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LIST OF ARTICLES

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Article Info

Vol 14 No.2 (2014) p1-7
Workforce in the Malaysian Oil Palm Nursery
Azman, I and Zuraihan, S

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Abstract


Workforce in the Malaysian Oil Palm Nursery

This article attempts to estimate workforce, labour shortage as well as land to labour ratio by job category in oil palm nursery sector in Malaysia since labour is a major concerns in the oil palm industry especially in oil palm nursery and plantation. Survey technique was used for data collection. Questionnaires were designed and distributed to 739 oil palm nurseries in Malaysia which registered with MPOB. Total labour requirement and shortage according to job categories namely manager, assistant manager, clerk, supervisor, operator and general worker were identified. Operator with the job scopes of planting seedlings in polybags, spraying insecticide, fertilising and watering the plant was the highest labour required by oil palm nursery. The second highest number of workers required falls under the general worker such as driver, co-driver and others. In Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah, operators and general worker were dominated by foreign workers, meanwhile in Sarawak only job category as operator is dominated by foreign workers. As in oil palm plantation sector, oil palm nursery also faces labour shortage problem especially for job category such as operator and general worker

Keyword(s): oil palm nursery, labour, shortage, land-labour ratio

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Article Info

Vol 14 No.1 (2014) p34-41
The Impact of Palm Oil Mills’ Capacity on Technical Efficiency of Palm Oil Millers in Malaysia
Azman, I

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Abstract


The Impact of Palm Oil Mills’ Capacity on Technical Efficiency of Palm Oil Millers in Malaysia

The general purpose of this study is to evaluate technical efficiency of palm oil mills in Malaysia. Specifically, the study attempts to examine if large mills are more efficient than small mills as well as to compare technical efficiency between integrated and non-integrated mills. In order to fulfill the objectives, econometric approach was used whereby crude palm oil production function was estimated by using OLS least squared technique. The Cobb-Douglas production model was used and the model is satisfactory in terms of goodness of fit. This is shown by the values of R2 (0.89) as well as F statistic (358.03). From the study, it was found that palm oil mills in Malaysia are technically efficient. In terms of processing capacity, large mills which have processing capacity more than 20 t/hr are more efficient than small mills. Integrated mills are also technically efficient as compare to non-integrated mills.

Keyword(s): palm oil, technical efficiency, FFB, processing, capacity

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Article Info

Vol 14 No.1 (2014) p24-33
Malaysian Palm Oil – Moving Ahead to Sustainable Production Growth
Kamalrudin, M S and Ramli Abdullah

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Abstract


Malaysian Palm Oil – Moving Ahead to Sustainable Production Growth

Malaysian palm oil production has surged in recent decades and the palm oil industry has been transformed to become Malaysia’s key socioeconomic driver. Plans are underway to ensure palm oil continues to be a major growth engine and its production remains sustainable in the future. While undergoing the process of transformation, the industry faces such major issues as labour and land availability that can hinder the sustainability of production growth. This article highlights the continuous efforts made to sustain production growth in Malaysia in the future, focusing on increasing land productivity, replanting, promoting mechanisation and upgrading labour skills. In addition, the article also forecasts long-term palm oil production until 2020, the year targeted for the transformation of Malaysia into a high income economy.

Keyword(s): palm oil, sustainable production, production growth, production forecast

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Article Info

Vol 14 No.1 (2014) p9-23
The Co-operative Benefits of Malaysia and Indonesia in Palm Oil
Mohamed Rizwan Habeeb Rahuman

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Abstract


The Co-operative Benefits of Malaysia and Indonesia in Palm Oil

The article has argued that the rising competition between Malaysia and Indonesia is affecting the palm oil industry in totality. The recent phenomenon of palm oil playing a role in Chinese shadow banking has also contributed to the depression in palm oil prices, particularly in 2013. With these in mind, and through the use of Prisoner’s Dilemma game theory, the article argues for both Malaysia and Indonesia to institutionalise co-operation, rather than compete strongly, through the setting up of a palm oil producing and exporting countries organisation (POPEC). This is aimed at better management of the supply and inventory of palm oil in the global market in line with global demand conditions.

