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No.66 (June 2017) p32-38
Palm-based Methyl Esters as Carrier Solvents in Pesticide Formulations
Sumaiyah Megat Nabil Mohsin*; Ismail Ab Raman*; Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan* and Zainab Idris*

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Introduction


Palm-based Methyl Esters as Carrier Solvents in Pesticide Formulations

Pesticide formulations typically consist of active ingredients responsible for the pesticidal effect and inert ingredients responsible for improving product performance, stability and usability. Examples of inert ingredients include carrier solvents, emulsifiers, stabilisers, fragrances and dyes. The majority of pesticides are in the form of dry and liquid formulations. Examples of the former include dusts, granules, pellets and wettable powders while examples of the latter are solutions, aerosols, suspension concentrates
or emulsions.



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No.66 (June 2017) p28-31
Eastern Europe: The Untapped and Potential Growth Markets for Malaysian Palm Oil
Puah Chiew Wei*

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Introduction


Eastern Europe: The Untapped and Potential Growth Markets for Malaysian Palm Oil

Palm oil is the most traded oil in the world due to its demand and versatility in both food and non-food (e.g. oleochemicals and biofuels) applications. Malaysia is the second largest producer of palm oil in the world and the oil palm industry contributed RM 67.6 billion in 2016 in export earnings. It is important for the industry to remain viable and competitive taking into account its importance to the economy of the country. However, for Malaysian palm oil, one of the challenges faced is competition from other palm oil producers (mainly Indonesia) and competition from other vegetable oils traded globally such as soyabean, sunflower seed and canola oils. Therefore, there is a need to continually explore potential growth markets to ensure that there is sufficient demand for Malaysian palm oil. Eastern Europe is a promising growth market due to inter alia opportunities arising from the break-up of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. Countries in Eastern Europe include Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, the Russian Federation, Slovakia and Ukraine. Driving factors for potential market growth in the region are the possible substitution or replacement of the traditional vegetable oils and fats used in the food sector, price and availability of supply, health benefits of vegetable oil, and sustainability.



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No.66 (June 2017) p18-27
Red Palm Oil: A Natural Source of Vitamin A
Radhika Loganathan* and Teng Kim Tiu*

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Introduction


Red Palm Oil: A Natural Source of Vitamin A

The fruit of the oil palm (Elaeis guineesis) yields the oil called red palm oil (RPO). Oil palm is a perennial crop which produces the highest oil yield per hectare per year compared with other leading oilseed crops (Mielke, 2014). Currently, Malaysia and Indonesia are the leading producers of palm oil (Burri, 2012). The oil palm is a unique crop in being able to produce two types of oils, namely crude palm oil from the fibrous mesocarp (which is the brilliant deep red-orange pulp) and palm kernel oil (resembling coconut oil) from the kernel (Sundram et al., 2003). Crude palm oil (CPO) can be processed into various downstream products, and this processing partially removes the phytonutrients. Refined, bleached and deodorised  RBD) palm oil, the major processed product, is obtained by bleaching and deodorisation of CPO. During this refining process, the carotenoids which give CPO its red-orange colour, are decomposed, resulting in RBD palm oil having a light yellow colour, while part of the other phytonutrients are still retained in the RBD palm oil (Nagendran et al., 2000).



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No.66 (June 2017) p14-17
Survey on Commercial Palm Olein and Oil Extracted from Snack Products in Selected Asian Countries – Part 2: Quantification of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol Esters (3-MCPDE)
Raznim Arni Abd Razak*; Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi* and Ainie Kuntom*

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Introduction


Survey on Commercial Palm Olein and Oil Extracted from Snack Products in Selected Asian Countries – Part 2: Quantification of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol Esters (3-MCPDE)

The 3-monochloropropane-1,2- diol esters (3-MCPDE) is one of the food contaminants which develop when oils and fats undergo the refining process at high temperatures. The 3-MCPDE was first detected in 2006 in various edible oils and fats (Zelinkova et al., 2006). In crude or unrefined fats and oils, there is virtually no trace of 3-MCPDE; nevertheless, this constituent is detected in nearly all refined vegetable oils and fats, as well as animal fats (Weißhäar, 2008). Recent publications reported the occurrence of 3-MCPDE in lipid-containing products such as breads, cookies, mayonnaises and margarines (Küsters et al., 2011; Ermacora and Hrncirik, 2014).



