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No: 56 (May 2008) p29-40
Browning characteristics of palm-based mozzarella analoques
KARIMAH Ahmad

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Abstract


Browning characteristics of palm-based mozzarella analoques

Five types of mozzarella analogues were produced using palm-based products such as refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (PO), palm olein (POo), palm kernel oil (PKO), palm stearin (POS) and a blend comprising 30% PO and 70% palm kernel olein. The change in colour of mozzarella analogues before and after baking were compared with the control. A commercial sample imported from Denmark was used as the control. The slip melting point of palm-based oils ranged from 19.4°C to 48.7°C. Colour readings were analysed on day 1, 8, 15, 21 and 30. The browning properties of mozzarella analogues and control were evaluated using the Hunter Lab colour system. Browning, which occurs at the cheese surface during high temperature baking, is characterized by the formation of a skin-like layer containing coloured patches that may range from light or golden brown to black in extreme cases. Before baking, mozzarella analogue samples were lighter in colour compared to the control sample. Their L-value which is a measure of the degree of lightness of the control sample ranged from 60.43-66.28. The ranking for lightness of colour for mozzarella analogues were POS>Blend>PKO>PO>POo. There was a significant difference in L-value between the control and all mozzarella analogues before baking. The L-value of the control sample after baking ranged from 42.48-50.28 while that of the analogues ranged from 62.01-68.76. The a-value which is the degree of redness of the control sample before baking was significantly different from all the mozzarella analogues except for analogue made using POS. After baking, the control sample had an a-value 10 times more than the analogue samples. No significant difference (p<0.05) in a-value was observed among the mozzarella analogues but a significant difference was observed between  the control and the mozzarella analogue samples. The use of palm-based oils with different slip meting point showed some effects on the browning properties of mozzarella analogues.

 

ABSTRAK
Lima jenis analog mozarela telah dihasilkan dengan menggunakan minyak sawit, olein sawit, minyak isirung sawit, stearin sawit dan campuran minyak sawit (30%) serta olein isirung sawit (70%) yang telah ditulen, nyah warna dan nyah bau. Penukaran warna bagi analog mozarela sebelum dan selepas dibakar di dalam ketuhar dibandingkan dengan sampel piawai. Sampel komersial yang diimport dari Denmark digunakan sebagai piawai. Titik takat lebur bagi hasil minyak sawit yang digunakan mempunyai julat di antara 19.4°C hingga 48.7°C. Pembacaan warna dijalankan pada hari 1, 8, 15, 21 dan 30. Sifat kecoklatan bagi sampel analog mozarela dan piawai dianalisis dengan menggunakan sistem warna Hunter Lab. Proses kecoklatan biasanya terjadi pada permukaan semasa dibakar di dalam ketuhar. Ciri-cirinya adalah pembentukan lapisan yang bertompok-tompok dan mempunyai julat warna coklat keemasan hingga kehitaman. Analog mozarela menunjukkan warna yang cerah sebelum dibakar jika dibandingkan dengan piawai. Nilai-L iaitu ukuran bagi darjah kecerahan bagi piawai adalah 60.43- 66.28. Darjat kecerahan bagi warna untuk analog mozarela adalah POS>Blend>PKO>PO>POo. Analisis statistik menunjukkan ada perbezaan yang ketara di antara warna piawai dan analog mozarela sebelum dibakar. Nilai l bagi piawai setelah dibakar mempunyai julat 42.48-50.28 manakala bagi analog mozarela pula adalah 62.01-68.76. Darjah kemerahan yang diukur sebagai nilai-a menunjukkan perbezaan yang ketara di antara piawai dan kesemua analog mozarela melainkan analog yang dibuat dengan stearin sawit. Didapati bahawa setelah dibakar, sampel piawai mempunyai nilai-a sebanyak 10 kali ganda lebih daripada analog mozarela. Tiada perbezaan ketara didapati di antara sampel analog mozarela tetapi perbezaan yang ketara didapati di antara sampel piawai dan analog mozarela. Penggunaan hasil minyak sawit yang mempunyai titik takat lebur yang berbeza memberi kesan ke atas ciri-ciri kecoklatan analog mozarela.