Keyword(s): palm oil, competition, Malaysia, Indonesia, game theory,comparative advantage, downstream, upstream, shadow banking

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Article Info

Vol 14 No.1 (2014) p1-8
The Effect of Progressive Export Tax on Indonesian Palm Oil Industry
Amzul Rifin

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Abstract


The Effect of Progressive Export Tax on Indonesian Palm Oil Industry

The government of Indonesia imposed export tax on crude palm oil (CPO) and its derivatives since September 1994 and in September 2007, the progressive export tax was implemented. This policy has two objectives, first is to guarantee the availability of domestic CPO as the main raw material of cooking oil which is one of the staple products of Indonesia. Secondly, is to develop the downstream industry of the palm oil industry which has higher value-added compared to CPO. By limiting CPO export, hopefully the CPO will be utilised to produce higher value-added product. The objective of this article is to analyse the effect of export tax
on Indonesian palm oil industry. The results indicate that export tax will decrease domestic CPO price, production, export and competitiveness. The policy will make producers worse off while consumers and cooking oil producers will be better off. On the other hand, the policy is able to increase the refined palm oil export and stabilise the cooking oil price.

Keyword(s): export tax, crude palm oil, Indonesian palm oil industry

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Article Info

Vol 13 No.2 (2013) p38-51
The Impact of La Niña and El Niño Events on Crude Palm Oil Prices: An Econometric Analysis
Ayat K Ab Rahman; Ramli Abdullah; N Balu and Faizah Mohd Shariff

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Abstract


The Impact of La Niña and El Niño Events on Crude Palm Oil Prices: An Econometric Analysis

Both the La Niña and El Niño events are deemed as being strong market sentiments issues that supported crude palm oil (CPO) prices in an upward trend. An analysis carried out was shown that both events have a positive relationship with CPO price movements in the market. This study also reveals that the effect of the La Niña event on CPO prices is greater than that of the El Niño event. Production will normally decline as heavy rainfall usually brings floods that could disrupt harvesting and the collection of fruits in low lying oil palm areas. Palm oil stock levels could also decline due to lower supply availability. In contrast, the effect of the El Niño event is seen on a long-term basis. Hot weather conditions during El Niño could result in less rainfall and have a stress effect on oil palm. This could bring down the yield of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) production in the future. The study revealed that past El Niño events (at lagged 8 to 22 months) can also affect current CPO production. With the incorporation of these two phenomena into the model (La Niña and El Niño events) developed for this study, it was found that the CPO price can be forecast more accurately. By using the model, the direct and indirect impact of La Niña and El Niño events on CPO prices can be determined. The results also showed that when La Niña and El Niño events occur, CPO production in a year will decline by 3.37%, palm oil stock level will decline by 2.5%, while the CPO price is likely to be higher by 10.2% as compared to a situation when the phenomenon did not occur.

Keyword(s): -

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Article Info

Vol 13 No.2 (2013) p27-37
Technical Efficiency of Independent Oil Palm Smallholders (ISH) in Peninsular Malaysia with Respect to Fertiliser and Land Size
Ramli Abdullah

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Abstract


Technical Efficiency of Independent Oil Palm Smallholders (ISH) in Peninsular Malaysia with Respect to Fertiliser and Land Size

Productivity of independent smallholders (ISH) is said to be low. This is partly due to, among others, their lower efficiency level compared to the estates. Although this is a known fact, there is no literature available which measures their efficiency level in producing their fresh fruit bunch (FFB). Hence, this study was carried out on the ISH to assess and determine their technical efficiency (TE) level by considering their effectiveness on using inputs, such as fertilisers and size of their holdings. The results of the study can be used to fill up the missing information pertaining to their level of efficiency. The study used Stochastic Frontier Analysis approach to see the effects of the two inputs. The ISH from Pahang, Perak and Johor were included in this study to represent Peninsular Malaysia region. The two variables, i.e. fertiliser application and size of their holdings had a positive relationship with FFB yield. The study revealed that the estimated average level of TE for the ISH is 0.70 while the maximum and minimum TE are 0.94 and 0.23, respectively. This indicates that the ISH in Peninsular Malaysia are generally inefficient and supports the claim to statement made by various authors on the level of their efficiency. The big difference in TE among ISH in the sample suggests that there is a potential to increase their output or yield by using inputs more efficiently. This can also be inferred that there is an opportunity to improve the ISH productivity, especially the Malays and Indian ethnic groups whose efficiency levels are lower than the Chinese ethnic group.

