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No.68 (June 2018) p1-4
Vitamin E-Enriched Vegetable Nuggets Using Palm Fat
Rafidah Abd Hamid* and Norazura Aila Mohd Hassim*

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Introduction


Vitamin E-Enriched Vegetable Nuggets Using Palm Fat

Deep-fried or baked batter food products receive very high demand nowadays. They are made of meat, vegetables and other materials such as cheese. One well-known product that falls under this category is chicken nuggets. The product was invented in the 1950s by Robert C. Baker who was a professor in Food Science at Cornell University. Chicken nuggets started to be commercially sold in the early 1980s by a fast-food restaurant (Hopkins, 2012). Nowadays, chicken nuggets are one of the common items in menus of school canteens. They are categorised under processed meat products by the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). In processed meat formulations, which include chicken nuggets, animal fat has become one of the crucial ingredients. However, animal fats have been identified as one of the causes of dietary diseases due to their saturated fatty acids and trans-fatty acids content (Abd Hamid et al., 2015).



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No.67 (December 2017) p16-19
Bioplasticiser and Palm Oil
Wan Nur Fatihah Wan Muhammad Zulkifli*

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Bioplasticiser and Palm Oil

A plasticiser is a substance (typically a solvent) added to a synthetic resin to produce or promote plasticity and flexibility, and to reduce brittleness. Thus, a plasticiser is chemically defined as a substance or material incorporated into another material (usually plastic or elastomer) to increase its flexibility and workability (Krauskopf, 2009). Plasticisers have been unknowingly used in everyday life for decades. Water, for example, is a form of a plasticiser that is used by potters for moulding clay, by painters for calcimine, and by boat builders and carpenters for bending wood (Deanin, 1986). In addition, vegetable oils are used to reduce the brittleness of resins in paint, foot oil as a permanent softener for leather, and lactates in casein paint. In the 1840s, scientists discovered cellulose nitrate which is the first polymer that has been widely used in industry. Shortly after this development, camphor, a type of white and waxy solid chemical, became the plasticiser of choice for cellulose nitrate (Graham, 1973). This was due to the intractable properties of cellulose nitrate which limited its application. Camphor remained the major application for cellulose nitrate in the 19th century. However, due to the undesirable odour, flammability and excessive volatility of camphor, scientists looked for an alternative. This was how phthalate, a white solid compound, was introduced. (Phthalate is pronounced ‘tha-late’.) The development of phthalates was in parallel with the commercialisation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and caused rapid growth in the industry. Applications of phthalates continued until the 20th century. Different types of phthalates were developed over time, differing in weight and performance.



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No.67 (December 2017) p12-15
Rice with Low and High Glycaemic Index (GI) Interacting with Oils: What Do We Know So Far?
Gowri Nagapan* and Kanga Rani Selvaduray*

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Introduction


Rice with Low and High Glycaemic Index (GI) Interacting with Oils: What Do We Know So Far?



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No.67 (December 2017) p6-11
Production of Chocolate Bars from Palm Fractions
Norazura Aila Mohd Hassim*

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Introduction


Production of Chocolate Bars from Palm Fractions

Chocolate is a type of confectionery besides sugar and flour confectionery. It is one of the most desired and craved foods in the world. It is enjoyed by people from all walks of life, from children to the elderly, regardless of gender and socioeconomic level. This is partly due to the satisfying and ‘feel good’ sensation one gets when indulging in chocolate. Seligson et al. (1994) found that in many north European countries, the per capita consumption of chocolate confectionery approximated 7-10 kg yr-1. The history of chocolate confectionery started back in the 19th century after the invention of the cocoa press resulted in the first commercial production of dark chocolate. Milk chocolate was then invented by the Swiss. However, before the 19th century, chocolate beverages were the only consumable product of cocoa. Nowadays, chocolate confectionery is one of the top-selling products in the food and snack industries. Chocolate bar, chocolate spread, chocolate filling, chocolate coating and baking chocolate are some of the popular types of chocolate confectionery in the market. This article will focus on the production of chocolate bars from palm fractions.



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No.67 (December 2017) p1-5
Technological Developments for the Production of High Oleic Palm Oil
Muhamad Roddy Ramli*; Saw Mei Huey* and Siew Wai Lin#

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Introduction


Technological Developments for the Production of High Oleic Palm Oil

Oleic acid is the most common monounsaturated fatty acid in the plant kingdom. When compared with polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is considered neutral with respect to coronary heart disease. In addition, it is more stable than polyunsaturated fatty acids. Palm oil and palm olein can be considered to have high oleic acid content, with levels of 39% and 45%, respectively. However, when compared with olive oil which has 80% oleic acid and with other high oleic (HO) oils produced through genetic modification and plant breeding, they fall into the low range category. For vegetable oils with a high degree of polyunsaturation, the target is to produce lower polyunsaturation and higher monounsaturation, while maintaining a low saturation content. The ‘Mediterranean diet’ comprises a combination of olive oil, fruits, vegetables, cereals and pasta. As the life expectancy of people living in the Mediterranean regions is among the highest in the world, with the populace having low rates of chronic diseases, the connection with consumption of olive oil is to be expected.



