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No.70 (June 2019) p36-40
The Anti-inflammatory Effects of Tocotrienol in Macrophages
Sitti Rahma Abd Hafid* and Nabiha Iran*

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Introduction


The Anti-inflammatory Effects of Tocotrienol in Macrophages

Inflammation is one of the immune response systems and plays an important role in damaged tissues and wounds which include other infections occurring at the site. Without the inflammation response, the wound would not able to heal. Inflammation occurs as a result of the body’s attempt in self-protection, in order to remove harmful stimuli and to initiate the healing process. This is identified as a defence mechanism in our body in recruiting the immune cells to the site of the inflammation (Nordqvist, 2017). To start the healing process, our immune system is required to differentiate between normal cells and damaged cells, irritation, pain and also pathogens. The biological responses will continuously try to remove any harmful substance or irritation that affects a part of our body. When there is a harmful substance or inflammation present in our body, a biological response will start spontaneously and try to recruit our immune cells to the site of injury, sometimes causing pain and discomfort. This is an indication that our body is trying to heal itself (Nordqvist, 2017). However, if inflammation persists longer than necessary, it can cause more harm than benefit to the body (Nordqvist, 2017).



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No.70 (June 2019) p20-31
Link between Gut Microbiota and Obesity: Effects of Dietary Fats
Sia-Yen, Yap*; Phooi-Tee, Voon* and Selvaduray, Kanga Rani*

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Introduction


Link between Gut Microbiota and Obesity: Effects of Dietary Fats

“You are what you eat.” This phrase becomes more profound as obesity becomes increasingly recognised as one of the significant health problems that plague society (Nyberg et al., 2018). Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases, diabetes, stroke, asthma, cancer, as well as several other diseases (Guh et al., 2009; Lauby-Secretan et al., 2016). In Malaysia, 33.4% of her 32 million people are overweight while 30.6% are obese (Institute of Public Health, 2015).



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No.70 (June 2019) p19, 32-35
Production of Cocoa Butter Equivalent (CBE) through Enzymatic Interesterification of Palm Oil and its Fractions
Norazura Aila Mohd Hassim* and Noor Lida Habi Mat Dian*

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Introduction


Production of Cocoa Butter Equivalent (CBE) through Enzymatic Interesterification of Palm Oil and its Fractions

Cocoa butter is a traditional fat used in the production of chocolate. It is the preferred fat because of its desirable characteristics, which include glossiness and snap ability as well as sensory attributes (such as mouth feel and flavour release), that are imparted to the end product, chocolate (Ozan et al., 2008; Lipp et al., 2001; Shukla, 1995). Its characteristic of being solid and crystalline at 20ºC while being capable of melting in the mouth at body temperature makes cocoa butter an outstanding fat for chocolate. However, it is not cost effective because of the uncertainty in its supply (as a result of low productivity, pest attacks and difficulties in cultivation of cocoa) (Tchobo et al., 2009; Abigor et al., 2003; Lipp and Anklam, 1998). In this regard, many researches have been carried out to produce cocoa butter alternatives (CBA). Currently, CBA from vegetable oils and fats, especially from palm oil, palm kernel oil and their fractions, are very popular in the market. One particular segment of CBA called cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) is attracting much interest as it has similar physical and chemical properties as cocoa butter. Hence, it is 100% compatible for blending with cocoa butter.



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No.70 (June 2019) p9-18
MPOB Animal Feed Pilot Plant
Wan Nooraida Wan Mohamed*; Abidah Md Noh* and Nur Atikah Ibrahim

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Introduction


MPOB Animal Feed Pilot Plant

A pilot plant is a down-scaled production system used to practically test and validate a production technology before commercialisation. Recently, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) successfully commissioned an Animal Feed Pilot Plant (AFPP) located at MPOB Keratong Research Station, Pahang, which has a capacity of producing 100 kg feed pellets per hour or about 1 t feed pellets per day for research purposes as shown in Figures 1 and 2 (Wan Nooraida et al., 2016). MPOB has been very active in identifying suitable palm-based by-products for use in animal feed formulations to substitute imported raw materials.



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No.70 (June 2019) p4-8
Recent Development in Enzymatic Production of Palm-based Sugar Esters as Bio-based Surfactants
Arniza Mohd Zan*; Hoong Seng Soi* and Nik Siti Mariam Nek Mat Din*

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Introduction


Recent Development in Enzymatic Production of Palm-based Sugar Esters as Bio-based Surfactants

The demand for bio-based surfactants is increasing and is influenced by the growing consumer awareness of the benefits of bio-based products. Biobased surfactants are surface-active biomolecules derived from renewable feedstocks, such as sugar and palm oil. One advantage of utilising renewable feedstocks in surfactant production is to reduce carbon dioxide emissions (Foley et al., 2012). Sugar ester, a type of bio-based non-ionic surfactant, is an amphiphilic compound composed of a sugar and fatty acid moiety (Figure 1). They are usually odourless, biodegradable, non-toxic and non-irritating, and are therefore commonly used in food, cosmetics and personal care products (Ye and Hayes, 2014).



