segar (BTS) walaupun telah berkembang dengan pesat, namun masih ada ruang untuk diperbaiki. Artikel ini membincangkan usahausaha intensif yang dijalankan dalam bidang mekanisasi terutama dalam proses pengangkutan dan penghantaran BTS ke kilang. Pengalaman masa lampau dan kini dalam penggunaan pelbagai jentera juga akan dibincangkan. Selain itu, artikel ini juga mengemukakan beberapa perkara penting yang boleh dipertimbangkan untuk memperbaiki kerjasama antara pengeluar dan pengguna jentera demi untuk memperkasakan penggunaan jentera pada masa akan datang.


Keyword(s): FARM MECHANIZATION ; HARVESTING MACHINERY ; FFB ; OIL PALM ESTATES & PLANTATIONS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 60 (May 2010) p38-40
MPOB News
MPOB

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No: 60 (May 2010) p28-37
Material flow cost accounting (MFCA): a brief introduction
CHONG Chiew Let ; CHAN Kok Weng ; MOHD BASRI Wahid

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Material flow cost accounting (MFCA): a brief introduction

Since the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the early 19th century, man has started to pollute the environment. This was accelerated after the Second World War when synthetic materials began to appear. The production of these materials and other new inventions that greatly impact on the socio-economic conditions of the populace also greatly accelerated pollution of the environment. In the last 20 years, concern for the environment has increased tremendously and it is definitely going to be the issue of concern over the next 20 or 30 years. Over the last 20 years, a lot of methods and standards, such as life cycle assessment (LCA) and the ISO 14000 Series of Standards, respectively, have been introduced to try to reduce or eliminate environmental pollution as much as possible. However, the majority of efforts expended are more qualitative rather than quantitative in nature and hence, their impacts are less obvious or appealing to industry, unless so demanded by consumers. Material flow cost accounting (MFCA) is a method for costing the wastes generated. Hence, a reduction in wastes, which will impact the environment, will now lead to a reduction in the cost of production. This will help industries to reduce their environmental pollution and hence improve their sustainability. The principle behind MFCA is outlined in this article. This principle is currently being used as the basis for a new ISO 14000 Series Environment Standard to help industries reduce or eliminate environmental pollutions caused by their manufacturing processes in financial terms. This will make it easier for industries to grasp their environment improvement efforts also in financial terms. Thus, it will help to motivate industries to improve their environment record while simultaneously making it easier for companies to justify their environment improvement efforts to their stakeholders and shareholders. The purpose of this article is to bring this latest development on the environment front, in addition to the impending carbon and water foot-printing, to the attention of the Malaysian oil palm industry, as part of MPOB’s continuing effort in helping industry to increase its environment sustainability.

 
Sejak kemunculan dan perkembangan Revolusi Industri pada awal abad ke-19, masyarakat sudah mula atau cenderung mencemari alam sekitar. Keadaan ini bertambah serius selepas tamatnya Perang Dunia Kedua apabila bahan sintetik mula dihasilkan. Penghasilan bahan ini, serta penemuan bahan lain yang baru, telah mempengaruhi sosioekonomi masyarakat pada era itu di samping meningkatkan pencemaran alam sekitar. Sejak 20 tahun kebelakangan ini, keperihatinan terhadap isu alam sekitar telah meningkat secara mendadak dan pastinya isu ini akan terus menjadi topic perbincangan yang hangat selama 20 atau 30 tahun akan datang. Dalam tempoh 20 tahun lepas, penyelidikan dan kajian telah menghasilkan banyak prosedur dan piawai seperti penilaian kitaran hayat (LCA) dan siri piawai ISO 14000, untuk mengurangkan dan menyelesaikan seberapa masalah pencemaran alam sekitar. Bagaimanapun, secara dasarnya kebanyakan usaha yang dijalankan lebih tertumpu pada aspek kualiti dan kurang pada aspek kuantiti. Selain itu, usaha yang dijalankan tidak menghasilkan kesan yang kurang jelas dan ketara serta lebih banyak memihak kepada keuntungan dan kepentingan industri melainkan jika terdapat permintaan yang tinggi daripada pihak pengguna. Pengiraan kos aliran bahan (MFCA) adalah satu kaedah untuk menilai dan mengira kos sisa yang dihasilkan. Ini saling berkaitan kerana apabila sisa dikurangkan ini akan memberi kesan positif pada alam sekitar, dan secara tidak langsung akan mengurangkan kos proses penghasilan. Dengan itu, ia akan membantu syarikat dan industri mengurangkan tahap pencemaran alam sekitar dan juga meningkatkan tahap kemampanan syarikat. Perkara asas atau prinsip kaedah MFCA akan dijelaskan dalam artikel ini. Prinsip kaedah ini akan diguna pakai sebagai rujukan asas dalam 29 pengstrukturan baru siri piawai ISO 14000 Alam Sekitar bagi membantu industri mengurangkan dan menyelesaikan masalah pencemaran alam sekitar hasil dari proses pembuatan dari segi kewangan. Kesannya dari segi kewangan akan memudahkan industri meningkatkan usaha memulihara alam sekitar. Selain itu, artikel ini bertujuan menjadi sumber motivasi kepada syarikat dan industri untuk meningkatkan tahap kualiti persekitaran, di samping juga memudahkan syarikat menjustifikasikan hasil usaha pembaikpulihan alam sekitar kepada pemilik dan juga pemegang sahamnya. Artikel ini juga bertujuan untuk memperkenalkan penemuan dan penyelidikan terkini dalam bidang alam sekitar, contoh, footprinting bagi karbon dan air, kepada industri minyak sawit Malaysia. Ini merupakan salah satu usaha berterusan MPOB dalam meningkatkan kesejahteraan alam sekitar.


