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LIST OF ARTICLES

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Article Info

Vol 5 No.2 (2005) p47-53
Impact of Commercialization of Biofuel on Prices of Related Commodities
Faizah Shariff; Ayat K Ab Rahman; Mohd Nasir Amiruddin and Yusof Basiron

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Abstract


Impact of Commercialization of Biofuel on Prices of Related Commodities

This paper examines the use of vegetable oils and sugar for biofuel in selected countries, as a price stabilization mechanism in the EU, USA and Brazil. Two scenarios; one before and the other after the advent of the biofuel programme were analysed for soyabean, rapeseed, sugar and corn prices. Correlations between the price and production of biofuel for the selected vegetable oils were high and showed positive relationship after commercializing of the biofuel. This means that the biofuel programme had improved the prices for the selected vegetable oils. The index from the ARCH and GARCH models were much higher and the linear trend of selected vegetable oil prices showed a downward trend prior to commercialization. However, after their use as biofuel, the index became much lower and the linear trend of selected vegetable oil prices showed an upward trend. This means that, after commercializing the biofuel, prices stabilized and slowly increased. The findings indicate that the biofuel programme can remove excess production to new uses and improve prices. Hence, it can be deduced that removal of palm oil from the market and put to new uses (biofuel) could improve palm oil price. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that Malaysia should commercialize biofuel from palm oil.

Keyword(s): VEGETABLE OIL AS FUEL ; BIODIESEL ; FUTURE PROSPECTS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

Vol 5 No.2 (2005) p37-46
Palm Kernel Cake Marketing: Constraints and Prospects
Ahmad Borhan A Nordin; R Venugopal; Nasir Amiruddin and Mohd Arif Simeh

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Abstract


Palm Kernel Cake Marketing: Constraints and Prospects

Standardization or product specification is an important measure to ensure that only high quality product reaches the market place. The formation of palm kernel cake (PKC) trade specifications and the requirements of quality testing plus regular inspections had assured the quality of PKC was under control throughout the years. The changing preferences by customers and the advancement of technology validate the revision of such specifications. The study reviews the quality performance of PKC within its trade specifications in the previous years and the possibility of improving its quality to a higher level. Moreover, it reveals the economic significance of elevating the quality of PKC through innovative processing system that produces its raw materials i.e. palm kernel.

Keyword(s): PALM KERNEL CAKE (PKC) ; MARKETING ; FUTURE PROSPECTS ; MARKET DEVELOPMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

Vol 5 No.2 (2005) p23-36
Environmental Issues in an Age of Regional Autonomy: The Case of Pollution in the Plantation Sector of North Sumatra
Zahari Zen; John McCarthy and Colin Barlow

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Abstract


Environmental Issues in an Age of Regional Autonomy: The Case of Pollution in the Plantation Sector of North Sumatra

Discussion of the agro-industry sector to date has largely neglected the significant impact of Indonesia’s extensive plantation sector on the rural environment. This article discusses this problem in North Sumatra, the historical centre of Indonesian agro-industry, examining the underlying factors leading to the failure of legal and economic instruments to control agro-industrial and plantation activities before and during decentralisation. It examines the reasons for the failure of bureaucratic regulation, arguing that the underlying problems of political
accountability of state officials continue to undermine law enforcement. As well as improving the accountability of state officials, a policy to mitigate the large-scale pollution associated with the sector needs to be better crafted to suit the characteristics of the industries concerned and
address the wider socio-economic realities within which the problems are embedded and where any policy tool must be applied. The sector can be profitable without having to harm the environment through both self-motivated changes and government support.
Although the government of Indonesia has created a legislative framework for pollution control, rubber factories and palm oil mills across the country continue to generate large quantities of solid waste, air and water pollution. A key factor behind this is that many institutions and interpersonal relations are involved apart from the legislative framework, and are often beyond the reach or even knowledge of the policy makers and legislators (Eckersley, 1995).
While scholars and activists have widely addressed the problems of deforestation, forest fire and haze associated with plantation expansion, they have largely neglected the environmental issues of air pollution and effluent in the rivers (Kantor Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup, 1998; IFFM/GTZ, 1998; Gonner, 1998; Gellert, 1998; Down to Earth, 1998; Casson, 2000; Alwy, 1998; WRM, 1998; Wakker, 1999). The latter are major problems affecting the quality of life of local communities living around crumb rubber factories (CRFs) and oil palm mills (OPMs), and are crucial in the environmental context.

