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LIST OF ARTICLES

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No: 55 (November 2007) p36-38
MPOB News
MPOB

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No: 55 (November 2007) p31-35
A review on seed dormancy and germination
MOHD ROSLAN Md Noor

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A review on seed dormancy and germination

An overview of seed dormancy and germination in plants is presented with reference to various crops, especially oil palm, and the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and chemicals are also highlighted. This review also includes the biochemistry and molecular studies in seed germination, and related issues.

Rumusan keseluruhan bagi kedorminan biji dan pencambahan dalam tumbuhan dibincangkan. Pencambahan biji dalam pelbagai tanaman terutama sawit, kesan bahan penggalak pertumbuhan dan bahan kimia turut diterangkan. Artikel ini merangkumi kajian biokimia dan molekular pencambahan biji serta isu-isu yang berkaitan.



Keyword(s): GERMINATION ; SEED DORMANCY ; SEED DEVELOPMENT ; OIL PALM SEEDS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 55 (November 2007) p26-30
Improving the efficiency of oil palm tissue culture
ZAMZURI Ishak ; TARMIZI Ahmad Hashim ; SINGH, Rajinder

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Improving the efficiency of oil palm tissue culture

Planting clones seems to be the best approach to higher yield. Although the oil palm has been cloned for some years now, the production is still vastly below demand due to inefficiency at some of the cloning stages. This article describes some technologies developed by MPOB to improve oil palm cloning - liquid culture, efficient rooting, sterilizing device, innovative data recording and the application of molecular biology tools.

Penanaman klon merupakan cara terbaik untuk mendapatkan hasil yang tinggi. Walaupun pengklonan sawit telah agak lama dibangunkan, namun pengeluarannya masih terlalu rendah berbanding permintaan kerana beberapa peringkat pengklonan masih kurang berkesan. Artikel ini membentangkan beberapa teknologi MPOB untuk memantapkan proses pengklonan - sistem kultur cecair, teknik pengakaran, alat pengsterilan, sistem penyimpanan data dan penggunaan biologi molekul



Keyword(s): OIL PALM-Tissue culture ; TISSUE CULTURE ; CLONAL OIL PALM ; BREEDING & GENETICS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 55 (November 2007) p15-25
Modeling oil palm bunch components, palm oil and kernel yields
HENSON, Ian Eugene

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Modeling oil palm bunch components, palm oil and kernel yields

The source-based model OPRODSIM (Oil Palm Production Simulator) simulates fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield based on the assimilate remaining after the requirements of vegetative growth have been met. However, in its initial form it does not take account of pollination as a factor limiting yield, nor does it provide an estimate of palm mesocarp oil (PO) or palm kernel (PK) yields. An additional routine was therefore devised to explore the effects on bunch components of varying pollination level (defined in terms of fruit set), and to provide the yields of PO and PK. The routine was adapted from that used in the model OPFLSIM3 (Oil Palm Flowering Simulator version 3). In that model, fruit set (FS) levels are first simulated based on male inflorescence numbers and male/female ratios at anthesis, and then used to determine the effects of fruit set level on single bunch weight and bunch components. The equivalent routine in OPRODSIM is simpler in that FS is either entered by the user as a constant, or allowed to vary with the age of the palm based on field data. Some results from the model, demonstrating the dependence of PO and PK yields on FS, are presented.
Model berasaskan sumber, OPRODSIM (Oil Palm Production Simulator) mensimulasikan hasil berat tandan segar (BTS) berasaskan baki asimilat setelah keperluan pertumbuhan tampang dipenuhi.Walau bagaimanapun, dalam bentuk asalnya ia tidak mengambil kira pendebungaan sebagai faktor penghalang hasil mahupun menyediakan anggaran hasil minyak mesokarpa (PO) atau isirung (PK). Satu rutin tambahan telah dibuat untuk mengkaji kesan komponen tandan bagi pelbagai aras pendebungaan (didefinasikan sebagai set buah) dan untuk menyediakan hasil PO dan PK. Rutin diubahsuai daripada apa yang digunakan dalam model OPFLSIM3 (Oil Palm Flowering Simulator version 3). Dalam model tersebut, aras set buah (FS) mula disimulasi berasaskan bilangan mayang jantan dan nisbah jantan/betina ketika antesis, dan digunakan untuk menentukan kesan aras set buah pada setiap berat tandan dan komponen tandan. Rutin setara dalam OPRODSIM lebih mudah bagi FS sama ada diguna sebagai pemalar atau pembolehubah berkaitan dengan umur pokok berasaskan data di ladang. Antara keputusan yang diperoleh dari model tersebut ialah pergantungan hasil PO dan PK pada FS.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM ; PALM OIL ; PALM KERNEL ; YIELDS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 55 (November 2007) p1-14
Biodiversity, agricultural development and valuation of ecosystem services
ANDERSON, Jonathan