Keyword(s): FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT ; COST ACCOUNTING ; ISO 1400 ; MATERIAL FLOW COST ACCOUNTING (MFCA) ; GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 60 (May 2010) p22-27
Biological nitrogen fixation by mucuna bracteata under oil palm filed environments
CHEAH, S.S. * ; ZAHARAH, A.R. ** ; AMINUDDIN, H. **

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Biological nitrogen fixation by mucuna bracteata under oil palm filed environments

In recent years, there has been a tremendous renewal of interest in incorporating the N-fixing creeping legume, Mucuna bracteata, in the oil palm production system. Although a considerable amount of work has been done on M. bracteata, the N-fixing capacity of this legume has not been fully studied. Hence, an experiment using the 15N isotopic dilution technique was laid out to quantify the N fixed by M. bracteata in a 3-year-old oil palm plantation where P. conjucatum and mixed broad-leaf weeds were used as non-N-fixing reference plants. The results revealed that M. bracteata planted on Jawa Series soil derived 67%-84% of its N from N-fixation. The finding confirmed that M. Bracteata has the potential to contribute to the N pool of the oil palm cropping system, and has potential to be used as a green manure or even as an alternative N source to inorganic N. The high percentage of N fixed by M. bracteata also indicates that competition for applied N and soil N between M. bracteata and oil palm, if any, would be insignificant.

 
Penggunaan kekacang penutup bumi, M. Bracteata dalam sistem pengeluaran sawit semakin mendapat perhatian kebelakangan ini. Walaupun banyak penyelidikan telah dijalankan ke atas M. bracteata, keupayaan untuk mengikat N daripada atmosfera belum dikaji dengan sepenuhnya. Sehubungan ini, satu kajian telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji keupayaan pengikatan N oleh M. bracteata di ladang sawit yang berumur tiga tahun. Dalam kajian ini, kaedah 15N isotopi digunakan untuk mengukur jumlah N yang diikat oleh M. bracteata yang ditanam di celah-celah barisan sawit, di mana P. conjucatum dan campuran rumpai berdaun lebar digunakan sebagai tumbuhan rujukan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan M. bracteata yang ditanam di atas tanah siri Jawa berupaya mengikat 67%-84% keperluan N daripada atmosfera.


Keyword(s): OIL PALM ESTATES & PLANTATION-Malaysia ; MUCUNA BRACTEATA ; FARM MECHANIZATIONS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 60 (May 2010) p17-21
A review on the production of glycol from glycerol
AZNIRA Alias * ; ROILA Awang

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A review on the production of glycol from glycerol

Crude glycerol is the primary by-product of the biodiesel industry and too costly to purify it into a higher quality product. However, glycerol can be converted into other useful products used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries such as trimethylene glycol (1,3-propanediol), propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol), ethylene glycol and ethanol through the hydrogenation process and the microbial fermentation process. This article reviews factors affecting glycerol conversion, glycol selectivity, concentration and conversion yield through both the hydrogenation and microbial fermentation processes.