Keyword(s): ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ; POLLUTIION CONTROL ; OIL PALM ; RUBBER ; NORTH SUMATRA ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

Vol 5 No.2 (2005) p11-22
Supply Response of Malaysian Palm Oil Producers: Impact of Interest Rate Variations
Mohammad Alias and Tuck Cheong Tang

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Abstract


Supply Response of Malaysian Palm Oil Producers: Impact of Interest Rate Variations

This paper examines the long run relationship between the supply of Malaysian palm oil and its determinants using Johansen multivariate cointegration analysis. The supply response of Malaysian oil palm producers is investigated using annual data from 1967 to 2002. An error correction model is proposed to investigate the short run response of supply to its determinants. Supply of palm oil is postulated to be a function of expected price of palm oil relative to the expected price of rubber (the substitute crop); government expenditure, a proxy for government policy; a time trend variable to represent technological change or preference and interest rate to represent the cost of borrowing.
Previous studies have not included the interest rate variable. Naïve expectations model is used to model price expectations. Structural information, in particular, the gestation period for oil palms from first planting is used in the specification of the long run relationship.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL-Production ; SUPPLY ; PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

Vol 5 No.2 (2005) p1-10
Vision 2020 - The Palm Oil Phenomenon
Yusof Basiron and Mohd Arif Simeh

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Abstract


Vision 2020 - The Palm Oil Phenomenon

Predicting the future performance of an export oriented commodity like palm oil is no easy task. The prediction has to take into account the long run past performance, resource constraints and challenges faced by the commodity at both the domestic and international fronts. This paper attempts to overview the palm oil industry; what it was in the past, its situation today and its likely development in the future.

Keyword(s): VISION 2020 ; PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; FORECASTING ; FUTURE PROSPECTS ; MARKET DEVELOPMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

Vol 5 No.1 (2005) p37-43
Palm Oil Derived Esters - An Environmentally Safe Drilling Fluid
Mohd Kassim Salleh and Stephan von Tapavicza

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Abstract


Palm Oil Derived Esters - An Environmentally Safe Drilling Fluid

The rising world energy demand has led to exploration for oil and gas in increasingly difficult environments. Exploration is now extending into sensitive regions, in particular, offshore fields. Drilling in deep water in increasingly deviated and extended wells and borehole instability in challenging geological formations are some of the obstacles encountered. Oil-based drilling fluids are widely used in drilling, especially in highly technical wells. This is because oil-based drilling mud systems perform much better than water-based muds in bore hole stabilization and providing lubricity thereby give faster rates of penetration. However, they are a cause for environmental concern and with the potential long-term liability for damage caused by mud spills and problems in disposal of the oil-contaminated drill cuttings, changes are afoot. The industry has
been replacing highly aromatic oils (e.g. diesel) with low aromatic mineral oils as well as synthetic oils. However, as environmental legislation and controls become more stringent, even the newer and less polluting mineral and synthetic oils in vogue now may be adjudged unsuitable because of their non-biodegradability. Indeed, today, in many parts of the world, including countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Holland, Norway, Nigeria and Australia, the use of diesel and mineral oil-based drilling fluids in offshore operations is already either severely restricted or banned because of their toxicity, persistency and bio-accumulation.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; METHYL ESTERS ; PALM OIL LUBRICANT ; OIL DRILLING ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

Vol 5 No.1 (2005) p28-36
Market Evaluation of Phosphate Fertilizers from Various Sources for Matured Oil Palm in Malaysia
Mohd Nasir Amiruddin; Zin Zawawi Zakaria and Hasiah Embong

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Abstract


Market Evaluation of Phosphate Fertilizers from Various Sources for Matured Oil Palm in Malaysia

Fertilizers are one of the most important inputs in the production of palm oil. Their use is dependent on the price of palm oil (PO), the higher the price the more the fertilizers used. P fertilizers significantly increased fresh fruit bunches (FFB) yield and the rates to be used will depend on the costs and benefits afforded by them. This study determines the costs and benefits of utilizing various sources of phosphate fertilizers through partial budgeting and dominance analysis for gross return (GR), total variable cost (TVC), marginal rate of net return (MRNR), net return (NR) and return on investment (ROI).