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No.66 (June 2017) p32-38
Palm-based Methyl Esters as Carrier Solvents in Pesticide Formulations
Sumaiyah Megat Nabil Mohsin*; Ismail Ab Raman*; Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan* and Zainab Idris*

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Introduction


Palm-based Methyl Esters as Carrier Solvents in Pesticide Formulations

Pesticide formulations typically consist of active ingredients responsible for the pesticidal effect and inert ingredients responsible for improving product performance, stability and usability. Examples of inert ingredients include carrier solvents, emulsifiers, stabilisers, fragrances and dyes. The majority of pesticides are in the form of dry and liquid formulations. Examples of the former include dusts, granules, pellets and wettable powders while examples of the latter are solutions, aerosols, suspension concentrates
or emulsions.



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No.66 (June 2017) p28-31
Eastern Europe: The Untapped and Potential Growth Markets for Malaysian Palm Oil
Puah Chiew Wei*

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Eastern Europe: The Untapped and Potential Growth Markets for Malaysian Palm Oil

Palm oil is the most traded oil in the world due to its demand and versatility in both food and non-food (e.g. oleochemicals and biofuels) applications. Malaysia is the second largest producer of palm oil in the world and the oil palm industry contributed RM 67.6 billion in 2016 in export earnings. It is important for the industry to remain viable and competitive taking into account its importance to the economy of the country. However, for Malaysian palm oil, one of the challenges faced is competition from other palm oil producers (mainly Indonesia) and competition from other vegetable oils traded globally such as soyabean, sunflower seed and canola oils. Therefore, there is a need to continually explore potential growth markets to ensure that there is sufficient demand for Malaysian palm oil. Eastern Europe is a promising growth market due to inter alia opportunities arising from the break-up of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. Countries in Eastern Europe include Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, the Russian Federation, Slovakia and Ukraine. Driving factors for potential market growth in the region are the possible substitution or replacement of the traditional vegetable oils and fats used in the food sector, price and availability of supply, health benefits of vegetable oil, and sustainability.



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No.66 (June 2017) p18-27
Red Palm Oil: A Natural Source of Vitamin A
Radhika Loganathan* and Teng Kim Tiu*

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Introduction


Red Palm Oil: A Natural Source of Vitamin A

The fruit of the oil palm (Elaeis guineesis) yields the oil called red palm oil (RPO). Oil palm is a perennial crop which produces the highest oil yield per hectare per year compared with other leading oilseed crops (Mielke, 2014). Currently, Malaysia and Indonesia are the leading producers of palm oil (Burri, 2012). The oil palm is a unique crop in being able to produce two types of oils, namely crude palm oil from the fibrous mesocarp (which is the brilliant deep red-orange pulp) and palm kernel oil (resembling coconut oil) from the kernel (Sundram et al., 2003). Crude palm oil (CPO) can be processed into various downstream products, and this processing partially removes the phytonutrients. Refined, bleached and deodorised  RBD) palm oil, the major processed product, is obtained by bleaching and deodorisation of CPO. During this refining process, the carotenoids which give CPO its red-orange colour, are decomposed, resulting in RBD palm oil having a light yellow colour, while part of the other phytonutrients are still retained in the RBD palm oil (Nagendran et al., 2000).



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No.66 (June 2017) p14-17
Survey on Commercial Palm Olein and Oil Extracted from Snack Products in Selected Asian Countries – Part 2: Quantification of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol Esters (3-MCPDE)
Raznim Arni Abd Razak*; Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi* and Ainie Kuntom*

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Survey on Commercial Palm Olein and Oil Extracted from Snack Products in Selected Asian Countries – Part 2: Quantification of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol Esters (3-MCPDE)

The 3-monochloropropane-1,2- diol esters (3-MCPDE) is one of the food contaminants which develop when oils and fats undergo the refining process at high temperatures. The 3-MCPDE was first detected in 2006 in various edible oils and fats (Zelinkova et al., 2006). In crude or unrefined fats and oils, there is virtually no trace of 3-MCPDE; nevertheless, this constituent is detected in nearly all refined vegetable oils and fats, as well as animal fats (Weißhäar, 2008). Recent publications reported the occurrence of 3-MCPDE in lipid-containing products such as breads, cookies, mayonnaises and margarines (Küsters et al., 2011; Ermacora and Hrncirik, 2014).



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No.66 (June 2017) p5-13
Recent Developments in Palm-based Lubricants
Tang Sook Wah*; Lim Wen Huei*; Yeong Shoot Kian* and Zainab Idris*

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Introduction


Recent Developments in Palm-based Lubricants

Lubricants are used to reduce friction, wear and heat between contacting surfaces in relative motion (Bart et al., 2013a). They can be classified based on physical appearance, i.e. solid, liquid or semi-solid. Liquid lubricants can be derived from petroleum, vegetable, animal or synthetic oils. Grease is a semi-solid material in which the liquid fraction is suspended in a solid matrix of thickener and additives. A solid lubricant is a solid material with a film comprising inorganic or organic compounds such as graphite, molybdenum disulphide and cadmium disulphide (Mobarak et al., 2014).



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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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