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LIST OF ARTICLES

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No.68 (June 2018) p33-37
Tocotrienols and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
Sitti Rahma Abd Hafid* and Nabiha Iran*

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Introduction


Tocotrienols and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

Tocotrienols are superior antioxidants that can combat free radicals in the human body, and have shown many biological functions such as having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, maintaining fertility and regulating the immune system, associated with lowering tumour formation, having enhanced anti-cancer properties, as well as controlling tumour growth in certain types of cancer (Yam et al., 2009; Abd Hafid et al., 2010; Inoue & Zhang, 2011; Wong et al., 2012; Abdul Hafid et al., 2013). Some studies have shown that tocotrienols induce cell death in various cancers, such as breast, prostate, cervix and pancreas. Delta-tocotrienols (δ-T3) are believed to be more effective than other forms of tocotrienols in causing apoptosis or cell death in both oestrogen-nonresponsive and oestrogenresponsive breast cancer cells (Ahn et al., 2007; Inoue and Zhang, 2011; Wong et al., 2012). Since, tocotrienols as antioxidants have the ability in lowering oxidative stress, neutralise free radicals which functions as a chainbreaking antioxidant that prevents propagation of free radical reactions in all cell membranes (Devasagayam et al., 2004); it may be suggested as an alternative compound in treating and managing leukaemia diseases. There are only few reports on the effects of tocotrienols in leukaemic cells (Ahn et al., 2007; Al-Tonbary et al., 2008; Inoue and Zhang, 2011; Wong et al., 2012).



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No.68 (June 2018) p26-32
Importance of Genotoxicity Studies on Methyl Ester Sulfonates for Regulatory Compliance
Nurul Aishah Muhammad*; Yusrabbil Amiyati Yusof* and Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan*

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Introduction


Importance of Genotoxicity Studies on Methyl Ester Sulfonates for Regulatory Compliance

Oleochemicals are derived from natural plants such as palm oil and other vegetable oils. There are five basic oleochemicals, namely fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty methyl esters, fatty amines and glycerol (Ong et al., 1989). Palm-based oleochemicals have a diverse range of applications, including as surfactants, personal care products, soaps, detergents and food additives. Surfactants are the largest market segment, alongside personal care and home care products (Grandview Research, 2014). One of the main surfactants is methyl ester sulphonates (MES).



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No.68 (June 2018) p22-25
Characteristics of Compressed Microcrystalline Cellulose from Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre
Nur Eliyanti Ali Othman*; Astimar Abdul Aziz*; Wan Hasamudin Wan Hassan*; Nor Faizah Jalani*; Fazliana Abdul Hamid*; Fatiha Ismail*; Kamarudin Hassan* and Anis Mokhtar*

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Introduction


Characteristics of Compressed Microcrystalline Cellulose from Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre

Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) powder was prepared by acid treatment of the cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibre (Ramli et al., 2015; Rosnah et al., 2009). Traditionally MCC was obtained from wood, cotton (Suzuki and Nakagami, 1999), and cotton linters (Nada et al., 2009). There are a few reports of MCC derived from agriculture biomass such as rice straw and bagasse (Ilindra and Dhake, 2008), sawdust (Oyeniyi and Itiola, 2012), kenaf core wood (Chi et al., 2013), Lageriana siceraria (water gourd) (Achor et al., 2014), soyabean hulls (Merci et al., 2015), oil palm fronds (Hussin, et al., 2016) and oil palm trunks (Abd Hamid et al., 2014).



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No.68 (June 2018) p18-21
Potential of Palm Oil Waste for Biolubricant
Noor Armylisas Abu Hassan*; Siti Hazirah Mohamad Fauzi* and Yeong Shoot Kian*

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Introduction


Potential of Palm Oil Waste for Biolubricant

Lubricants are comprised of two main components, i.e. base oil (70%-90%) and additives to modify/improve the base oil’s properties. Most lubricant base oils are produced from non-renewable source such as mineral-based oil which can be divided into mineral and synthetic categories. It is a substance introduced between two moving surfaces to keep them apart and reduce friction, which ultimately reduces the heat generated. Lubricant also protects the surfaces from wear and corrosion, removes deposits and impurities, as well as transmit power.



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No.68 (June 2018) p14-17
Potential of Palm Oil as a Renewable Material for Radiation Curable Coating
Cheong Mei Yee* and Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan*

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Potential of Palm Oil as a Renewable Material for Radiation Curable Coating

Research on bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications has seen some progress as well as the products facing competition with their petroleum-based counterparts. The demand for bio-based polymers and resins is due to their property of environmental friendliness as they are made from renewable resources (Ashraf et al., 2015). Additionally, human health is compromised when using traditional coatings which utilise high molecular weight polymers that release volatile and toxic solvents when crosslinked with heat, or when coalesced dry, resulting in serious hazards to human health. The hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere during manufacture and application of coating materials lead to environment contamination. Environmental regulations and government legislations towards zero waste generation during the development as well as application of coating materials have been the dominant driving force in advances in bio-based polymers. Due to their abundance, palm triglycerides provide a renewable alternative to petroleum-based coating. Palm oil is the leading vegetable oil in terms of production volume as the oil palm produces between eight and 10 times more oil per hectare per year compared with annual oilseeds such as rapeseed or soyabean (Basiron, 2007). In fact, palm oil accounted for 32.0% of the global oils and fats output in 2012 (Sime Darby, 2014) and 30.1% in 2016 (Mielke, 2016).



