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No: 58 (May 2009) p46-52
Bakery fats from palm oil products and soyabean oil for short crust pastry
NOR AINI Idris ; MISKANDAR Mat Sahri ; HANIRAH, H ; CHE MAIMON, C. H.

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Abstract


Bakery fats from palm oil products and soyabean oil for short crust pastry

A study was carried out to characterize bakery fats made from palm oil products and soyabean oil, and to evaluate their potential for the production of sweet short crust pastry. The three bakery fats were coded as 783, 784 and 785. They consisted of 50% soft palm stearin (IV 40), 20% palm oil and 30% soyabean oil (sample 783); 60% soft palm stearin (IV 40), 10% palm kernel oil and 30% soyabean oil (sample 784); and 40% hard palm stearin (IV 28), 10% palm kernel oil and 50% soyabean oil (sample 785). Results showed that the slip melting point of the fats ranged from 44.7°C to 48.8°C, and their dropping points ranged from 43.4°C to 48.6°C. Samples 783 and 784 had steeper solid fat content curves than sample 785. In terms of consistency, sample 783 was the softest while sample 784 was the firmest. The three bakery fats were rich in palmitic acid (33.5% to 39.8%) and oleic acids (22.3% to 30.8%). Sample 783 contained both â and â’crystals while the other two samples contained only â crystals. Sensory evaluation results by Hedonic Scoring on the short crusts showed that all samples received scores greater than 6, indicating that they were all acceptable and that the three bakery fats were suitable for making sweet short crust.

Kajian telah dijalankan untuk mengenal pasti ciriciri lemak bakeri yang diperbuat daripada produk minyak sawit dan minyak soya, dan untuk menilai potensi bagi pengeluaran sweet short crust pastry. Lemak bakeri ini diberi kod 783, 784 dan 785. Produk ini terdiri daripada 50% stearin sawit lembut (IV 40), 20% minyak sawit dan 30% minyak soya (sampel 783); 60% stearin sawit lembut (IV 40), 10% minyak isirung sawit dan 30% minyak soya (sampel 784); dan 40% stearin sawit keras (IV 28), 10% minyak isirung sawit dan 50% minyak soya (sampel 785). Keputusan menunjukkan takat lebur lemak adalah di antara 44.7oC hingga 48.8oC, dan takat gelincir di antara 43.4oChingga 48.6oC. Sampel 783 dan 784 mempunyai keluk kandungan lemak yang lebih curam berbanding sampel 785. Dari segi konsistensi, sampel 783 adalah paling lembut manakala sampel 784 lebih keras. Ketiga-tiga lemak bakeri ini mempunyai asid palmitik (33.5% ke 39.8%) dan asid oleik (22.3% ke 30.8%) yang tinggi. Sampel 783 mengandungi kedua-dua kristal â dan â’ manakala dua sample yang lain hanya mengandungi â kristal. Keputusan penilaian sensori menggunakan Skala Hedonic menunjukkan kesemua sampel mendapat skor melebihi 6. Ini menunjukkan bahawa kesemuanya boleh diterima dan ketiga-tiga lemak bakeri ini amat sesuai dalam pembuatan sweet short crust pastry.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; SOLID FAT CONTENT (SFC) ; BAKERY SHORTENING ; PALM OIL PRODUCTS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 58 (May 2009) p37-45
Prediction of solid fat content in a palm-based fluid shortening production by FT-IR spectroscopy
MISKANDAR Mat Sahri * ; CHE MAN, Y. B. + ; ABDUL RAHMAN, R + ; NOR AINI Idris * ; MOHD SURIA AFANDI Yusoff **

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Abstract


Prediction of solid fat content in a palm-based fluid shortening production by FT-IR spectroscopy

Crystal development during batch process of palm oil-based fluid shortening was determined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) of Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The molten fat was cooled, heated and cooled again while agitating at constant speed. Samples for solid fat content (SFC) measurements by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and FT-IR spectroscopy were taken during the crystallization process at 20ºC and heating process at 30ºC. Standard samples having the best coefficient of determination (R2) and standard error of estimations were calibrated with the spectrum obtained by FT-IR spectroscopy using partial least square (PLS) chemometric analysis. They were then selected as the PLS model. The model was independently validated by leave one out method. It had an acceptable accuracy and repeatability with R2> 0.9 at 20ºC and 30ºC, thus provided good SFC estimates during the production of palm oil-based fluid shortening. The method even though not as good as NMR, could be further studied as alternative way of measuring solid development during a fluid shortening production.