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Biodiversity, agricultural development and valuation of ecosystem services

There have been significant losses of biodiversity in the tropics at ecosystem, species and genetic levels as a consequence of agricultural development resulting in simplified landscapes with large areas dominated by crop monocultures. While it is suggested that many ecosystem services can be maintained by a few key species under present environmental conditions, particularly in treedominated systems, a larger reservoir of diversity is required to ensure ecosystem resilience to disturbance and future climate changes. Decisions on management or changes in land use have economic implications for different goods, services and other needs of stakeholders that biodiversity provides. These values are aggregated in the Total Economic Value (TEV) and discussed in terms of the direct use values (material goods), indirect usevalues (ecosystem services), option values (uses in the future of genes, plant pharmaceuticals, etc.) and intrinsic or existence values (moral, religious and aesthetic reasons for conserving biodiversity). It is concluded that biodiversity provides many essential life-support functions and therefore conservation is a sound precautionary principle for an uncertain future.

Pembangunan dalam sektor pertanian di kawasan tropika telah mengakibatkan kemusnahan ekosistem, spesies dan genetik. Ini mengakibatkan terhasilnya landskap kasar yang didominasi oleh satu jenis tanaman. Walaupun tidak dinafikan bahawa kemandirian ekosistem mampu dipelihara dengan mengekalkan beberapa spesies utama dalam persekitaran sedia ada terutamanya dalam ekosistem yang dilitupi pohon, bekalan kepelbagaian semula jadi yang besar diperlukan untuk memastikan ekosistem dapat bertahan dari pelbagai gangguan dan perubahan cuaca pada masa akan datang. Sebarang tindakan yang diambil untuk pengurusan dan perubahan dalam penggunaan tanah memberi kesan ekonomi terhadap hasil, perkhidmatan dan keperluan lain yang diperoleh dari kepelbagaian semula jadi. Nilai ini dijumlahkan dalam Nilai Ekonomi Keseluruhan dan dibincangkan dalam terma nilai kegunaan langsung (hasil material), nilai kegunaan tidak langsung (peranan ekosistem), nilai pilihan (kegunaan masa hadapan bahan genetik dan tumbuhan ubatan) dan, nilai kewujudan dan jati diri (sebab moral, keagamaan dan estetika memelihara hutan). Kepelbagaian semula jadi menyediakan banyak fungsi penting untuk sokongan hidup dan pemeliharaannya adalah langkah terbaik untuk masa hadapan.



Keyword(s): BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ; ECOSYSTEMS ; NATURE CONSERVATION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 54 (May 2007) p75-76
MPOB News
MPOB

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No: 54 (May 2007) p68-74
Biomarkers: finding a niche in oil palm tissue culture. Part 2 - targeting the transcriptome
MEILINA ONG-Abdullah ; OOI Siew Eng

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Biomarkers: finding a niche in oil palm tissue culture. Part 2 - targeting the transcriptome

As both embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli were found to be distinctly different, this implies that their gene expression would be differentially regulated as well. Studies in other areas, in particular, medical research have used gene expression patterns to classify and predict the outcomes from specific conditions. This then led to a concerted effort to isolate and characterize the genes related to somatic embryogenesis. Several potential embryogenic markers have been identified, e.g. EgPER1, EgHOX1, EgPK1, EgNAC1, OPSC10 and OPHb1. These genes will then be used for development of a diagnostic screening tool for tissue culture amenity of oil palm.

Memandangkan kedua-dua kalus embriogenik dan bukan embriogenikmempunyai ciri-ciri yang berbeza, ini membayangkan bahawa pengekspresan gen mereka juga dikawal atur secara berbeza. Kajian dalam bidang lain, umpamanya dalam bidang perubatan telah menggunakan pola pengekspresan gen untuk mengklasifikasikan dan meramal hasil sesuatu keadaan yang spesifik tersebut. Ini telah membawa kepada penggemblengan usaha untuk memencil dan mencirikan gen yang terlibat dalam embriogenesis somatik. Beberapa penanda embriogenik yang berpotensi telah dikenal pasti, seperti EgPER1, EgHOX1, EgPK1, EgNAC1, OPSC10 dan OPHb1. Gen ini akan digunakan dalam membangun alat penyaringan diagnostik untuk kemudahan kultur tisu sawit.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM ; EMBRYOGENESIS ; SOMATIC EMBRYOS ; GENE EXPRESSION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 54 (May 2007) p52-67
Pesticide application in the oil palm plantation
AINIE Kuntom ; TAN Yew Ai ; NORMAN Kamaruddin ; YEOH Chee Beng

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Pesticide application in the oil palm plantation

This article attempts to give an overview of the combined practice of pesticide management in oil palm plantations, the types of pesticides commonly used and the method of analysis to determine pesticide residues in palm oil. A brief outline of the regulatory controls for pesticides is also included.