Keyword(s): MOZZARELLA ANALOQUES (MA) ; PALM-BASED PRODUCTS ; RBD PALM OIL ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 56 (May 2008) p23-28
Availability and potential of biomass resources from the Malaysian palm oil industry for generating renewable energy
CHOW Mee Chin ; MOHD BASRI Wahid ; CHAN Kook Weng

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Abstract


Availability and potential of biomass resources from the Malaysian palm oil industry for generating renewable energy

Malaysia in 2006 produced 15.88 million tonnes of crude palm oil and 1.95 million tonnes of palm kernel oil. In the process of extracting these oils, a voluminous amount of biomass is simultaneously produced from the mills and also from the field. The biomass from the mills include empty fruit bunches, mesocarp fibre, palm kernel shell and liquid effluent. In the estates, fronds are regularly trimmed, while during felling for replanting the whole oil palm tree including trunk and fronds are available. These various forms of biomass have high calorific value and characteristics which make them amiable as commercial solid fuels. These biomass are also potential feedstocks for production of alternative liquid or gaseous form of renewable energy such as bioethanol, bioils and producer gas. Their abundance and availability throughout the year, mostly in partially treated form make them even more attractive as resources for renewable energy.

ABSTRAK
Malaysia menghasilkan 15.88 juta tan minyak sawit mentah dan 1.95 juta tan minyak isirung mentah pada tahun 2006. Selain itu, industri sawit negara turut menghasilkan biojisim sawit sama ada dari kilang pemprosesan atau aktiviti perladangan. Biojisim sawit dari aktiviti pengilangan seperti tandan buah kosong, gentian mesokarpa, tempurung isirung dan efluen. Di ladang, pelepah dipangkas selalu manakala pelepah dan batang didapati semasa proses penanaman. Kesemua biojisim sawit ini mempunyai kandungan kalori yang tinggi dan berpotensi untuk dijadikan bahan api komersial. Biojisim juga berpotensi sebagai bahan mentah dalam penghasilan sumber bahan api yang boleh diperbaharui seperti bioetanol, biogas dan biominyak. Dengan kapasiti yang besar serta separa terawet, biojisim sawit merupakan alternatif bagi sumber tenaga yang diperbaharui.


Keyword(s): OIL PALM BIOMASS ; RENEWABLE ENERGY ; BIOFUELS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 56 (May 2008) p14-22
Some observations on the effects of high water tables and flooding on oil palm, and a preliminary model of oil palm water balance and use in the presence of a high water table
HENSON Ian Eugene ; MOHD HANIFF Harun ; CHANG Kwang Choong

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Abstract


Some observations on the effects of high water tables and flooding on oil palm, and a preliminary model of oil palm water balance and use in the presence of a high water table

High water tables, indicating impeded drainage, are known to reduce yields although quantitative information is somewhat sparse. However, complete flooding can cause death of young palms as well as reduce the yield of older ones.