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No.68 (June 2018) p9-13
The Mechanism and Potential of Palm Vitamin E as a Skin-lightening Agent
Nur Anis Albakry*; Yusrabbil Amiyati Yusof* and Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan*

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The Mechanism and Potential of Palm Vitamin E as a Skin-lightening Agent

A light skin tone is considered a superior trait in most races, particularly among Asian and African women. Realising the demand for fair skin, many cosmetic companies are developing different molecules for use as skinlightening products. There are many commercial skin-lightening products readily available over-the-counter which use depigmenting agents such as hydroquinone, azelaic acid, kojic acid, vitamin C, niaciamide, corticosteroids, licorice extract, gluthathione, glycolic acid and gentisic acid (Sonthalia et al., 2016). However, several skin-lightening agents such as hydroquinone and kojic acid have been banned in cosmetic products due to their side effects on the skin, and this has led to the search for safer plant-based skin-lightening materials. The wide range and variety of available biomass is presumed to be an attractive bioresource for screening for inhibitors of melanin synthesis (Lin et al., 2007; Thongchai et al., 2007).



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No.68 (June 2018) p5-8
Palm Fractions and Phytonutrients in Chocolate Spread
Norazura Aila Mohd Hassim* and Nur Haqim Ismail

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Palm Fractions and Phytonutrients in Chocolate Spread

Chocolate is a product craved for and desired by many people. Good quality chocolate has smooth texture, good snap ability and glossiness, and most importantly melts in the mouth. The quality of chocolate has a close relationship with the fat component of the chocolate in that it should solidify at room temperature and fully melt at body temperature. However, bloom and loss of glossiness can occur in a chocolate product mostly due to unfavourable storage conditions and improper tempering (for chocolate made from cocoa butter). Although bloom and loss of glossiness do not correlate with rancidity, these surface defects appear unappetising to the eater. These weaknesses in chocolate can be eliminated by producing an alternative chocolate product in paste form that is spreadable; what is commonly called chocolate spread.



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No.68 (June 2018) p1-4
Vitamin E-Enriched Vegetable Nuggets Using Palm Fat
Rafidah Abd Hamid* and Norazura Aila Mohd Hassim*

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Vitamin E-Enriched Vegetable Nuggets Using Palm Fat

Deep-fried or baked batter food products receive very high demand nowadays. They are made of meat, vegetables and other materials such as cheese. One well-known product that falls under this category is chicken nuggets. The product was invented in the 1950s by Robert C. Baker who was a professor in Food Science at Cornell University. Chicken nuggets started to be commercially sold in the early 1980s by a fast-food restaurant (Hopkins, 2012). Nowadays, chicken nuggets are one of the common items in menus of school canteens. They are categorised under processed meat products by the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). In processed meat formulations, which include chicken nuggets, animal fat has become one of the crucial ingredients. However, animal fats have been identified as one of the causes of dietary diseases due to their saturated fatty acids and trans-fatty acids content (Abd Hamid et al., 2015).



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No.67 (December 2017) p16-19
Bioplasticiser and Palm Oil
Wan Nur Fatihah Wan Muhammad Zulkifli*

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Bioplasticiser and Palm Oil

A plasticiser is a substance (typically a solvent) added to a synthetic resin to produce or promote plasticity and flexibility, and to reduce brittleness. Thus, a plasticiser is chemically defined as a substance or material incorporated into another material (usually plastic or elastomer) to increase its flexibility and workability (Krauskopf, 2009). Plasticisers have been unknowingly used in everyday life for decades. Water, for example, is a form of a plasticiser that is used by potters for moulding clay, by painters for calcimine, and by boat builders and carpenters for bending wood (Deanin, 1986). In addition, vegetable oils are used to reduce the brittleness of resins in paint, foot oil as a permanent softener for leather, and lactates in casein paint. In the 1840s, scientists discovered cellulose nitrate which is the first polymer that has been widely used in industry. Shortly after this development, camphor, a type of white and waxy solid chemical, became the plasticiser of choice for cellulose nitrate (Graham, 1973). This was due to the intractable properties of cellulose nitrate which limited its application. Camphor remained the major application for cellulose nitrate in the 19th century. However, due to the undesirable odour, flammability and excessive volatility of camphor, scientists looked for an alternative. This was how phthalate, a white solid compound, was introduced. (Phthalate is pronounced ‘tha-late’.) The development of phthalates was in parallel with the commercialisation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and caused rapid growth in the industry. Applications of phthalates continued until the 20th century. Different types of phthalates were developed over time, differing in weight and performance.



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No.67 (December 2017) p12-15
Rice with Low and High Glycaemic Index (GI) Interacting with Oils: What Do We Know So Far?
Gowri Nagapan* and Kanga Rani Selvaduray*

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Rice with Low and High Glycaemic Index (GI) Interacting with Oils: What Do We Know So Far?



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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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