Pengesanan pembentukan hablur semasa pemprosesan lelemak cecair berasaskan sawit telah diperoleh dengan menggunakan Spektroskopi Transformasi Sinar-jingga Fourier (FT-IR) dengan jumlah refleksi dipermudah (ATR). Lemak yang cair telah disejukkan, dipanaskan dan kemudian disejukkan semula sambil diadukkan pada kelajuan yang seragam. Sampel untuk pengukuran kandungan lemak pejal (SFC) menggunakan alatresonan nuklear bermagnet (NMR) dan spektroskopi FT-IR telah diambil semasa proses penghabluran pada suhu 20ºC dan pemanasan pada suhu 30ºC. Sampel piawai yang menghasilkan penentuan korelasi pekali (R2) dan standard error of estimation telah dikalibrasi dengan menggunakan spektrum yang dihasilkan oleh spektroskopi FT-IR menggunakan analisis kemometrik partial least square (PLS). Sampel piawai ini telah dipilih sebagai model PLS. Model telah disahkan secara bebas menggunakan kaedah leave one out. Keputusan menunjukkan ketepatan dan ulangan R2> 0.9 pada 20ºC dan 30ºC, lalu menghasilkan jangkaan SFC yang baik semasa pemprosesan lelemak cecair berasaskan sawit. Kaedah ini sungguhpun tidak sebaik NMR, namun, boleh dikaji lagi sebagai kaedah alternatif untuk mengukur pembentukan pepejal semasa pemprosesan lelemak cecair.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; SOLID FAT CONTENT (SFC) ; BAKERY SHORTENING ; NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 58 (May 2009) p14-36
Life cycle assessment - a tool for sustainability and business opportunity
TAN Yew AI ; SUBRAMANIAN, Vijaya ; PUAH, C.W. ; ZULKIFLI Hashim ; HALIMAH Mohamed ; MA An Ngan ; CHOO Yuan May

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Life cycle assessment - a tool for sustainability and business opportunity

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool used to determine the complex interaction between a product, service or process with the environment. Results from a full LCA study provide the basis for improvement of environmental performance as the study identifies the key ecological impacts and stages of the life cycle of the product which contribute to environmental consequences. The many practical applications of LCA include its use in improving a product or process, material selection, eco-labelling and as a marketing strategy. As LCA is still a developing field, there are limitations in performing the study, the major issues being the availability of inventory data and uncertainties in impact assessment methodologies. The main aim of this article is to provide the background necessary for understanding the application and relevance of LCA in sustainable development of the palm oil industry.

Penilaian kitaran hayat (LCA) adalah suatu kaedah yang digunakan untuk menentukan interaksi kompleks di antara produk, perkhidmatan atau proses dengan alam sekitar. Kajian LCA yang lengkap merupakan asas dalam melaksanakan pemuliharaan alam sekitar, di mana ia dapat mengenal pasti impak ekologi utama dan peringkat kitaran hayat produk yang memberi kesan kepada alam sekitar. Antara penggunaan LCA yang dipratikkan termasuk penggunaan dalam usaha penambahbaikan produk atau proses, pemilihan bahan, melabelkan eko dan juga sebagai strategi pemasaran. Namun begitu, LCA merupakan satu bidang yang masih pada peringkat awal. Oleh itu, data inventori yang diperlukan untuk menjalankan kajian ini masih terhad. Ketidakpastian dalam kaedah penilaian impak juga merupakan antara masalah yang dihadapi. Tujuan utama penulisan ini ialah untuk memberikan maklumat asas bagi memahami penggunaan dan kaitan LCA dalam pembangunan industri sawit yang mampan.



Keyword(s): LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) ; SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ; ISO 14040 ; PALM OIL INDUSTRY ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 58 (May 2009) p1-13
Experiences in peat development for oil palm planting in the MPOB Research Station at Sessang, Sarawak
HASNOL Othman ; FARAWAHIDA Mohamad Darus ; AHMAD TARMIZI Mohammed

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Experiences in peat development for oil palm planting in the MPOB Research Station at Sessang, Sarawak

The rapid expansion of the oil palm industry and the depletion of prime land for oil palm cultivation have caused planters to resort to the marginal areas such as peat. Peatland with an area totaling approximately 2.6 million hectares is considered a problematic soil in Malaysia, but has potential for oil palm cultivation.