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; FERTILIZERS, PHOSPHATE ; COST BENEFITS ; FFB ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

Vol 5 No.1 (2005) p17-27
Market Potential and Challenges for the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry in Facing Competition from Other Vegetable Oils
Mohd Nasir Amiruddin; Ayat K Ab Rahman and Faizah Mohd Shariff

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Abstract


Market Potential and Challenges for the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry in Facing Competition from Other Vegetable Oils

The market potential for oils and fats remains good into the future considering the increases in population, income as well as per capita consumption especially in countries with currently low income and low consumption. However, the challenges are that most of the oils are inter-substitutable and therefore in competition with each other. Thus, countries impose support measures to gain markets for their products.
This paper examines the market potential and challenges of the Malaysian palm oil industry in facing competition from other vegetable oils. There exists a relationship between vegetable oil prices in the longterm and short-term because they are co-integrated. The vector error correction model (VECM) was used to distinguish the long- and shortterm relationships between the vegetable oil price variables. This test determined the oils in close competition with one another as well as established the bi-directional causality between the oils. The former means that two or more oils can influence each other. In general, it was concluded that palm olein is a price leader to certain vegetable oils and the challenge lies in making it the main price leader in the vegetable oils and fats sector. This can be achieved by palm oil producing and exporting countries having their own market intelligence to confer an advantage in preparing better competing strategies.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; PALM OIL MARKETING ; MARKET COMPETITONS ; MARKET DEVELOPMENT ; INTERNATIONAL TRADE ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

Vol 5 No.1 (2005) p1-13
The Role of Research and Development Strategies in Food Safety and Good Agricultural, Manufacturing and Distribution Practices in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry
Yusof Basiron and Chan Kook Weng

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Abstract


The Role of Research and Development Strategies in Food Safety and Good Agricultural, Manufacturing and Distribution Practices in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

Globalization has expanded the Malaysian palm oil export market to over 140 countries. Research and development strategies carried out by Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) continue to provide information to demonstrate proactively food safety with negligible risk in its global supply chains. By examining the factors of air, water, soil, agricultural input, raw material and human used in the production, processing and manufacturing operations, the sound knowledge of science and technology from the 209 MPOB innovations, when combined with business and application of the widely accepted rigorous and systematic method of assessing and controlling hazards through the food chain, has ensured that palm oil remains an agricultural product that is healthy and safe to the customer. Throughout the food supply chain, the general principles of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) have been incorporated into food safety legislation, long before they were officially introduced, to check the hygiene requirement and to use as a practical means of standardizing international food quality control and assurance practices. Every stage of preparation, processing, transport and distribution of palm oil is examined so that the final palm oil products for retailing to customers indeed are safe and nutritious. An effort is made to communicate new R&D findings to retain the credibility and trust of customers who will understand what lies behind such a food safety assurance scheme.
The value-add throughout the supply chain covers good agricultural practices (GAP), good manufacturing practices (GMP) and good distribution practices (GDP). Built into a database, the information gathered allows the effectiveness of the good practices in food safety management, detection of contaminants, toxicology, novel processing, packaging and application of risk management to be evaluated. The harmonization of these good practices towards standardization provides a high level of confidence to the operational entities and the customers. The auditors and assessors when benchmarked by accredited bodies that are internationally recognized, the industry will attain integrity by their assessment. Knowledge that Malaysian palm oil products are produced to an agreed standard will further boost consumer confidence by making them even more acceptable by people the world over.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R & D) ; FOOD SAFETY ; MARKET DEVELOPMENT ; EXPORTS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

Vol 4 No.2 (2004) p29-38
Economic Feasibility of Organic Palm Oil Production in Malaysia
Ahmad Borhan A Nordin; Mohd Arif Simeh; Mohd nasir Amiruddin; Chan Kook Weng and Burhanuddin Abdul Salam

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Abstract


Economic Feasibility of Organic Palm Oil Production in Malaysia

The importance of organic farming has increased due to its environmentally friendly methods and growing consumer awareness of food safety. Based on estimates, world retail sales of organic foods will reach USD 29-USD 31 billion in 2005. Producing palm oil by organic cultivation is highly possible in Malaysia since many oil palm agronomic practices in the country already have minimum environmental impacts and are moving towards even more eco-friendly methods. The command of a premium price is the main attraction for investment in organic food production.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; ORGANIC FARMING ; ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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