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No.70 (June 2019) p1-3
Production of Palm-based Panned ‘Chocolate’
Norazura Aila Mohd Hassim* and Sivaruby Kanagaratnam*

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Introduction


Production of Palm-based Panned ‘Chocolate’

Panned products are among popular treats nowadays due to their size, shape, quantity and value. It is a rapid and powerful method to coat numerous items with chocolate. Among popular item to coat are nuts such as almonds, cashews and peanuts as well as fruits such as raisins and cherries. Since panning may have been used for 1000 years, it is considered as one of the oldest types of processed confection (Copping, 1996). It evolved from pills or dragees in which it is rolled in sugar to conceal the displeasing medicine taste. The word dragee is believed to have initiated from a confectioner named Julius Dragatus who established a coated confection around 177 BC (Kitt, 2004).



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No.69 (December 2018) p28-33
Production of Palm-based Reference Materials for Analytical Testing and Quality Assurance – MPOB’s Experience
Elina Hishamuddin* and Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi*

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Introduction


Production of Palm-based Reference Materials for Analytical Testing and Quality Assurance – MPOB’s Experience

Malaysia is the second largest producer and exporter of palm oil (PO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) in the world. As one of the major players in PO and PKO trade, it is imperative for Malaysia to ensure that the quality of both oils exported meet the standard requirements established by national authorities and trade specifications defined in international standards. This necessitates the delivery of reliable and reproducible analytical measurements by competent laboratories using validated test methods. According to ISO/IEC 17025 (2017), one of the methods for evaluating the performance of testing laboratories is through the use of reference materials. However, the availability of affordable and method-specific reference materials for the analyses of palm products remains limited despite the increasing demand for the utilisation of palm-based reference materials. Hence, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) initiated a programme in the year 2000 to develop palm-based reference materials to cater to the needs of laboratories involved in quality testing of palm-based products. This article describes MPOB’s experience in the production and characterisation of palm-based reference materials for quality assurance in PO and PKO analyses within the last decade and provides updates on current research in the development of palm-based reference materials at MPOB.



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No.69 (December 2018) p25-27
Chemical and Physical Analyses of Goat Feed Pellets with Oil Palm By-products Inclusion
Nur Atikah Ibrahim*; Wan Nooraida Wan Mohamad*; Abidah Md Noh* and Miskandar Mat Sahri*

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Introduction


Chemical and Physical Analyses of Goat Feed Pellets with Oil Palm By-products Inclusion

The Malaysian oil palm industry generates huge amounts of by-products annually. Most of these by-products have great potential to be utilised as components in compound feeds. However, some of these by-products need further processing before they can be used effectively in livestock rations (Mohamed et al., 2012).



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No.69 (December 2018) p16-19
Tocotrienols: Emerging Evidence of Health Benefits from Clinical Trials
Puvaneswari Meganathan* and Fu Ju Yen*

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Introduction


Tocotrienols: Emerging Evidence of Health Benefits from Clinical Trials

Vitamin E was discovered in the 1920s and has exhibited various health protective effects (Aggarwal et al., 2010; Fu et al., 2014). It consists of tocopherols (TP) and tocotrienols (T3) with tocotrienols being different from their counterpart due to the presence of an unsaturated side chain. Compared to other natural sources such as soyabean, corn and rice bran, palm oil has a higher ratio of tocotrienols to tocopherols (Kannappan et al., 2012). For many years, vitamin E has been referred to synonymously as alpha tocopherol. However, in the last three decades, scientific evidence has shown that tocotrienols are much more potent as antioxidants than alpha tocopherol. In addition, tocotrienols have shown such therapeutic effects as neuroprotective, cardioprotective and anti-cancer, and as a cholesterol lowering agent as shown in Figure 1 (Fu et al., 2014). From pre-clinical studies to clinical trials, many mechanisms have been elucidated in the quest of an explanation for tocotrienols’ health-promoting qualities. This article will discuss the important findings from clinical trials that can serve as a bridge to connect scientists and clinicians.



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No.69 (December 2018) p15, 20-24
Accredited Analytical Testing Services Laboratory as a Reference Laboratory for the Oil Palm Industry
Hajar Musa*; Razmah Ghazali* and Mohd Azmil Mohd Noor*

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Introduction


Accredited Analytical Testing Services Laboratory as a Reference Laboratory for the Oil Palm Industry

The Malaysian palm oil industry has experienced significant growth since the first introduction of oil palm from West Africa in the late 1870s. In 2016, crude palm oil (CPO) production was recorded at 17.32 million tonnes (MPOB, 2016). Malaysia is currently one of the leading producers and exporters of palm oil (PO) and palm oil products (POP) worldwide. This accounts for 11% of the oils and fats production, and 27% of the exports of oils and fats (Malaysian Palm Oil Council, 2017).



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This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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