Uncertainties exist as to how effectively oil palm roots function when in saturated soil, both in terms of absorbing water, and nutrients. However, the presence of a high water table ensures that the surface soil layers are kept wetter than otherwise due to capillary rise, so minimizing soil water deficit. This process may also result in an upward transfer of nutrients. High water tables can thus, act to ensure a steady supply of water to the palm such that evapotranspiration remains close to the potential throughout the year.
Leaching losses by drainage are difficult to quantify in the presence of a water table, and the possible import/export of nutrients due to lateral flow in drainage channels may further complicate this.
Because of such factors, sites with high and sustained water tables within the rooting zone of oil palm require a somewhat different approach when modelling soil water status and crop water use than do sites that are free-draining. The development and use of a preliminary model that aims to do this for a coastal clay soil site is described.
ABSTRAK
Paras air tanah yang tinggi akibat sistem saliran yang kurang baik boleh menjejaskan hasil tanaman, tetapi maklumat kualitatif tidak banyak. Keadaan banjir boleh menyebabkan kematian pokok sawit pada peringkat muda serta mengurangkan hasil pokok sawit matang.
Kecekapan sistem akar sawit berfungsi dalam keadaan kandungan air tanah yang tepu adalah tidak jelas, sama ada dari segi penyerapan air dan juga nutrien. Keadaan aras air tanah yang tinggi akan menyebabkan permukaan tanah menjadi lebih lembap berbanding keadaan biasa akibat kesan pergerakan air melalui kapilari. Ini dapat mengatasi masalah kekurangan air tanah. Proses ini mungkin juga mengakibatkan pergerakan nutrien dalam tanah dari lapisan bawah ke lapisan atas. Aras air tanah yang tinggi boleh membekalkan air secukupnya kepada pokok sawit supaya penyejatan transpirasi adalah hampir kepada tahap keupayaan sepanjang tahun.
Kehilangan larut lesap melalui saliran sukar diukur dalam keadaan paras air tanah yang tinggi dan kemungkinan import/eksport nutrien melalui aliran lateral dalam parit saliran menjadikannya lebih rumit.
Oleh kerana faktor tersebut, kawasan yang mempunyai paras air tanah yang agak tinggi pada zon akar sawit memerlukan pendekatan yang berbeza untuk membangunkan model status air tanah dan penggunaan air tananam, berbanding dengan kawasan yang mempunyai sistem saliran yang baik. Pembangunan dan kegunaan model awalan untuk tujuan ini bagi kawasan tanah liat pinggiran pantai dibincangkan.


Keyword(s): OIL PALM SOILS ; WATER TABLE ; FLOODING ; OIL PALM-Climatology ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 56 (May 2008) p1-11
Techniques of soil and water conservation and nutrients recycling in oil palm plantations on inland soils
KHALID Haron ; AHMAD TARMIZI Mohammed

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Techniques of soil and water conservation and nutrients recycling in oil palm plantations on inland soils

This article discusses various techniques of soil and water conservation, and nutrient recycling practices in oil palm plantations with the aims of achieving the yield potential while safeguarding the environment using the most appropriate techniques for managing soils, water and nutrients so as to reduce soil deterioration and erosion.

During the early stage of plantation development, there is a need to terrace slopes and build silt pits, establish legume covers and plant the oil palm as quickly as possible, all of which will help to reduce run off and soil erosion.
Other recommended practices at replanting are adoption of the zero burning technique, mulching with empty fruit bunch (EFB), placement of pruned fronds and trunk chips, land application of mill effluent (POME) and using Ecomat®, and soil water management through suitable irrigation practices. Such techniques increase the soil productivity and constitute sustainable practices.
ABSTRAK
Artikel ini membincangkan pelbagai kaedah bagi pemuliharaan tanah dan kelembapan, serta kitaran nutrien di ladang sawit untuk mencapai potensi hasil dan melindungi alam sekitar dengan menggunakan kaedah yang baik bagi mengurus tanah, air dan nutrien untuk mengurangkan kemerosotan kualiti dan hakisan tanah.
Pada awal pembangunan ladang, teres dan lubang kelodak perlu dibina bagi kawasan cerun, menanam kekacang penutup bumi dan anak sawit secepat mungkin untuk mengurangkan aliran air di permukaan dan hakisan.
Antara amalan ketika tanam semula sawit ialah penggunaan teknik pembakaran sifar, sungkupan dengan buah tandan kosong, letakan pelepah yang dipangkas dan racikan batang sawit, penggunaan efluen kilang sawit dan Ecomat®, serta pengurusan tanah dan air melalui pengairan. Semua amalan ini dapat meningkatkan produktiviti tanah dan merupakan amalan mapan