Artikel ini memberi suatu peninjauan umum tentang pengurusan perosak bersepadu yang diamalkan di ladang sawit, jenis bahan racun perosak yang lazim digunakan dan kaedah analisis untuk menentukan sisa baki racun perosak dalam minyak sawit. Suatu garis kasar berkenaan peraturan kawalan untuk bahan racun perosak juga diterangkan.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM ; PESTICDE RESIDUES ; HERBICIDES ; INSECTICIDES ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 54 (May 2007) p27-51
Modelling oil palm yield based on source and sink
HENSON, Ian Eugene

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Modelling oil palm yield based on source and sink

Although fruit bunch production by oil palm is often considered to be mostly dependent upon the ability of the plant to produce assimilates, the availability of an adequate sink is also of importance in optimizing yield. The model OPRODSIM initially simulated yield based on the assimilates remaining after the requirements of vegetative growth had been met, in accordance with an ‘overflow’principle. Using this ‘source-limited’approach (i.e. yield dependent only on source supply), sink limitations (in the form of adequate numbers of pollinated female inflorescences) are ignored, leading to a possible overestimation of yield. This paper describes an attempt to produce a more holistic model in which both source and sink combine to determine yield. The source depends on the canopy gross assimilation rate while the sink capacity is defined by the number of fertile female inflorescences and the size of the resulting fruit bunches. As pollination is essential for normal bunch development, a sufficient production of male inflorescences is also required as a pollen source. Inflorescence production is simulated using a routine based on the model OPFLSIM, which determines inflorescence gender and development node-by-node for a population of palms. The sex ratio and abortion rate of inflorescences are dependent on a variety of factors including palm age, bunch load, the position of gender- and abortion-sensitive nodes in relation to the apex, and external stresses. Pollination, sexual homogeneity (i.e. fully female versus hermaphrodite inflorescences), palm age, current bunch number and bunch load combine to determine the weight of each bunch. The product of bunch number and weight constitutes the ‘sink demand’. Actual yield depends on which factor - source or sink - is the most limiting. If the latter, then ‘excess’ assimilate (i.e. that remaining after sink requirements have been met) may be stored and withdrawn later to support bunch growth when sink demand exceeds source supply. However, limits are placed by the model on the maximum storage capacity (which is related to the standing trunk biomass). The model calculates parameters either on a daily or node-by-node basis and produces monthly and annual yield summaries. Examples are given comparing source, sink and combined estimates of yield for both non-stress conditions and for limiting conditions of water deficit and inadequate pollination.
Penghasilan tandan sawit walaupun lazim dikatakan bergantung sepenuhnya pada keupayaan pokok untuk menghasilkan asimilat, kehadiran sinki yang mencukupi juga penting bagi memperoleh hasil maksimum. Bagi model OPRODSIM, pada asalnya hasil disimulasi berasaskan baki asimilat setelah keperluan pertumbuhan tampang berlaku seiring dengan prinsip ‘limpahan’.Dengan kaedah ‘sinki terhad’, segala penghad sinki diabaikan menjurus kepada lebihan anggaran hasil. Artikel ini menerangkan langkah untuk menghasilkan versi yang lebih holistik yang menggabungkan kedua-dua sumber dan sinki bagi penentuan hasil. Sinki bergantung pada kadar asimilasi kanopi kasar manakala keupayaan sinki didefinisikan sebagai bilangan mayang betina subur dan potensi saiz tandan buah. Memandangkan pendebungaan perlu untuk perkembangan normal, penghasilan mayang jantan yang cukup perlu sebagai sumber debunga. Penghasilan mayang disimulasi dengan menggunakan rutin berasaskan model OPFLSIM yang mengenal pasti jantina mayang dan perkembangan dari nod ke nod bagi sesuatu populasi sawit. Nisbah jantina dan kadar keguguran mayang bergantung pada pelbagai faktor termasuk umur pokok, beban tandan, kedudukan jantina dan nod yang sensitif terhadap keguguran berkaitan dengan apek dan faktor tekanan luaran. Pendebungaan, keseragaman seksual (iaitu betina sepenuhnya berbanding mayang hermafrodit), umur pokok, bilangan tandan semasa dan beban tandan sama-sama menentukan potensi berat setiap tandan. Bilangan Oil Palm Bulletin 54 (May 2007) p. 27 - 51 28 potensi tandan dan berat menghasilkan ‘permintaan sinki’. Hasil sebenar bergantung pada faktor sumber atau sinki dan ini paling terhad. Sekiranya terhad, kelebihan asimilat (iaitu baki selepas keperluan sinki telah dipenuhi) boleh disimpan dan dikeluarkan kemudian bagi menyokong pertumbuhan tandan apabila permintaan sinki melebihi bekalan sumber. Bagaimanapun, had terletak pada keupayaan penyimpanan maksimum (yang berkaitan dengan jisim batang). Model mengira parameter berdasarkan harian atau nod ke nod dan menghasilkan rumusan hasil secara bulanan dan tahunan. Contoh diberi untuk membandingkan sumber, sinki dan anggaran gabungan hasil bagi kedua-dua keadaan tekanan dan keadaan kekurangan air serta pendebungaan.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM-Production ; OIL PALM-Cultivation ; OIL PALM-Yield ; PLANTING DENSITY ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 54 (May 2007) p1-26
Modelling the effects of physiological and morphological characters on oil palm growth and productivity
HENSON, Ian Eugene

