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No.64 (June 2016) p20-26
An Analysis of Crude Palm Oil Price against Prices of Selected Oils and Fats
Ramli Abdullah*

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Introduction


An Analysis of Crude Palm Oil Price against Prices of Selected Oils and Fats

Among the 17 oils and fats in the world, palm oil leads in terms of production, trade and consumption. Its global production, export and consumption in 2015 were 62.79 million tonnes or 30.64% of the world production of oils and fats, 47.82 million tonnes or 57.61% of the world’s exports of oils and fats, and 61.22 million tonnes or 30.08% of the world’s consumption of oils and fats, respectively (Oil World, 2015a; Oil World, 2015b). These statistics indicate the dominance of palm oil in the sectors of production, trade and consumption, mainly due to its supply and demand factors. Its high productivity of 3.6 t ha-1 (author’s estimate) ensures stability and ready availability of the oil, and its numerous uses in food and non-food applications have been globally accepted by the world. This is evident from the large share of palm oil exports (57.61%) in the total exports of oils and fats in 2015. In terms of palm oil imports, eight countries imported more than one million tonnes in 2015, with India being the largest at about 9.53 million tonnes and Malaysia, the eight largest, at about 1.03 million tonnes (MPOB, 2016). Many other countries imported varying volumes of palm oil (Oil World, 2015a; Oil World, 2015b).



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No.64 (June 2016) p14-19
Palm Tocotrienol: A Good Antioxidant for Skin Wound Healing
Zaizuhana Shahrim*, Zaliha Omar*, Zaida Zainal* and Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan*

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Introduction


Palm Tocotrienol: A Good Antioxidant for Skin Wound Healing

Skin, as the largest organ of the body, acts as a barrier against the surroundings. It plays an important protective as well as reparative function in the body. When an injury occurs, either acute or chronic, our body automatically sets in motion dynamic and multiple steps of processes at the injured site (Akbik et al., 2014) as illustrated in Figure 1. Wound repair takes an intricate course, but there is distinctively concerted interaction among inflammatory cells and related growth, forming an important coordination of the intricate phases of wound repair (Öztürk and Ermertcan, 2011). Over the years, the stages of wound repair have been well-documented.



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No.64 (June 2016) p11-13
Current Market Trend, Science and Challenges in Palm Carotenes and Tocotrienols
Lau Chee Yen*

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Introduction


Current Market Trend, Science and Challenges in Palm Carotenes and Tocotrienols

Crude palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the pulp of the fruit of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Originating in West Africa, oil palm is now commonly found in the Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. By nature, crude palm oil possesses a high concentration of carotenes (500-700 ppm) and tocotrienols (up to 1000 ppm). Carotenes (alpha-carotenes and beta-carotenes) are dark red compounds. They are widely used as natural food colourants in the food and beverage industry, whereas tocotrienols, due to their unique health properties, have started to gain popularity among the manufacturers of dietary supplements and producers of functional foods and beverages as well as cosmetic companies in recent years.



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No.64 (June 2016) p7-10
Recovery of Oil Palm Lumber Production
Anis Mokhtar*, Noor Ainna Shamsudin**, Ismail Sahid**, Halimah Muhamad* and Astimar Abdul Aziz*

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Introduction


Recovery of Oil Palm Lumber Production

The Malaysian timber industry has developed into a very significant socioeconomic sector, contributing 3.7% to the Growth Domestic Product (GDP) and 3.2% to the country’s total merchandise exports in 2010. Indeed, the furniture business from the wood-based industry continues to expand due to the high demand from the worldwide market, particularly in the Asian region. This is evident from the total export of wooden furniture amounting to RM 6.7 billion in 2014, and by the fact that Malaysia is positioned as the ninth biggest furniture exporter in the world (Malaysian-German Chamber of Commerce, 2014).



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No.64 (June 2016) p1-6
Developing New Opportunities for Innovative Palm Oil Products
Saw Mei Huey*, Muhamad Roddy Ramli* and Siew Wai Lin

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Introduction


Developing New Opportunities for Innovative Palm Oil Products

Fats and oils that have been modified or restructured to incorporate new fatty acids are called structured lipids. Primarily, these fatty acids are either short or medium chain, and are preferentially essential fatty acids. The reasons for changing the fatty acid profile in the new oils are to introduce a new fatty acid into the existing oil, to reduce its saturation, improve nutritional requisites, or provide additional functional characteristics. Traditionally, the process involves either a chemical or an enzymatic catalyst. Now, many possibilities have emerged from research and also from an innovative new range of enzymes introduced by enzyme manufacturers. Modifications of oils and fats are common activities in most oils and fats enterprises. The more complicated processes such as those involving enzymatic reactions are less common due to the high capital and operational costs. However, the benefits offered by enzymes are specificity, mild conditions and less waste, or less of harmful side products (Yang and Xu 2001, Willis and Marangoni 2002). Unwanted side products can be minimised through proper selection of the most suitable enzymes as well as control of the reaction conditions.