Keyword(s): OIL PALM SOILS ; NUTRIENT CYCLING ; SOIL-WATER RELATIONS ; WATER RESOURCES ; OIL PALM REPLANTING ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 55 (November 2007) p36-38
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

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No: 55 (November 2007) p31-35
A review on seed dormancy and germination
MOHD ROSLAN Md Noor

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A review on seed dormancy and germination

An overview of seed dormancy and germination in plants is presented with reference to various crops, especially oil palm, and the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and chemicals are also highlighted. This review also includes the biochemistry and molecular studies in seed germination, and related issues.

Rumusan keseluruhan bagi kedorminan biji dan pencambahan dalam tumbuhan dibincangkan. Pencambahan biji dalam pelbagai tanaman terutama sawit, kesan bahan penggalak pertumbuhan dan bahan kimia turut diterangkan. Artikel ini merangkumi kajian biokimia dan molekular pencambahan biji serta isu-isu yang berkaitan.



Keyword(s): GERMINATION ; SEED DORMANCY ; SEED DEVELOPMENT ; OIL PALM SEEDS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 55 (November 2007) p26-30
Improving the efficiency of oil palm tissue culture
ZAMZURI Ishak ; TARMIZI Ahmad Hashim ; SINGH, Rajinder

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Improving the efficiency of oil palm tissue culture

Planting clones seems to be the best approach to higher yield. Although the oil palm has been cloned for some years now, the production is still vastly below demand due to inefficiency at some of the cloning stages. This article describes some technologies developed by MPOB to improve oil palm cloning - liquid culture, efficient rooting, sterilizing device, innovative data recording and the application of molecular biology tools.

Penanaman klon merupakan cara terbaik untuk mendapatkan hasil yang tinggi. Walaupun pengklonan sawit telah agak lama dibangunkan, namun pengeluarannya masih terlalu rendah berbanding permintaan kerana beberapa peringkat pengklonan masih kurang berkesan. Artikel ini membentangkan beberapa teknologi MPOB untuk memantapkan proses pengklonan - sistem kultur cecair, teknik pengakaran, alat pengsterilan, sistem penyimpanan data dan penggunaan biologi molekul



Keyword(s): OIL PALM-Tissue culture ; TISSUE CULTURE ; CLONAL OIL PALM ; BREEDING & GENETICS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 55 (November 2007) p15-25
Modeling oil palm bunch components, palm oil and kernel yields
HENSON, Ian Eugene

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Modeling oil palm bunch components, palm oil and kernel yields

The source-based model OPRODSIM (Oil Palm Production Simulator) simulates fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield based on the assimilate remaining after the requirements of vegetative growth have been met. However, in its initial form it does not take account of pollination as a factor limiting yield, nor does it provide an estimate of palm mesocarp oil (PO) or palm kernel (PK) yields. An additional routine was therefore devised to explore the effects on bunch components of varying pollination level (defined in terms of fruit set), and to provide the yields of PO and PK. The routine was adapted from that used in the model OPFLSIM3 (Oil Palm Flowering Simulator version 3). In that model, fruit set (FS) levels are first simulated based on male inflorescence numbers and male/female ratios at anthesis, and then used to determine the effects of fruit set level on single bunch weight and bunch components. The equivalent routine in OPRODSIM is simpler in that FS is either entered by the user as a constant, or allowed to vary with the age of the palm based on field data. Some results from the model, demonstrating the dependence of PO and PK yields on FS, are presented.
Model berasaskan sumber, OPRODSIM (Oil Palm Production Simulator) mensimulasikan hasil berat tandan segar (BTS) berasaskan baki asimilat setelah keperluan pertumbuhan tampang dipenuhi.Walau bagaimanapun, dalam bentuk asalnya ia tidak mengambil kira pendebungaan sebagai faktor penghalang hasil mahupun menyediakan anggaran hasil minyak mesokarpa (PO) atau isirung (PK). Satu rutin tambahan telah dibuat untuk mengkaji kesan komponen tandan bagi pelbagai aras pendebungaan (didefinasikan sebagai set buah) dan untuk menyediakan hasil PO dan PK. Rutin diubahsuai daripada apa yang digunakan dalam model OPFLSIM3 (Oil Palm Flowering Simulator version 3). Dalam model tersebut, aras set buah (FS) mula disimulasi berasaskan bilangan mayang jantan dan nisbah jantan/betina ketika antesis, dan digunakan untuk menentukan kesan aras set buah pada setiap berat tandan dan komponen tandan. Rutin setara dalam OPRODSIM lebih mudah bagi FS sama ada diguna sebagai pemalar atau pembolehubah berkaitan dengan umur pokok berasaskan data di ladang. Antara keputusan yang diperoleh dari model tersebut ialah pergantungan hasil PO dan PK pada FS.



