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LIST OF ARTICLES

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No: 57 (November 2008) p37-40
MPOB News
MPOB

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No: 57 (November 2008) p27-35
Promoting innovation for sustainability in agriculture - the role of Malaysia legal framework
SUFIAN Jusoh

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Promoting innovation for sustainability in agriculture - the role of Malaysia legal framework

Sustainable agriculture is a system that can evolve indefinitely towards greater human utility, efficient use of resources, balanced with an environment which is favourable to humans and most other species. One of the ways to encourage sustainability in agriculture is by encouraging innovations. These include innovation in new and more efficient plant and animal breeds that will increase efficiency and less negative effects on the environment which will increase productivity and income for the participants in the agriculture sector.

This article examines how the Malaysian Patents Act 1983 (MPA) and the Protection of New Plant Varieties Act 2004 (PVP) can best be used to encourage innovations that will promote growth and sustainability in agriculture. MPA and PVP provide intellectual property protection for inventions. Specifically the PVP provides intellectual property protection for new breeds of plants that meet the necessary requirements. MPA is more relevant to other related inventions such as in the field of biotechnology. Nevertheless, the opportunities provided by the two legislations are not without their shortcomings. Such shortcomings include the high related costs, the perception that they are only suitable for big and rich inventors or big business, that they are utilized mostly by foreigners, and that the time taken for protection to become effective is too lengthy.
The article will explore such shortcomings and their effects on small farmers and smallholders. Taking into account of developments at the international level, the article also provides recommendations on how small farmers and smallholders can benefit from the protection systems to encourage them to be more innovative and to become more sustainable in the agriculture sector.


Keyword(s): AGRICULTURE ; PLANT PROTECTION ; SUSTAINABLE ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 57 (November 2008) p17-26
Informatics in agricultural planning, management and production
WENG Kin Lai ; MAUL, Tomas H.B. ; CHEN Change Loy ; YUET Yean Lee

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Informatics in agricultural planning, management and production

Malaysia is blessed with a tropical climate that is conducive for the growth of many commercially viable crops like oil palm, rubber, cocoa and pepper. For over 50 years now, agriculture has played a very significant role in the development of the nation’s economy. However, the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is predicting that global competition between exporters of agricultural commodities will intensify over the next 10 years in both developed and developing countries. Stiff competition, combined with higher productivity from the farmers in the developed nations, will result in a sharp drop in real prices for many of these agricultural produce. Hence, farmers will have to make strong concerted efforts to improve efficiencies so as to maintain their profit margins.

Under the Ninth Malaysia Plan, agriculture will be revitalized as an engine of growth for the country, with strong emphasis on the use of modern technology to improve crop yields, produce better plant varieties, increase market accessibility, promote precision farming, support good agriculture practices, etc. Informatics, which basically looks at how information and communication technologies process, share and store data as well as information, can help to improve efficiencies and productivity in agriculture.
This article identifies some of the major issues facing agriculture and explores how informatics can play a role in overcoming them.


Keyword(s): AGRICULTURE ; ICT ; PRODUCTIVITY ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 57 (November 2008) p10-16
Dry matter production and nutrient uptake by PS1 and DxP planting materials on typic endoaquepts soil in Sabah
AHMAD AFANDI Murdi ; AHMAD TARMIZI Mohammed ; MOHD HANIFF Harun ; ZULKIFLI Hashim ; NOH Ahmad ; HAMDAN Abu Bakar ; KHAIRUMAN Hashim

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Dry matter production and nutrient uptake by PS1 and DxP planting materials on typic endoaquepts soil in Sabah

An attempt was made to quantify the dry matter production and nutrient uptake by PS1 oil palm planting materials during the immature stage. The results show that at 43 months after planting, the total fresh and dry weights of PS1 were 22.50% and 6% higher respectively as compared to the commercial DxP, but the differences were not significant.

The concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in various palm components of PS1 and DxP were not significantly different. However, the concentrations of potassium and calcium in the‘cabbage’ of PS1 were 77% and 113% higher respectively than those of DxP. The concentration of magnesium in the spears of DxP was 108% higher than that of PS1. The ranking order of nutrient content (kg palm-1) in the whole palm components of both types of planting materials was K > N > Ca > Mg > P.
The total uptake of each nutrient for both materials was not significantly different. PS1 planting materials are comparable to the commercial DxP in terms of dry matter production and nutrient uptake.