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No. 63 (December 2015) p17-22
An Overview of Indirect Methods for the Analysis of MCPD Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Fats and Oils
Halimah Muhammad*, Biow Ing Sim**, Yeoh Chee Beng* and Chin Ping Tan**

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Introduction


An Overview of Indirect Methods for the Analysis of MCPD Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Fats and Oils

Direct and indirect analytical methods are the two general approaches in quantifying MCPD esters and glycidyl esters. Direct methods determine the individual MCPD and glycidyl esters while indirect methods determine free MCPD and glycidol that have been liberated from their derivative analogues. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. The direct methods, obviously, have the advantage of being more direct, requiring a minor degree of sample preparation and thereby having little chance of being impaired by errors originating from cumbersome preparation procedures. Besides, direct methods provide detailed information on the chemical structure of the esters. However, they have a disadvantage when proper quantification requires that several reference and standard compounds to be available for use. To make things worse, for the unknown glycidyl derivatives that may be present in any sample or matrix, the compounds might not be detected because there is no prior knowledge of their analytical characteristics. In contrast, despite the major drawback of the need for long sample preparation steps, indirect analytical methods allow for the determination of all MCPD and glycidyl derivatives as long as they undergo transesterification to release their free forms. The complexity of the analytes composition requires selective separation and advanced detection equipment which become a limitation to small- scale laboratories. Thus, the indirect analytical approach seems to be better suited for a wider group of researchers and for routine analyses because fewer standards and simpler instruments (e.g. gas chromatography/mass spectrometry equipment) are required.



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No. 63 (December 2015) p12-16
Superior Bioavailability of Gamma Delta Tocotrienol as Compared with Tocotrienolrich Fraction in Healthy Human Subjects
Puvaneswari Meganathan*, Rafid Salim Jabir**, Ho Gwo Fuang**, Nirmala Bhoo-Pathy**, Roma Basu Choudhury**, Nur Aishah Taib**, Kalanithi Nesaretnam* and Zamri Chik**

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Introduction


Superior Bioavailability of Gamma Delta Tocotrienol as Compared with Tocotrienolrich Fraction in Healthy Human Subjects

Vitamin E is found in abundance in vegetable oils, with tocopherols as the main constituent. In the past, tocopherols have been vastly studied whereas there is still a paucity in clinical data where tocotrienols are concerned. Both tocopherols and tocotrienols have similar structures with the presence of a chromanol ring and a side chain. They are divided into two groups with four members each, namely, alpha, beta, gamma and delta. However, tocotrienols also possess an unsaturated side chain with three double bonds unlike tocopherols. This unsaturated side chain in tocotrienols contributes to their efficient penetration into tissues such as those of adipose, liver and the brain (Nesaretnam et al., 1995; Nesaretnam., 2008; Kannappan et al., 2012). Initial research has proven that tocotrienols demonstrate various biological and physiological properties such as cardioprotective (Vasanthi et al., 2012, neuroprotective (Khanna et al., 2010) and anticancer activity (Aggarwal et al., 2010), as well as cholesterol-lowering effects (Yuen et al., 2011), thus distinguishing them from tocopherols.



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No. 63 (December 2015) p4-11
Applications of Epoxidised Palmbased Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Noor Armylisa’s Abu Hassan* and Rosnah Ismail*

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Introduction


Applications of Epoxidised Palmbased Unsaturated Fatty Acids

Over the past decade, palm oil has become dominant in the global trade of vegetable oils (which include soyabean, canola, linseed, rapeseed, corn, cottonseed, peanut, sesame and sunflower) despite the controversy raised by the western media regarding the sustainability of its production and health issues. This is due to several advantages offered by palm oil over actual and potential alternatives in terms of versatility, productivity, price and volume availability (Shimizu and Desrochers, 2012). Oil palm is considered a golden crop because of its high efficiency of production (Figure 1). 



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No. 63 (December 2015) p1-3
Production of Cookies Using Palm Oil
Nur Haqim Ismail

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Introduction


Production of Cookies Using Palm Oil

Chocolate chip cookies, peanut butter cookies and chocolate sandwich biscuits are some of the popular cookies available in Malaysian supermarkets. Kids just love to eat these cookies. Cookies is the term used in America to describe cereal-based baked products that have a low moisture content of 1%-5%, excluding any moisture from the fillings or icing. Cookies have a longer shelf life and higher fat content than other baked products, as well as higher energy density. In New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and South Africa, the term for this product is biscuit (http://www.bakeinfo.co.nz).



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No.62 (June 2015) p15-20
Updates on Oils and Fats Scenario in China
Yoong Jun Hao and Ooi Cheng Keat

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Introduction


Updates on Oils and Fats Scenario in China

In the late 1970s, China started to move from a closed and centrally planned economy system to a price-driven and market-oriented economy system. As a result, China became the world’s major trader in goods in 2014. The reforms brought huge development in the industrialisation and the modernisation of the country. Modernisation also brought in modern concepts and technologies to the people in the country. Issues such as trans-fat free, low saturated fat and low contaminants in food processing have become new challenges for the oils and fats market in China. In brief, the people in China today are not only getting food to satisfy hunger, but they are also looking at quality food for a healthier life.



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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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