The poor inherent physical properties of peat such as low bulk density, high water-table and rapid subsidence rate make its development for oil palm cultivation difficult and costly as compared to mineral soils. Through research and development carried out by various research institutions including the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), planting of oil palm on drained peat has been successful and oil palm yield on peat is comparable to those from mineral soils. Various aspects of work or disciplines have been covered especially on land preparation techniques, drainage and water management, planting density and fertilizer requirements.

The adoption of the results obtained over time has resulted in the better performance of oil palm especially on deep peat. From recent achievements, oil palm yields on peat are equal if not better than those from some of the mineral soils. This article discusses MPOB’s experiences in planting oil palm on peat at the MPOB Research Station at Sessang, Sarawak.

Kekurangan tanah yang sesuai serta kepesatan pembangunan industri sawit telah menyebabkan usaha penanaman sawit di tanah marginal seperti tanah gambut. Di Malaysia, tanah gambut dengan keluasan hampir 2.6 juta hektar merupakan tanah bermasalah tetapi berpotensi untuk penanaman sawit.

Ciri-ciri fizikal tanah gambut seperti kepadatan pukal yang rendah, paras air tinggi dan susutan tanah menyebabkan usaha penanaman sawit menjadi sukar dan memerlukan perbelanjaan yang tinggi berbanding dengan penanaman di tanah mineral. Hasil penyelidikan yang dijalankan oleh pelbagai pihak termasuk Lembaga Minyak Sawit Malaysia (MPOB) telah berjaya meningkatkan pengeluaran hasil sawit di tanah gambut ke tahap setanding dengan di tanah mineral.

Kejayaan penanaman sawit di tanah gambut, khususnya gambut dalam sangat bergantung pada tahap perlaksanaan teknologi yang diperkenalkan, terutama dari aspek kaedah penyediaan kawasan, teknik dan jarak penanaman, pengurusan air serta pembajaan sawit. Artikel ini membincang pengalaman MPOB dalam usaha penanaman sawit di tanah gambut di Stesen Penyelidikan MPOB Sessang, Sarawak.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM PLANTING ; PEAT SOIL ; OIL PALM SOIL ; YIELD ; WATER MANAGEMENT ; TERMITES ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 57 (November 2008) p37-40
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

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No: 57 (November 2008) p27-35
Promoting innovation for sustainability in agriculture - the role of Malaysia legal framework
SUFIAN Jusoh

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Promoting innovation for sustainability in agriculture - the role of Malaysia legal framework

Sustainable agriculture is a system that can evolve indefinitely towards greater human utility, efficient use of resources, balanced with an environment which is favourable to humans and most other species. One of the ways to encourage sustainability in agriculture is by encouraging innovations. These include innovation in new and more efficient plant and animal breeds that will increase efficiency and less negative effects on the environment which will increase productivity and income for the participants in the agriculture sector.

This article examines how the Malaysian Patents Act 1983 (MPA) and the Protection of New Plant Varieties Act 2004 (PVP) can best be used to encourage innovations that will promote growth and sustainability in agriculture. MPA and PVP provide intellectual property protection for inventions. Specifically the PVP provides intellectual property protection for new breeds of plants that meet the necessary requirements. MPA is more relevant to other related inventions such as in the field of biotechnology. Nevertheless, the opportunities provided by the two legislations are not without their shortcomings. Such shortcomings include the high related costs, the perception that they are only suitable for big and rich inventors or big business, that they are utilized mostly by foreigners, and that the time taken for protection to become effective is too lengthy.
The article will explore such shortcomings and their effects on small farmers and smallholders. Taking into account of developments at the international level, the article also provides recommendations on how small farmers and smallholders can benefit from the protection systems to encourage them to be more innovative and to become more sustainable in the agriculture sector.