Keyword(s): PS1 ; NUTRIENT UPTAKE ; PLANTING MATERIALS ; OIL PALM-Nutrition ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 57 (November 2008) p1-9
Techniques for detecting adulteration in palm kernel oil
MOHTAR Yusof ; CHONG Chiew Let

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Techniques for detecting adulteration in palm kernel oil

Near infra-red spectroscopy (NIR) is a rapid technique to detect adulteration of crude palm kernel oil (CPKO) by palm oil products and by-products if the level of adulteration is more than 10%. Below this, the technique can detect scavenger, alcohol bottom, ester bottom or soap stock contamination. Determination of solid fat content (SFC) by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (PNMR) can be a general technique for detecting adulteration by CPO, refined bleached deodorized (RBD) palm oil, palm olein, RBD stearin, palm residue, scavenger, soap stock, alcohol botom and ester bottom in CPKO at 1% to 10%.

Gas chromatography (GC), by measuring the fatty acid composition (FAC), can detect adulteration by CPO, RBDPO, palm olein, RBD stearin, palm residue, scavenger and ester bottom, but is not suitable for soap stock and alcohol bottom. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by measuring the triglycerides content, is not a satisfactory technique for determining adulteration in CPKO. Physical techniques, such as the cloud point, refractive index and slip melting point, and saponification value are also not suitable. GC and PNMR can detect as low as 0.3% adulteration in CPKO.
However, due to the large national natural variation of FAC and SFC in CPKO, the limits of determination for nine adulterants were only 4.0% to 7.0% by GC and 3.0% to 9.0% by PNMR. One approach to lower the limit of determination is to reduce the natural variation of FAC and SFC of CPKO by assessing adulteration in individual oleochemical plant. With this approach, the limit of determination can be lowered to < 2.0% by both GC and PNMR.


Keyword(s): PALM KERNEL OIL ; ADULTERATION ; NEAR INFRA-RED SPECTROSCOPY (NIR) ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 56 (May 2008) p41-42
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

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No: 56 (May 2008) p29-40
Browning characteristics of palm-based mozzarella analoques
KARIMAH Ahmad

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Browning characteristics of palm-based mozzarella analoques

Five types of mozzarella analogues were produced using palm-based products such as refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (PO), palm olein (POo), palm kernel oil (PKO), palm stearin (POS) and a blend comprising 30% PO and 70% palm kernel olein. The change in colour of mozzarella analogues before and after baking were compared with the control. A commercial sample imported from Denmark was used as the control. The slip melting point of palm-based oils ranged from 19.4°C to 48.7°C. Colour readings were analysed on day 1, 8, 15, 21 and 30. The browning properties of mozzarella analogues and control were evaluated using the Hunter Lab colour system. Browning, which occurs at the cheese surface during high temperature baking, is characterized by the formation of a skin-like layer containing coloured patches that may range from light or golden brown to black in extreme cases. Before baking, mozzarella analogue samples were lighter in colour compared to the control sample. Their L-value which is a measure of the degree of lightness of the control sample ranged from 60.43-66.28. The ranking for lightness of colour for mozzarella analogues were POS>Blend>PKO>PO>POo. There was a significant difference in L-value between the control and all mozzarella analogues before baking. The L-value of the control sample after baking ranged from 42.48-50.28 while that of the analogues ranged from 62.01-68.76. The a-value which is the degree of redness of the control sample before baking was significantly different from all the mozzarella analogues except for analogue made using POS. After baking, the control sample had an a-value 10 times more than the analogue samples. No significant difference (p<0.05) in a-value was observed among the mozzarella analogues but a significant difference was observed between  the control and the mozzarella analogue samples. The use of palm-based oils with different slip meting point showed some effects on the browning properties of mozzarella analogues.

 