 
Gliserol mentah merupakan hasil sampingan utama industri biodiesel yang terlalu mahal untuk ditukar menjadi produk yang bermutu tinggi. Gliserol boleh ditukarkan kepada beberapa produk berguna untuk industri farmaseutikal dan kosmetik seperti trimetilena glikol (1,3-propanediol), propilena glikol (1,2-propanediol), etilena glikol dan etanol melalui proses penghidrogenan dan proses fermentasi mikroorganisma. Artikel ini melaporkan faktor yang mempengaruhi penukaran gliserol, pemilihan kepekatan dan penghasilan glikol melalui proses penghidrogenan dan fermentasi mikroorganisma.


Keyword(s): BIODIESEL INDUSTRY ; GLYCEROL ; FERMENTATION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 60 (May 2010) p1-16
Impact of increases in fertilizer prices on long term-term economic vialibility of palm oil production
MOHD ARIF Simeh

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Impact of increases in fertilizer prices on long term-term economic vialibility of palm oil production

Surges in fertilizer prices in recent years have led to a sudden increase in the production cost of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) of oil palm as the share of fertilizer cost in the overall field cost has escalated from 30%-35% in 2007 to as high as 50% in 2008. This phenomenon created concerns among industry members because net revenue from FFB production was cost-squeezed to payback the initial capital outlay and to finance field operations. Increases in fertilizer prices can affect investment viability and the economic attractiveness of oil palm planting and replanting. This article attempts to give an overview of and evaluate the impact of rising fertilizer prices on the long-term viability of palm oil production in Malaysia. Evaluation of various scenarios of fertilizer price increases on investment payback period and on production cost (per hectare and per tonne of FFB), as well as the determination of threshold crude palm oil (CPO) prices for viable cultivation and replanting of oil palm were undertaken using system dynamics – a programmable master schedule known as e-FA (e-Fertilizer Application).

Peningkatan harga baja secara mendadak sepanjang tempoh 2007-2008 telah menyebabkan peratus kos pembajaan dalam keseluruhan kos pengeluaran buah tandan segar (BTS) meningkat dari 30%- 35% pada tahun 2007 kepada 60% pada tahun 2008. Fenomena ini telah menyebabkan industri sawit negara mengalami kemerosotan pulangan akibat pengeluaran BTS terjejas untuk membayar balik pelaburan awal dalam pembangunan lading atau penanaman semula dan juga untuk membiayai kos operasi di ladang. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memberi perspektif ekonomi kesan peningkatan harga baja ke atas daya saing pengeluaran minyak sawit untuk tempoh jangka panjang. Beberapa senario peningkatan harga baja dan kesannya terhadap pulangan pelaburan, kos pengeluaran BTS serta tahap harga minyak sawit mentah (MSM) yang berdaya maju telah dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis kos faedah.


Keyword(s): PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; PALM OIL-Production ; SOIL FERTILITY ; FERTILIZER ; PRODUCTION COSTS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 59 (November 2009) p25-28
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

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No: 59 (November 2009) p18-24
Physical properties of red palm-based ice cream
WAN ROSNANI Awang Isa ; NOR AINI Idris ; ABDUL RAHMAN Ibrahim

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Physical properties of red palm-based ice cream

Ice cream was formulated using a blend of non-fat milk solids and red palm olein. The purpose of adding red palm olein was to maximize the use of red palm oil in dairy products. Ice cream was produced using different percentages of red palm olein, namely, 10%, 8% and 5%. The samples were coded as S1, S2 and S3, respectively. The other samples were prepared using 10% fat from red palm olein:palm oil blends at 20:80, 50:50 and 80:20 ratios. The samples were coded as S4, S5 and S6, respectively. Physical and chemical characteristics of the ice cream mixes and ice cream such as viscosity, colour, overrun, meltability and structure were analysed. All the ice creams produced were yellowish in colour due to the presence of carotenoids. Overrun of the ice creams ranged from 35% to 50%, meltability was 95% to 99% and viscosity ranged from 450 to 500 centipoise (cPs). Red palm olein ice creams received higher scores compared to the control sample in terms of appearance, flavour, body and texture, and meltability.

