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No.68 (June 2018) p18-21
Potential of Palm Oil Waste for Biolubricant
Noor Armylisas Abu Hassan*; Siti Hazirah Mohamad Fauzi* and Yeong Shoot Kian*

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Introduction


Potential of Palm Oil Waste for Biolubricant

Lubricants are comprised of two main components, i.e. base oil (70%-90%) and additives to modify/improve the base oil’s properties. Most lubricant base oils are produced from non-renewable source such as mineral-based oil which can be divided into mineral and synthetic categories. It is a substance introduced between two moving surfaces to keep them apart and reduce friction, which ultimately reduces the heat generated. Lubricant also protects the surfaces from wear and corrosion, removes deposits and impurities, as well as transmit power.



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No.68 (June 2018) p14-17
Potential of Palm Oil as a Renewable Material for Radiation Curable Coating
Cheong Mei Yee* and Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan*

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Introduction


Potential of Palm Oil as a Renewable Material for Radiation Curable Coating

Research on bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications has seen some progress as well as the products facing competition with their petroleum-based counterparts. The demand for bio-based polymers and resins is due to their property of environmental friendliness as they are made from renewable resources (Ashraf et al., 2015). Additionally, human health is compromised when using traditional coatings which utilise high molecular weight polymers that release volatile and toxic solvents when crosslinked with heat, or when coalesced dry, resulting in serious hazards to human health. The hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere during manufacture and application of coating materials lead to environment contamination. Environmental regulations and government legislations towards zero waste generation during the development as well as application of coating materials have been the dominant driving force in advances in bio-based polymers. Due to their abundance, palm triglycerides provide a renewable alternative to petroleum-based coating. Palm oil is the leading vegetable oil in terms of production volume as the oil palm produces between eight and 10 times more oil per hectare per year compared with annual oilseeds such as rapeseed or soyabean (Basiron, 2007). In fact, palm oil accounted for 32.0% of the global oils and fats output in 2012 (Sime Darby, 2014) and 30.1% in 2016 (Mielke, 2016).



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No.68 (June 2018) p9-13
The Mechanism and Potential of Palm Vitamin E as a Skin-lightening Agent
Nur Anis Albakry*; Yusrabbil Amiyati Yusof* and Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan*

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Introduction


The Mechanism and Potential of Palm Vitamin E as a Skin-lightening Agent

A light skin tone is considered a superior trait in most races, particularly among Asian and African women. Realising the demand for fair skin, many cosmetic companies are developing different molecules for use as skinlightening products. There are many commercial skin-lightening products readily available over-the-counter which use depigmenting agents such as hydroquinone, azelaic acid, kojic acid, vitamin C, niaciamide, corticosteroids, licorice extract, gluthathione, glycolic acid and gentisic acid (Sonthalia et al., 2016). However, several skin-lightening agents such as hydroquinone and kojic acid have been banned in cosmetic products due to their side effects on the skin, and this has led to the search for safer plant-based skin-lightening materials. The wide range and variety of available biomass is presumed to be an attractive bioresource for screening for inhibitors of melanin synthesis (Lin et al., 2007; Thongchai et al., 2007).



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No.68 (June 2018) p5-8
Palm Fractions and Phytonutrients in Chocolate Spread
Norazura Aila Mohd Hassim* and Nur Haqim Ismail

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Introduction


Palm Fractions and Phytonutrients in Chocolate Spread

Chocolate is a product craved for and desired by many people. Good quality chocolate has smooth texture, good snap ability and glossiness, and most importantly melts in the mouth. The quality of chocolate has a close relationship with the fat component of the chocolate in that it should solidify at room temperature and fully melt at body temperature. However, bloom and loss of glossiness can occur in a chocolate product mostly due to unfavourable storage conditions and improper tempering (for chocolate made from cocoa butter). Although bloom and loss of glossiness do not correlate with rancidity, these surface defects appear unappetising to the eater. These weaknesses in chocolate can be eliminated by producing an alternative chocolate product in paste form that is spreadable; what is commonly called chocolate spread.



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No.68 (June 2018) p1-4
Vitamin E-Enriched Vegetable Nuggets Using Palm Fat
Rafidah Abd Hamid* and Norazura Aila Mohd Hassim*

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Introduction


Vitamin E-Enriched Vegetable Nuggets Using Palm Fat

Deep-fried or baked batter food products receive very high demand nowadays. They are made of meat, vegetables and other materials such as cheese. One well-known product that falls under this category is chicken nuggets. The product was invented in the 1950s by Robert C. Baker who was a professor in Food Science at Cornell University. Chicken nuggets started to be commercially sold in the early 1980s by a fast-food restaurant (Hopkins, 2012). Nowadays, chicken nuggets are one of the common items in menus of school canteens. They are categorised under processed meat products by the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). In processed meat formulations, which include chicken nuggets, animal fat has become one of the crucial ingredients. However, animal fats have been identified as one of the causes of dietary diseases due to their saturated fatty acids and trans-fatty acids content (Abd Hamid et al., 2015).