Keyword(s): AGRICULTURE ; PLANT PROTECTION ; SUSTAINABLE ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 57 (November 2008) p17-26
Informatics in agricultural planning, management and production
WENG Kin Lai ; MAUL, Tomas H.B. ; CHEN Change Loy ; YUET Yean Lee

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Informatics in agricultural planning, management and production

Malaysia is blessed with a tropical climate that is conducive for the growth of many commercially viable crops like oil palm, rubber, cocoa and pepper. For over 50 years now, agriculture has played a very significant role in the development of the nation’s economy. However, the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is predicting that global competition between exporters of agricultural commodities will intensify over the next 10 years in both developed and developing countries. Stiff competition, combined with higher productivity from the farmers in the developed nations, will result in a sharp drop in real prices for many of these agricultural produce. Hence, farmers will have to make strong concerted efforts to improve efficiencies so as to maintain their profit margins.

Under the Ninth Malaysia Plan, agriculture will be revitalized as an engine of growth for the country, with strong emphasis on the use of modern technology to improve crop yields, produce better plant varieties, increase market accessibility, promote precision farming, support good agriculture practices, etc. Informatics, which basically looks at how information and communication technologies process, share and store data as well as information, can help to improve efficiencies and productivity in agriculture.
This article identifies some of the major issues facing agriculture and explores how informatics can play a role in overcoming them.


Keyword(s): AGRICULTURE ; ICT ; PRODUCTIVITY ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 57 (November 2008) p10-16
Dry matter production and nutrient uptake by PS1 and DxP planting materials on typic endoaquepts soil in Sabah
AHMAD AFANDI Murdi ; AHMAD TARMIZI Mohammed ; MOHD HANIFF Harun ; ZULKIFLI Hashim ; NOH Ahmad ; HAMDAN Abu Bakar ; KHAIRUMAN Hashim

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Dry matter production and nutrient uptake by PS1 and DxP planting materials on typic endoaquepts soil in Sabah

An attempt was made to quantify the dry matter production and nutrient uptake by PS1 oil palm planting materials during the immature stage. The results show that at 43 months after planting, the total fresh and dry weights of PS1 were 22.50% and 6% higher respectively as compared to the commercial DxP, but the differences were not significant.

The concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in various palm components of PS1 and DxP were not significantly different. However, the concentrations of potassium and calcium in the‘cabbage’ of PS1 were 77% and 113% higher respectively than those of DxP. The concentration of magnesium in the spears of DxP was 108% higher than that of PS1. The ranking order of nutrient content (kg palm-1) in the whole palm components of both types of planting materials was K > N > Ca > Mg > P.
The total uptake of each nutrient for both materials was not significantly different. PS1 planting materials are comparable to the commercial DxP in terms of dry matter production and nutrient uptake.


Keyword(s): PS1 ; NUTRIENT UPTAKE ; PLANTING MATERIALS ; OIL PALM-Nutrition ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 57 (November 2008) p1-9
Techniques for detecting adulteration in palm kernel oil
MOHTAR Yusof ; CHONG Chiew Let

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Techniques for detecting adulteration in palm kernel oil

Near infra-red spectroscopy (NIR) is a rapid technique to detect adulteration of crude palm kernel oil (CPKO) by palm oil products and by-products if the level of adulteration is more than 10%. Below this, the technique can detect scavenger, alcohol bottom, ester bottom or soap stock contamination. Determination of solid fat content (SFC) by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (PNMR) can be a general technique for detecting adulteration by CPO, refined bleached deodorized (RBD) palm oil, palm olein, RBD stearin, palm residue, scavenger, soap stock, alcohol botom and ester bottom in CPKO at 1% to 10%.

Gas chromatography (GC), by measuring the fatty acid composition (FAC), can detect adulteration by CPO, RBDPO, palm olein, RBD stearin, palm residue, scavenger and ester bottom, but is not suitable for soap stock and alcohol bottom. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by measuring the triglycerides content, is not a satisfactory technique for determining adulteration in CPKO. Physical techniques, such as the cloud point, refractive index and slip melting point, and saponification value are also not suitable. GC and PNMR can detect as low as 0.3% adulteration in CPKO.
However, due to the large national natural variation of FAC and SFC in CPKO, the limits of determination for nine adulterants were only 4.0% to 7.0% by GC and 3.0% to 9.0% by PNMR. One approach to lower the limit of determination is to reduce the natural variation of FAC and SFC of CPKO by assessing adulteration in individual oleochemical plant. With this approach, the limit of determination can be lowered to < 2.0% by both GC and PNMR.


Keyword(s): PALM KERNEL OIL ; ADULTERATION ; NEAR INFRA-RED SPECTROSCOPY (NIR) ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 56 (May 2008) p41-42
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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