Ais krim telah diformulasi dengan menggunakan campuran pepejal susu tanpa lemak dan minyak olein sawit merah. Tujuan penambahan minyak olein sawit merah ialah untuk memaksimumkan penggunaan minyak ini dalam hasil tenusu. Ais krim dihasilkan dengan menggunakan peratusan minyak olein sawit merah yang berbeza, iaitu 10%, 8% and 5%. Sampel ini masing-masing dikodkan sebagai S1, S2 dan S3. Sampel seterusnya disediakan dengan menggunakan 10% lemak daripada campuran minyak olein sawit merah:minyak sawit pada nisbah 20:80, 50:50 dan 80:20. Sampel masing-masing dikodkan sebagai S4, S5 dan S6. Sifat fizikal dan kimia campuran ais krim dan ais krim seperti kelikatan, warna, isi padu udara dan kecairan telah dianalisis. Kesemua ais krim yang dihasilkan menunjukkan warna kekuningan disebabkan oleh kandungan karotenoid. Ais krim yang dihasilkan mempunyai isi padu udara 35% hingga 50%, kecairan 95% hingga 99% dan kelikatan 450 hingga 500 centipoise (cPs). Ais krim daripada minyak olein sawit merah menerima pencapaian yang tinggi berbanding dengan ais krim kawalan dari segi rupa bentuk, cita rasa, struktur dan tekstur, serta sifat kecairannya.



Keyword(s): PALM OLEIN ; ICE CREAM ; FLAVOURS ; RED PALM OIL ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 59 (November 2009) p12-17
Palm emulsion in water (ew) - cypermerthrin insecticide against the rhinoceros beetle, oryctes rhinoceros in oil palm plantation
ISMAIL Ab Rahman * ; TEY, C.C. ** ; MOHD, A.A. ** ; TEE, B.H + ; TONG, C.H. + ; YEONG Shoot Kian * ; HAZIMAH Abu Hassan

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Palm emulsion in water (ew) - cypermerthrin insecticide against the rhinoceros beetle, oryctes rhinoceros in oil palm plantation

The field performance of palm emulsion in water (EW)-cypermethrin against rhinoceros beetles, Oryctes rhinoceros in immature oil palm was studied with respect to its insecticidal activities and phytotoxic effect on young palms. The conventional emulsifiable concentrate (EC)-cypermethrin and another commercial product (gamma-cyhalothrin) were included for comparison. The trial was carried out on one-year-old replants in an oil palm estate (Sime Darby Plantation) in Labu, Negeri Sembilan. The chemicals were applied to the crown and spears of immature palms at two-weekly intervals, and the infestation by rhinoceros beetle was assessed at regular intervals for about nine months. During the trial period, no phytotoxic symptoms were observed in all treatments. Generally, beetle infestation in the trial plots declined over time. However, overall beetle damage in all treated plots was much lower than in the control. Statistical analysis on cumulative beetle attacks after three and eight months showed that palm EW-cypermethrin at 0.028% a.i. and 0.056% a.i. provided significant control (more than 80%) of the rhinoceros beetle. There was no significant difference between plots treated with palm EW-cypermethrin and the commercial products (i.e., EC-cypermethrin and capsulated suspension [(CS)-gamma-cyhalothrin]), in the control of the rhinoceros beetle.

Kajian keberkesanan racun serangga jenis emulsi minyak dalam air (EW)-cypermethrin untuk mengawal kumbang badak, Oryctes rhinoceros di ladang sawit muda telah dibuat dengan memberi tumpuan kepada aktiviti insektisid dan kesan fitotoksisiti pada pokok sawit. Racun serangga konvensional jenis emulsi terpekat (EC)-cypermethrin dan produk komersial suspensi kapsul (CS)-gamacyhalothrin diguna sebagai bandingan. Kajian telah dijalankan ke atas tanaman sawit semula di Ladang Labu(Sime Darby Plantation), Negeri Sembilan. Bahan kimia disembur ke atas pucuk atau umbut sawit muda sekali setiap dua minggu, dan pembiakan kumbang badak ditentukan dalam tempoh sembilan bulan. Semasa kajian dijalankan, tanda kesan fitotosik tidak diperhatikan pada semua rawatan. Pada umumnya, serangan kumbang badak di petak rawatan semakin berkurangan mengikut tempoh kajian. Walau bagaimanapun, kematian atau kerosakan pokok disebabkan oleh kumbang badak di petak rawatan adalah jauh lebih rendah berbanding dengan petak tanpa rawatan. Analisis statistik secara kumulatif ke atas serangan kumbang badak pada tiga dan lapan bulan selepas rawatan menunjukkan bahawa EW-cypermethrin pada kadar 0.028% dan 0.056% bahan aktif memberi kesan yang ketara (sehingga 80% kawalan) bagi mengawal kumbang badak. Tiada perbezaan yang ketara antara petak yang dirawat dengan EW-cypermethrin dan petak yang dirawat dengan produk komersial (EC-cypermethrin dan CS-gama-cyhalothrin) untuk mengawal kumbang badak.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; EMULSION IN WATER (EW) ; RHINOCEROS BEETLE ; INSECTICIDE

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