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No.67 (December 2017) p16-19
Bioplasticiser and Palm Oil
Wan Nur Fatihah Wan Muhammad Zulkifli*

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Introduction


Bioplasticiser and Palm Oil

A plasticiser is a substance (typically a solvent) added to a synthetic resin to produce or promote plasticity and flexibility, and to reduce brittleness. Thus, a plasticiser is chemically defined as a substance or material incorporated into another material (usually plastic or elastomer) to increase its flexibility and workability (Krauskopf, 2009). Plasticisers have been unknowingly used in everyday life for decades. Water, for example, is a form of a plasticiser that is used by potters for moulding clay, by painters for calcimine, and by boat builders and carpenters for bending wood (Deanin, 1986). In addition, vegetable oils are used to reduce the brittleness of resins in paint, foot oil as a permanent softener for leather, and lactates in casein paint. In the 1840s, scientists discovered cellulose nitrate which is the first polymer that has been widely used in industry. Shortly after this development, camphor, a type of white and waxy solid chemical, became the plasticiser of choice for cellulose nitrate (Graham, 1973). This was due to the intractable properties of cellulose nitrate which limited its application. Camphor remained the major application for cellulose nitrate in the 19th century. However, due to the undesirable odour, flammability and excessive volatility of camphor, scientists looked for an alternative. This was how phthalate, a white solid compound, was introduced. (Phthalate is pronounced ‘tha-late’.) The development of phthalates was in parallel with the commercialisation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and caused rapid growth in the industry. Applications of phthalates continued until the 20th century. Different types of phthalates were developed over time, differing in weight and performance.



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No.67 (December 2017) p12-15
Rice with Low and High Glycaemic Index (GI) Interacting with Oils: What Do We Know So Far?
Gowri Nagapan* and Kanga Rani Selvaduray*

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Introduction


Rice with Low and High Glycaemic Index (GI) Interacting with Oils: What Do We Know So Far?



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No.67 (December 2017) p6-11
Production of Chocolate Bars from Palm Fractions
Norazura Aila Mohd Hassim*

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Introduction


Production of Chocolate Bars from Palm Fractions

Chocolate is a type of confectionery besides sugar and flour confectionery. It is one of the most desired and craved foods in the world. It is enjoyed by people from all walks of life, from children to the elderly, regardless of gender and socioeconomic level. This is partly due to the satisfying and ‘feel good’ sensation one gets when indulging in chocolate. Seligson et al. (1994) found that in many north European countries, the per capita consumption of chocolate confectionery approximated 7-10 kg yr-1. The history of chocolate confectionery started back in the 19th century after the invention of the cocoa press resulted in the first commercial production of dark chocolate. Milk chocolate was then invented by the Swiss. However, before the 19th century, chocolate beverages were the only consumable product of cocoa. Nowadays, chocolate confectionery is one of the top-selling products in the food and snack industries. Chocolate bar, chocolate spread, chocolate filling, chocolate coating and baking chocolate are some of the popular types of chocolate confectionery in the market. This article will focus on the production of chocolate bars from palm fractions.



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No.67 (December 2017) p1-5
Technological Developments for the Production of High Oleic Palm Oil
Muhamad Roddy Ramli*; Saw Mei Huey* and Siew Wai Lin#

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Introduction


Technological Developments for the Production of High Oleic Palm Oil

Oleic acid is the most common monounsaturated fatty acid in the plant kingdom. When compared with polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is considered neutral with respect to coronary heart disease. In addition, it is more stable than polyunsaturated fatty acids. Palm oil and palm olein can be considered to have high oleic acid content, with levels of 39% and 45%, respectively. However, when compared with olive oil which has 80% oleic acid and with other high oleic (HO) oils produced through genetic modification and plant breeding, they fall into the low range category. For vegetable oils with a high degree of polyunsaturation, the target is to produce lower polyunsaturation and higher monounsaturation, while maintaining a low saturation content. The ‘Mediterranean diet’ comprises a combination of olive oil, fruits, vegetables, cereals and pasta. As the life expectancy of people living in the Mediterranean regions is among the highest in the world, with the populace having low rates of chronic diseases, the connection with consumption of olive oil is to be expected.



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No.66 (June 2017) p32-38
Palm-based Methyl Esters as Carrier Solvents in Pesticide Formulations
Sumaiyah Megat Nabil Mohsin*; Ismail Ab Raman*; Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan* and Zainab Idris*

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Introduction


Palm-based Methyl Esters as Carrier Solvents in Pesticide Formulations

Pesticide formulations typically consist of active ingredients responsible for the pesticidal effect and inert ingredients responsible for improving product performance, stability and usability. Examples of inert ingredients include carrier solvents, emulsifiers, stabilisers, fragrances and dyes. The majority of pesticides are in the form of dry and liquid formulations. Examples of the former include dusts, granules, pellets and wettable powders while examples of the latter are solutions, aerosols, suspension concentrates
or emulsions.



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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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