Keyword(s): OIL PALM ; PALM OIL ; PALM KERNEL ; YIELDS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No: 55 (November 2007) p1-14
Biodiversity, agricultural development and valuation of ecosystem services
ANDERSON, Jonathan

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Biodiversity, agricultural development and valuation of ecosystem services

There have been significant losses of biodiversity in the tropics at ecosystem, species and genetic levels as a consequence of agricultural development resulting in simplified landscapes with large areas dominated by crop monocultures. While it is suggested that many ecosystem services can be maintained by a few key species under present environmental conditions, particularly in treedominated systems, a larger reservoir of diversity is required to ensure ecosystem resilience to disturbance and future climate changes. Decisions on management or changes in land use have economic implications for different goods, services and other needs of stakeholders that biodiversity provides. These values are aggregated in the Total Economic Value (TEV) and discussed in terms of the direct use values (material goods), indirect usevalues (ecosystem services), option values (uses in the future of genes, plant pharmaceuticals, etc.) and intrinsic or existence values (moral, religious and aesthetic reasons for conserving biodiversity). It is concluded that biodiversity provides many essential life-support functions and therefore conservation is a sound precautionary principle for an uncertain future.

Pembangunan dalam sektor pertanian di kawasan tropika telah mengakibatkan kemusnahan ekosistem, spesies dan genetik. Ini mengakibatkan terhasilnya landskap kasar yang didominasi oleh satu jenis tanaman. Walaupun tidak dinafikan bahawa kemandirian ekosistem mampu dipelihara dengan mengekalkan beberapa spesies utama dalam persekitaran sedia ada terutamanya dalam ekosistem yang dilitupi pohon, bekalan kepelbagaian semula jadi yang besar diperlukan untuk memastikan ekosistem dapat bertahan dari pelbagai gangguan dan perubahan cuaca pada masa akan datang. Sebarang tindakan yang diambil untuk pengurusan dan perubahan dalam penggunaan tanah memberi kesan ekonomi terhadap hasil, perkhidmatan dan keperluan lain yang diperoleh dari kepelbagaian semula jadi. Nilai ini dijumlahkan dalam Nilai Ekonomi Keseluruhan dan dibincangkan dalam terma nilai kegunaan langsung (hasil material), nilai kegunaan tidak langsung (peranan ekosistem), nilai pilihan (kegunaan masa hadapan bahan genetik dan tumbuhan ubatan) dan, nilai kewujudan dan jati diri (sebab moral, keagamaan dan estetika memelihara hutan). Kepelbagaian semula jadi menyediakan banyak fungsi penting untuk sokongan hidup dan pemeliharaannya adalah langkah terbaik untuk masa hadapan.



Keyword(s): BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ; ECOSYSTEMS ; NATURE CONSERVATION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No: 54 (May 2007) p75-76
MPOB News
MPOB

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MPOB News

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This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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