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Modelling the effects of physiological and morphological characters on oil palm growth and productivity

The model OPRODSIM is a mechanistic simulation model of oil palm growth and yield, the output of which depends crucially on the values assigned to various physiological and morphological characters. In this article, the effects of manipulating these values are explored and related to what is known concerning the magnitude of their natural variation.

The main physiological and morphological variables in crop growth simulation models include leaf photosynthetic characteristics such as the initial light-use (quantum) efficiency (a) and the photosynthetic rate at light saturation (AMAX), the canopy structural features affecting the capture of radiation, summarized in terms of the radiation extinction coefficient (k), the partitioning of assimilates between the various organs, and morphological attributes, which either influence or are the outcome of, underlying physiological processes. In relation to its morphology, the specific leaf area (m2 kg-1 dry weight)of the fronds of oil palm is of interest as this may affect the efficiency of light capture in relation to dry matter allocation. Other aspects of palm growth considered in the model are frond expansion rate, frond production rate (determined as the emergence rate which influences not only the allocation of dry matter to fronds but also the production of inflorescences that are located in the frond axils), the rate of increase in height of the trunk (which has practical implications in terms of ease of harvesting of bunches), the rate of root biomass turnover (possibly a source of wasteful assimilate use) andthe bunch development time (time from anthesis to ripening), which affects standing biomass and maintenance respiration requirements. Assimilate storage and frond turnover are also briefly discussed.
The effects of varying each of these parameters is examined and a sensitivity analysis undertaken where appropriate, to determine the relative importance of each. The results are compared with those of previous studies.
ABSTRAK
Model OPRODSIM ialah satu model simulasi mekanistik tumbesaran dan hasil sawit, di mana outputnya sangat bergantung pada nilai yang diberi kepada pelbagai ciri-ciri fisiologi dan morfologi. Dalam artikel ini, kesan manipulasi nilai ini ditinjau dan dikaitkan dengan apa yang diketahui mengenai kesan perbezaan semula jadi.
Ciri-ciri utama fisiologi dan morfologi dalam simulasi tumbesaran pokok termasuk ciri-ciri daun fotosintesis seperti kecekapan jumlah penggunaan cahaya awal (a) dan kadar ketepuan cahaya fotosintesis (AMAX), sifat struktur kanopi yang mempengaruhi penangkapan sinaran cahaya, diringkaskan dalam bentuk pekali kepupusan sinaran cahaya (k), pembahagian bahan serapan antara pelbagai organ, dan sifat morfologi sama ada mempengaruhi atau sebagai kesan proses fisiologi asas. Berkenaan dengan morfologi, luas daun spesifik (m2 kg-1berat kering) pelepah sawit sangat menarik kerana boleh memberi kesan kepada kecekapan penangkapan cahaya dalam hubungan pembahagian bahan kering. Aspek lain dalam tumbesaran sawit yang diberi pertimbangan dalam model ini ialah kadar pengembangan pelepah, kadar pengeluaran pelepah (ditentukan sebagai kadar pengeluaran di mana bukan sahaja mempengaruhi pembahagian bahan kering kepada pelepah tetapi juga pengeluaran jambak bunga yang terletak di celah pelepah), kadar pertambahan ketinggian batang (di mana akan memberi kesan penuaian tandan), kadar pengeluaran akar (kemungkinan sumber pembaziran kegunaan bahan serapan) dan masa pembentukan tandan (masa dari bunga mengorak sehingga masak), di mana memberi kesan biojisim tegak dan keperluan pernafasan).
Kesan pelbagai parameter ini diteliti dan analisis sensitiviti dijalankan di mana sesuai untuk menentukan kepentingan setiap satu parameter secara relatif. Keputusannya dibandingkan dengan kajian sebelum ini


Keyword(s): OIL PALM-Production ; OIL PALM-Growth ; OIL PALM-Yield ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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