Keyword(s): -

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Article Info

Vol 13 No. 2 (2013) p15-26
The Effect of Labour Shortage in the Supply and Demand of Palm Oil in Malaysia
Azman Ismail

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Abstract


The Effect of Labour Shortage in the Supply and Demand of Palm Oil in Malaysia

The Malaysian palm oil industry plays an important role in the agricultural development of the country and contributes significantly to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), foreign exchange and creation of employment opportunities. On average, the industry contributes 5% to 7% of GDP and for the last five years the industry has contributed on average about RM 65.3 billion per year to export revenue. The Malaysian palm oil industry, especially the oil palm plantation sector offers various job opportunities as the sector is highly dependent on manual labour. However, a minimal involvement of the locals (due to the 3D perception - dangerous, dirty and difficult) has provided avenues for foreign workers to work in the plantation sector. In 2012, it was estimated that there were 505 972 employees in the oil palm plantation sector. Out of the total, 386 913 or 76.5% were foreigners. Foreign workers were employed mainly in high labour demand operations such as harvesting, field work and other general work. These days, the main issue in oil palm plantation sector is labour shortage problem especially for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) harvesting and collection. The difficulty of employing local as well as foreign workers especially from Indonesia has caused the oil palm plantation sector to face a labour shortage particularly for FFB harvesting and collection. This situation has affected the supply of palm oil in the domestic as well as world markets.

Keyword(s): -

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Article Info

Vol 13 No.2 (2013) p1-14
An Analysis on Trends of Vegetable Oil Prices and Some Factors Affecting CPO Price
Ramli Abdullah

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Abstract


An Analysis on Trends of Vegetable Oil Prices and Some Factors Affecting CPO Price

Price is determined by market forces of supply and demand, interacting together to produce an equilibrium price. Mismatch of these forces can cause price to change. Frequent and continuous changes in price will lead to volatility which appears to be increasing over time, especially in the oils and fats sector. This gives an indication that the sector has become complicated over time. Not only the volatility increased over time, the prices themselves had up-trended and exhibited the presence of trend factor. Other factors, such as seasonal and cyclical factors were not transparent. This article analyses trends for prices of selected oils and fats, including that of crude oil. It also describes the strategies of the Malaysian government to narrow down the widening gap between soyabean oil and palm oil prices.

Keyword(s): -

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Article Info

Vol 13 No.1 (2013) p35-44
Assessment of the Oil Palm Seedlings Assistance Scheme on Fresh Fruit Bunch Yield and Income of Smallholders
Zulkifli Abd Manaf; Ayat K Ab Rahman; Nurul Aimi Abd Halim; Suboh Ismail and Ramli Abdullah

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Abstract


Assessment of the Oil Palm Seedlings Assistance Scheme on Fresh Fruit Bunch Yield and Income of Smallholders

Yield of oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) of smallholders is generally lower than that of the estates, mainly because of the poor management of their oil palm holdings. It is essential for the smallholders to have adequate knowledge of good management so as their yields and income will increase further. In this respect, they need to adopt good agricultural practices (GAP) which include planting techniques, use of balanced and adequate fertilisers, and the proper maintenance of the oil palms. Also, they need to use high quality oil palm seedlings from reputable nursery operators who comply with the Oil Palm Nursery Competency Certification (OPNCC) standard. To assist these smallholders, a scheme called the Quality Oil Palm Seedlings Assistance Scheme (SBABB) was implemented from 2006 to 2010, which benefited a total of 5697 smallholders, especially in Sabah and Sarawak. Through a survey carried out, it was found that participants of the scheme (or the SBABB smallholders) had achieved a higher first year FFB yield compared to non-participants (or non-SBABB smallholders). The survey also found that these SBABB smallholders had successfully obtained a gross income of RM 7160/ha in the first year of harvest which was due to high FFB yield. Other smallholders should emulate these SBABB smallholders in achieving high FFB yield so that they will also enjoy a better standard of living from the high income generated through this business in the future.

Keyword(s): -

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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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