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LIST OF ARTICLES

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No.69 (December 2018) p10-14
Combination of Pre-treatments on EFB Fibre for Sugar Production
Fatiha Ismail*; Astimar Abdul Aziz*; Nur Eliyanti Ali Othman*; Fazliana Abdul Hamid*; Zawawi Ibrahim*; Kamarudin Hassan* and Anis Mokhtar*

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Introduction


Combination of Pre-treatments on EFB Fibre for Sugar Production

Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) contain about 70%-80% holocellulose, which comprises about 40%-45% and 30%-35% of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, as well as 18%-22% lignin (Basiron and Husin, 1996). These lignocellulosics can be utilised for the production of fibrereinforced biocomposites (Mariko et al., 2016) and fine chemicals such as glucose and xylose (Siew et al., 2013). Due to their high content of cellulose and hemicellulose, EFB can be exploited for the extraction of high value-added lignocellulosic fine chemicals. One of the strategies is to convert the cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars such as glucose and xylose (Astimar et al., 2000a, b).



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No.69 (December 2018) p5-9
Effects of Activation Methods on Spent Bleaching Earth for Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment
Rusnani Abd Majid*; Che Rahmat Che Mat* and Zulkifli Hashim*

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Introduction


Effects of Activation Methods on Spent Bleaching Earth for Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment

Physical refining of crude palm oil includes three major stages: degumming, bleaching and deodourisation. Bleaching earth is used for the removal of undesirable components such as phospholipids, colorants and traces of heavy metals contained in crude oil (Sabah et al., 2007). Regeneration of spent bleaching earth can be achieved by heat treatment (Mahramanlioglu et al., 2010), with solvent extraction (Al-Zahrani and Alhamed, 2000), or by a combination of these methods (Wambu et al., 2009). During these treatments, the chemical composition, structure and textural properties of the clay would be altered. Kheoh (1987) studied the reactivation of spent bleaching clay, which involved washing the bleaching clay with an organic solvent to remove oil, fats, coloured compounds and organic impurities, with subsequent solvent removal.



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No.69 (December 2018) p1-4
Impact of US-China Bilateral Trade Tension on Malaysian Palm Oil
Yoong Jun Hao*; Nik Aznizan Nik Ibrahim*; Nazlin Ismail* and Insyirah Mohamad Shah*

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Introduction


Impact of US-China Bilateral Trade Tension on Malaysian Palm Oil

China is one of the top three destinations besides Canada and Mexico for exports of agricultural and related products from the United States of America (US). In 2017, China imported USD 12.3 billion worth of soyabean from US. Purchases of US soyabean by China typically peak in October and November. Over the last five years, China takes in roughly 77% of her annual US soyabean purchases on average by 30 November.



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No.68 (June 2018) p33-37
Tocotrienols and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
Sitti Rahma Abd Hafid* and Nabiha Iran*

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Introduction


Tocotrienols and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

Tocotrienols are superior antioxidants that can combat free radicals in the human body, and have shown many biological functions such as having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, maintaining fertility and regulating the immune system, associated with lowering tumour formation, having enhanced anti-cancer properties, as well as controlling tumour growth in certain types of cancer (Yam et al., 2009; Abd Hafid et al., 2010; Inoue & Zhang, 2011; Wong et al., 2012; Abdul Hafid et al., 2013). Some studies have shown that tocotrienols induce cell death in various cancers, such as breast, prostate, cervix and pancreas. Delta-tocotrienols (δ-T3) are believed to be more effective than other forms of tocotrienols in causing apoptosis or cell death in both oestrogen-nonresponsive and oestrogenresponsive breast cancer cells (Ahn et al., 2007; Inoue and Zhang, 2011; Wong et al., 2012). Since, tocotrienols as antioxidants have the ability in lowering oxidative stress, neutralise free radicals which functions as a chainbreaking antioxidant that prevents propagation of free radical reactions in all cell membranes (Devasagayam et al., 2004); it may be suggested as an alternative compound in treating and managing leukaemia diseases. There are only few reports on the effects of tocotrienols in leukaemic cells (Ahn et al., 2007; Al-Tonbary et al., 2008; Inoue and Zhang, 2011; Wong et al., 2012).



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No.68 (June 2018) p26-32
Importance of Genotoxicity Studies on Methyl Ester Sulfonates for Regulatory Compliance
Nurul Aishah Muhammad*; Yusrabbil Amiyati Yusof* and Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan*

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Introduction


Importance of Genotoxicity Studies on Methyl Ester Sulfonates for Regulatory Compliance

Oleochemicals are derived from natural plants such as palm oil and other vegetable oils. There are five basic oleochemicals, namely fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty methyl esters, fatty amines and glycerol (Ong et al., 1989). Palm-based oleochemicals have a diverse range of applications, including as surfactants, personal care products, soaps, detergents and food additives. Surfactants are the largest market segment, alongside personal care and home care products (Grandview Research, 2014). One of the main surfactants is methyl ester sulphonates (MES).