ABSTRAK
Lima jenis analog mozarela telah dihasilkan dengan menggunakan minyak sawit, olein sawit, minyak isirung sawit, stearin sawit dan campuran minyak sawit (30%) serta olein isirung sawit (70%) yang telah ditulen, nyah warna dan nyah bau. Penukaran warna bagi analog mozarela sebelum dan selepas dibakar di dalam ketuhar dibandingkan dengan sampel piawai. Sampel komersial yang diimport dari Denmark digunakan sebagai piawai. Titik takat lebur bagi hasil minyak sawit yang digunakan mempunyai julat di antara 19.4°C hingga 48.7°C. Pembacaan warna dijalankan pada hari 1, 8, 15, 21 dan 30. Sifat kecoklatan bagi sampel analog mozarela dan piawai dianalisis dengan menggunakan sistem warna Hunter Lab. Proses kecoklatan biasanya terjadi pada permukaan semasa dibakar di dalam ketuhar. Ciri-cirinya adalah pembentukan lapisan yang bertompok-tompok dan mempunyai julat warna coklat keemasan hingga kehitaman. Analog mozarela menunjukkan warna yang cerah sebelum dibakar jika dibandingkan dengan piawai. Nilai-L iaitu ukuran bagi darjah kecerahan bagi piawai adalah 60.43- 66.28. Darjat kecerahan bagi warna untuk analog mozarela adalah POS>Blend>PKO>PO>POo. Analisis statistik menunjukkan ada perbezaan yang ketara di antara warna piawai dan analog mozarela sebelum dibakar. Nilai l bagi piawai setelah dibakar mempunyai julat 42.48-50.28 manakala bagi analog mozarela pula adalah 62.01-68.76. Darjah kemerahan yang diukur sebagai nilai-a menunjukkan perbezaan yang ketara di antara piawai dan kesemua analog mozarela melainkan analog yang dibuat dengan stearin sawit. Didapati bahawa setelah dibakar, sampel piawai mempunyai nilai-a sebanyak 10 kali ganda lebih daripada analog mozarela. Tiada perbezaan ketara didapati di antara sampel analog mozarela tetapi perbezaan yang ketara didapati di antara sampel piawai dan analog mozarela. Penggunaan hasil minyak sawit yang mempunyai titik takat lebur yang berbeza memberi kesan ke atas ciri-ciri kecoklatan analog mozarela.


Keyword(s): MOZZARELLA ANALOQUES (MA) ; PALM-BASED PRODUCTS ; RBD PALM OIL ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 56 (May 2008) p23-28
Availability and potential of biomass resources from the Malaysian palm oil industry for generating renewable energy
CHOW Mee Chin ; MOHD BASRI Wahid ; CHAN Kook Weng

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Availability and potential of biomass resources from the Malaysian palm oil industry for generating renewable energy

Malaysia in 2006 produced 15.88 million tonnes of crude palm oil and 1.95 million tonnes of palm kernel oil. In the process of extracting these oils, a voluminous amount of biomass is simultaneously produced from the mills and also from the field. The biomass from the mills include empty fruit bunches, mesocarp fibre, palm kernel shell and liquid effluent. In the estates, fronds are regularly trimmed, while during felling for replanting the whole oil palm tree including trunk and fronds are available. These various forms of biomass have high calorific value and characteristics which make them amiable as commercial solid fuels. These biomass are also potential feedstocks for production of alternative liquid or gaseous form of renewable energy such as bioethanol, bioils and producer gas. Their abundance and availability throughout the year, mostly in partially treated form make them even more attractive as resources for renewable energy.

ABSTRAK
Malaysia menghasilkan 15.88 juta tan minyak sawit mentah dan 1.95 juta tan minyak isirung mentah pada tahun 2006. Selain itu, industri sawit negara turut menghasilkan biojisim sawit sama ada dari kilang pemprosesan atau aktiviti perladangan. Biojisim sawit dari aktiviti pengilangan seperti tandan buah kosong, gentian mesokarpa, tempurung isirung dan efluen. Di ladang, pelepah dipangkas selalu manakala pelepah dan batang didapati semasa proses penanaman. Kesemua biojisim sawit ini mempunyai kandungan kalori yang tinggi dan berpotensi untuk dijadikan bahan api komersial. Biojisim juga berpotensi sebagai bahan mentah dalam penghasilan sumber bahan api yang boleh diperbaharui seperti bioetanol, biogas dan biominyak. Dengan kapasiti yang besar serta separa terawet, biojisim sawit merupakan alternatif bagi sumber tenaga yang diperbaharui.


Keyword(s): OIL PALM BIOMASS ; RENEWABLE ENERGY ; BIOFUELS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 56 (May 2008) p14-22
Some observations on the effects of high water tables and flooding on oil palm, and a preliminary model of oil palm water balance and use in the presence of a high water table
HENSON Ian Eugene ; MOHD HANIFF Harun ; CHANG Kwang Choong

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Some observations on the effects of high water tables and flooding on oil palm, and a preliminary model of oil palm water balance and use in the presence of a high water table

High water tables, indicating impeded drainage, are known to reduce yields although quantitative information is somewhat sparse. However, complete flooding can cause death of young palms as well as reduce the yield of older ones.