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No.66 (June 2017) p5-13
Recent Developments in Palm-based Lubricants
Tang Sook Wah*; Lim Wen Huei*; Yeong Shoot Kian* and Zainab Idris*

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Introduction


Recent Developments in Palm-based Lubricants

Lubricants are used to reduce friction, wear and heat between contacting surfaces in relative motion (Bart et al., 2013a). They can be classified based on physical appearance, i.e. solid, liquid or semi-solid. Liquid lubricants can be derived from petroleum, vegetable, animal or synthetic oils. Grease is a semi-solid material in which the liquid fraction is suspended in a solid matrix of thickener and additives. A solid lubricant is a solid material with a film comprising inorganic or organic compounds such as graphite, molybdenum disulphide and cadmium disulphide (Mobarak et al., 2014).



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No.66 (June 2017) p1-4
Nanomaterials – Recent Advancements in Edible Coating Technology
Siti Hazirah Mohamad Fauzi* and Noor Armylisas Abu Hassan*

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Introduction


Nanomaterials – Recent Advancements in Edible Coating Technology

The agriculture sector plays a prominent role in fostering world economic revenue. Most importantly this sector also paves a new route for reshaping a healthier world. Rising trends towards health-conscious eating habits have evoked the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables as an available option for better, healthier and smarter solutions that meet modern lifestyle and needs. International organisations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations are aggressively promoting and creating awareness in the consumption of fruits and vegetables in daily food intake. However, despite numerous policy interventions, statistics show that daily intake of fruits and vegetables is generally still below the recommended levels.



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No. 65 (December 2016) p25-30
Enhancing Malaysia’s Presence in Tanzania’s Palm Oil Market
Hisham Hussain* and Isa Mansor*

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Introduction


Enhancing Malaysia’s Presence in Tanzania’s Palm Oil Market

Tanzania offers a uniquely attractive investment opportunity with her large and growing domestic population, strategic location, abundance of natural resources and internal political stability.



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No. 65 (December 2016) p21-24
Iran: A Growing Potential Market for Palm Oil
Rafizah Mazlan* and Mohamad Fairus Mohd Hidzir*

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Introduction


Iran: A Growing Potential Market for Palm Oil

Iran is situated at the crossroads of Central Asia, South Asia and the Arab states of the Middle East. Her neighbours are Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia to the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, and Turkey and Iraq to the west (Figure 1). The country’s strategic position and its access to the Persian Gulf in the south have made Iran an important country throughout its history. Tehran is the capital of the country. Located in the north-western part of Iran, Tehran is the country’s largest city as well as the political, cultural, commercial and industrial center of the nation.



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No. 65 (December 2016) p14-17
Underlying Health Risks of Frying Oils: Lipid Oxidation
Chong Wei Kien*,** and Teng Kim Tiu*

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Introduction


Underlying Health Risks of Frying Oils: Lipid Oxidation

As we know, deep fried foods can taste delicious, not to mention the finger-licking good taste of Kentucky Fried Chicken, with its savoury aroma lingering in the air. The frying method forms a brownish crusty layer on the food surface that contributes to the distinctive fried flavour, resulting in more palatable and desirable food. That is the reason why frying is extensively used in the making of various domestic food products currently available in the market. In principle, frying is a dehydration process that involves rapid heating and mass transfer when the food is immersed into hot oil at temperatures above the boiling point of water, i.e. between 1500C and 1900C (Azmil Haizam and Razali, 2014; Jaarin and Kamisah, 2012). The ease of operation, convenience and economic viability of the frying process have resulted in the popularity of fried food products.



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No. 65 (December 2016) p12-13,18-20
Prospects of Palm-based Oil as a Biolubricant
Noor Armylisa’s Abu Hassan*, Siti Hazirah Mohamad Fauzi* and Yeong Shoot Kian*

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Introduction


Prospects of Palm-based Oil as a Biolubricant

A lubricant is a substance used to reduce surface friction and wear between interacting surfaces, to dissipate heat, prevent corrosion and transfer of power. In general, a good lubricant should have a high viscosity index, high flash and fire points (higher than the operating temperature of the machine), high oiliness, and high resistance towards oxidation and corrosion. Besides that, volatility loss and deposit of carbon should be kept low for industrial and machinery lubrication.



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