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No.68 (June 2018) p22-25
Characteristics of Compressed Microcrystalline Cellulose from Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre
Nur Eliyanti Ali Othman*; Astimar Abdul Aziz*; Wan Hasamudin Wan Hassan*; Nor Faizah Jalani*; Fazliana Abdul Hamid*; Fatiha Ismail*; Kamarudin Hassan* and Anis Mokhtar*

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Introduction


Characteristics of Compressed Microcrystalline Cellulose from Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre

Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) powder was prepared by acid treatment of the cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibre (Ramli et al., 2015; Rosnah et al., 2009). Traditionally MCC was obtained from wood, cotton (Suzuki and Nakagami, 1999), and cotton linters (Nada et al., 2009). There are a few reports of MCC derived from agriculture biomass such as rice straw and bagasse (Ilindra and Dhake, 2008), sawdust (Oyeniyi and Itiola, 2012), kenaf core wood (Chi et al., 2013), Lageriana siceraria (water gourd) (Achor et al., 2014), soyabean hulls (Merci et al., 2015), oil palm fronds (Hussin, et al., 2016) and oil palm trunks (Abd Hamid et al., 2014).



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No.68 (June 2018) p18-21
Potential of Palm Oil Waste for Biolubricant
Noor Armylisas Abu Hassan*; Siti Hazirah Mohamad Fauzi* and Yeong Shoot Kian*

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Introduction


Potential of Palm Oil Waste for Biolubricant

Lubricants are comprised of two main components, i.e. base oil (70%-90%) and additives to modify/improve the base oil’s properties. Most lubricant base oils are produced from non-renewable source such as mineral-based oil which can be divided into mineral and synthetic categories. It is a substance introduced between two moving surfaces to keep them apart and reduce friction, which ultimately reduces the heat generated. Lubricant also protects the surfaces from wear and corrosion, removes deposits and impurities, as well as transmit power.



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No.68 (June 2018) p14-17
Potential of Palm Oil as a Renewable Material for Radiation Curable Coating
Cheong Mei Yee* and Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan*

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Introduction


Potential of Palm Oil as a Renewable Material for Radiation Curable Coating

Research on bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications has seen some progress as well as the products facing competition with their petroleum-based counterparts. The demand for bio-based polymers and resins is due to their property of environmental friendliness as they are made from renewable resources (Ashraf et al., 2015). Additionally, human health is compromised when using traditional coatings which utilise high molecular weight polymers that release volatile and toxic solvents when crosslinked with heat, or when coalesced dry, resulting in serious hazards to human health. The hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere during manufacture and application of coating materials lead to environment contamination. Environmental regulations and government legislations towards zero waste generation during the development as well as application of coating materials have been the dominant driving force in advances in bio-based polymers. Due to their abundance, palm triglycerides provide a renewable alternative to petroleum-based coating. Palm oil is the leading vegetable oil in terms of production volume as the oil palm produces between eight and 10 times more oil per hectare per year compared with annual oilseeds such as rapeseed or soyabean (Basiron, 2007). In fact, palm oil accounted for 32.0% of the global oils and fats output in 2012 (Sime Darby, 2014) and 30.1% in 2016 (Mielke, 2016).



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No.68 (June 2018) p9-13
The Mechanism and Potential of Palm Vitamin E as a Skin-lightening Agent
Nur Anis Albakry*; Yusrabbil Amiyati Yusof* and Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan*

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Introduction


The Mechanism and Potential of Palm Vitamin E as a Skin-lightening Agent

A light skin tone is considered a superior trait in most races, particularly among Asian and African women. Realising the demand for fair skin, many cosmetic companies are developing different molecules for use as skinlightening products. There are many commercial skin-lightening products readily available over-the-counter which use depigmenting agents such as hydroquinone, azelaic acid, kojic acid, vitamin C, niaciamide, corticosteroids, licorice extract, gluthathione, glycolic acid and gentisic acid (Sonthalia et al., 2016). However, several skin-lightening agents such as hydroquinone and kojic acid have been banned in cosmetic products due to their side effects on the skin, and this has led to the search for safer plant-based skin-lightening materials. The wide range and variety of available biomass is presumed to be an attractive bioresource for screening for inhibitors of melanin synthesis (Lin et al., 2007; Thongchai et al., 2007).



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No.68 (June 2018) p5-8
Palm Fractions and Phytonutrients in Chocolate Spread
Norazura Aila Mohd Hassim* and Nur Haqim Ismail

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Introduction


Palm Fractions and Phytonutrients in Chocolate Spread

Chocolate is a product craved for and desired by many people. Good quality chocolate has smooth texture, good snap ability and glossiness, and most importantly melts in the mouth. The quality of chocolate has a close relationship with the fat component of the chocolate in that it should solidify at room temperature and fully melt at body temperature. However, bloom and loss of glossiness can occur in a chocolate product mostly due to unfavourable storage conditions and improper tempering (for chocolate made from cocoa butter). Although bloom and loss of glossiness do not correlate with rancidity, these surface defects appear unappetising to the eater. These weaknesses in chocolate can be eliminated by producing an alternative chocolate product in paste form that is spreadable; what is commonly called chocolate spread.



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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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