Uncertainties exist as to how effectively oil palm roots function when in saturated soil, both in terms of absorbing water, and nutrients. However, the presence of a high water table ensures that the surface soil layers are kept wetter than otherwise due to capillary rise, so minimizing soil water deficit. This process may also result in an upward transfer of nutrients. High water tables can thus, act to ensure a steady supply of water to the palm such that evapotranspiration remains close to the potential throughout the year.
Leaching losses by drainage are difficult to quantify in the presence of a water table, and the possible import/export of nutrients due to lateral flow in drainage channels may further complicate this.
Because of such factors, sites with high and sustained water tables within the rooting zone of oil palm require a somewhat different approach when modelling soil water status and crop water use than do sites that are free-draining. The development and use of a preliminary model that aims to do this for a coastal clay soil site is described.
ABSTRAK
Paras air tanah yang tinggi akibat sistem saliran yang kurang baik boleh menjejaskan hasil tanaman, tetapi maklumat kualitatif tidak banyak. Keadaan banjir boleh menyebabkan kematian pokok sawit pada peringkat muda serta mengurangkan hasil pokok sawit matang.
Kecekapan sistem akar sawit berfungsi dalam keadaan kandungan air tanah yang tepu adalah tidak jelas, sama ada dari segi penyerapan air dan juga nutrien. Keadaan aras air tanah yang tinggi akan menyebabkan permukaan tanah menjadi lebih lembap berbanding keadaan biasa akibat kesan pergerakan air melalui kapilari. Ini dapat mengatasi masalah kekurangan air tanah. Proses ini mungkin juga mengakibatkan pergerakan nutrien dalam tanah dari lapisan bawah ke lapisan atas. Aras air tanah yang tinggi boleh membekalkan air secukupnya kepada pokok sawit supaya penyejatan transpirasi adalah hampir kepada tahap keupayaan sepanjang tahun.
Kehilangan larut lesap melalui saliran sukar diukur dalam keadaan paras air tanah yang tinggi dan kemungkinan import/eksport nutrien melalui aliran lateral dalam parit saliran menjadikannya lebih rumit.
Oleh kerana faktor tersebut, kawasan yang mempunyai paras air tanah yang agak tinggi pada zon akar sawit memerlukan pendekatan yang berbeza untuk membangunkan model status air tanah dan penggunaan air tananam, berbanding dengan kawasan yang mempunyai sistem saliran yang baik. Pembangunan dan kegunaan model awalan untuk tujuan ini bagi kawasan tanah liat pinggiran pantai dibincangkan.


Keyword(s): OIL PALM SOILS ; WATER TABLE ; FLOODING ; OIL PALM-Climatology ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 56 (May 2008) p1-11
Techniques of soil and water conservation and nutrients recycling in oil palm plantations on inland soils
KHALID Haron ; AHMAD TARMIZI Mohammed

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Techniques of soil and water conservation and nutrients recycling in oil palm plantations on inland soils

This article discusses various techniques of soil and water conservation, and nutrient recycling practices in oil palm plantations with the aims of achieving the yield potential while safeguarding the environment using the most appropriate techniques for managing soils, water and nutrients so as to reduce soil deterioration and erosion.

During the early stage of plantation development, there is a need to terrace slopes and build silt pits, establish legume covers and plant the oil palm as quickly as possible, all of which will help to reduce run off and soil erosion.
Other recommended practices at replanting are adoption of the zero burning technique, mulching with empty fruit bunch (EFB), placement of pruned fronds and trunk chips, land application of mill effluent (POME) and using Ecomat®, and soil water management through suitable irrigation practices. Such techniques increase the soil productivity and constitute sustainable practices.
ABSTRAK
Artikel ini membincangkan pelbagai kaedah bagi pemuliharaan tanah dan kelembapan, serta kitaran nutrien di ladang sawit untuk mencapai potensi hasil dan melindungi alam sekitar dengan menggunakan kaedah yang baik bagi mengurus tanah, air dan nutrien untuk mengurangkan kemerosotan kualiti dan hakisan tanah.
Pada awal pembangunan ladang, teres dan lubang kelodak perlu dibina bagi kawasan cerun, menanam kekacang penutup bumi dan anak sawit secepat mungkin untuk mengurangkan aliran air di permukaan dan hakisan.
Antara amalan ketika tanam semula sawit ialah penggunaan teknik pembakaran sifar, sungkupan dengan buah tandan kosong, letakan pelepah yang dipangkas dan racikan batang sawit, penggunaan efluen kilang sawit dan Ecomat®, serta pengurusan tanah dan air melalui pengairan. Semua amalan ini dapat meningkatkan produktiviti tanah dan merupakan amalan mapan


Keyword(s): OIL PALM SOILS ; NUTRIENT CYCLING ; SOIL-WATER RELATIONS ; WATER RESOURCES ; OIL PALM REPLANTING ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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