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No. 63 (December 2015) p12-16
Superior Bioavailability of Gamma Delta Tocotrienol as Compared with Tocotrienolrich Fraction in Healthy Human Subjects
Puvaneswari Meganathan*, Rafid Salim Jabir**, Ho Gwo Fuang**, Nirmala Bhoo-Pathy**, Roma Basu Choudhury**, Nur Aishah Taib**, Kalanithi Nesaretnam* and Zamri Chik**

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Introduction


Superior Bioavailability of Gamma Delta Tocotrienol as Compared with Tocotrienolrich Fraction in Healthy Human Subjects

Vitamin E is found in abundance in vegetable oils, with tocopherols as the main constituent. In the past, tocopherols have been vastly studied whereas there is still a paucity in clinical data where tocotrienols are concerned. Both tocopherols and tocotrienols have similar structures with the presence of a chromanol ring and a side chain. They are divided into two groups with four members each, namely, alpha, beta, gamma and delta. However, tocotrienols also possess an unsaturated side chain with three double bonds unlike tocopherols. This unsaturated side chain in tocotrienols contributes to their efficient penetration into tissues such as those of adipose, liver and the brain (Nesaretnam et al., 1995; Nesaretnam., 2008; Kannappan et al., 2012). Initial research has proven that tocotrienols demonstrate various biological and physiological properties such as cardioprotective (Vasanthi et al., 2012, neuroprotective (Khanna et al., 2010) and anticancer activity (Aggarwal et al., 2010), as well as cholesterol-lowering effects (Yuen et al., 2011), thus distinguishing them from tocopherols.



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No. 63 (December 2015) p4-11
Applications of Epoxidised Palmbased Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Noor Armylisa’s Abu Hassan* and Rosnah Ismail*

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Introduction


Applications of Epoxidised Palmbased Unsaturated Fatty Acids

Over the past decade, palm oil has become dominant in the global trade of vegetable oils (which include soyabean, canola, linseed, rapeseed, corn, cottonseed, peanut, sesame and sunflower) despite the controversy raised by the western media regarding the sustainability of its production and health issues. This is due to several advantages offered by palm oil over actual and potential alternatives in terms of versatility, productivity, price and volume availability (Shimizu and Desrochers, 2012). Oil palm is considered a golden crop because of its high efficiency of production (Figure 1). 



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No. 63 (December 2015) p1-3
Production of Cookies Using Palm Oil
Nur Haqim Ismail

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Introduction


Production of Cookies Using Palm Oil

Chocolate chip cookies, peanut butter cookies and chocolate sandwich biscuits are some of the popular cookies available in Malaysian supermarkets. Kids just love to eat these cookies. Cookies is the term used in America to describe cereal-based baked products that have a low moisture content of 1%-5%, excluding any moisture from the fillings or icing. Cookies have a longer shelf life and higher fat content than other baked products, as well as higher energy density. In New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and South Africa, the term for this product is biscuit (http://www.bakeinfo.co.nz).



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No.62 (June 2015) p15-20
Updates on Oils and Fats Scenario in China
Yoong Jun Hao and Ooi Cheng Keat

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Introduction


Updates on Oils and Fats Scenario in China

In the late 1970s, China started to move from a closed and centrally planned economy system to a price-driven and market-oriented economy system. As a result, China became the world’s major trader in goods in 2014. The reforms brought huge development in the industrialisation and the modernisation of the country. Modernisation also brought in modern concepts and technologies to the people in the country. Issues such as trans-fat free, low saturated fat and low contaminants in food processing have become new challenges for the oils and fats market in China. In brief, the people in China today are not only getting food to satisfy hunger, but they are also looking at quality food for a healthier life.



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No.62 (June 2015) p10-13
Lipid- and Water-soluble Palm Antioxidants Reduce Development of Atherosclerosis Plaques in Rabbits
Che Anishas Che Idris

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Introduction


Lipid- and Water-soluble Palm Antioxidants Reduce Development of Atherosclerosis Plaques in Rabbits

Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), the major cholesterol-carrying lipoprotein in plasma, is commonly implicated as an initiator of atherosclerosis. Increased LDL-C concentration is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis in humans (Carmena et al., 2004). Oxidised LDL-C is engulfed by macrophages, a type of white blood cell, and this rapidly leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. The sequential steps in the formation of foam cells (fat-laden macrophages) will eventually culminate in their rupture into fatty streaks. Over time, these fatty streaks mature into fatty plaques and accumulate in the arterial wall, reducing the size of the blood vessel lumen. This inhibits blood flow to the heart and brain and eventually blocks the artery, which may result in a heart attack or stroke (Ross, 1993; Tedgui and Mallat, 2006).

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No.62 (June 2015) p4-9, 14
New Developments in Palm Oil Fractionation
Saw Mei Huey, Chong Chiew Let and Yeoh Chee Beng

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Introduction


New Developments in Palm Oil Fractionation

Fractionation, a precursor of the modern edible oil and fat processing industry, is the oldest separation process. It plays an important role, especially in the palm oil industry, owing to the composition of palm oil which contains about equal amounts of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The physical nature of palm oil, exhibiting a semi-solid state in the Malaysian tropical climate, allows its separation into a low-melting fraction, olein, and a high-melting fraction, stearin (Deffense, 1985). Fractionation can be defined as the separation of a mixture into its component fractions. Generally, the concept of a physical separation process can be based on a few parameters such as differences in solidification, solubility and volatility of the different compounds. The common techniques used for fractionation are fractional crystallisation, fractional distillation, shortpath distillation, supercritical fluid extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, complexion and membrane separation. (Kellens et al., 2007). In the oils and fats industries, fractional crystallisation is the process used for separating oils and fats into two or more components, and it involves two steps: selective crystallisation and filtration. There are three fractionation processes used to fractionate palm oil, namely, dry fractionation, detergent fractionation and solvent fractionation.

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No.62 (June 2015) p1-3
MPOB Technical Seminar (MTecS) for University and ASEAN 2014/2015
Hisham Hussain, Mohamad Salleh Mohd Kassim and Rafizah Mazlan

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Introduction


MPOB Technical Seminar (MTecS) for University and ASEAN 2014/2015

The MPOB Technical Seminar (MTecS) series was newly introduced in 2014, and intended to be part of MPOB’s Technical Advisory Services (TAS) programme to provide and impart technical information on palm oil to industry members, university students, medical groups, academicians, researchers, government policy makers, organisations and general consumers. The programme is generally aimed at creating greater awareness on palm oil nutritional characteristics and its applications in both food and non-food segments. The seminars will not only help bridge the knowledge gap among the target groups on the usage and virtues of palm oil, but will also allow them to build special rapport with MPOB over the long term.

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No.61 (December 2014) p26-30
Inter-laboratory Comparison: Participation of the Analytical Testing Services Laboratory, MPOB, at National and International Level
Mohd Azmil, M N*; Hajar, M* and Razmah, G*

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Introduction


Inter-laboratory Comparison: Participation of the Analytical Testing Services Laboratory, MPOB, at National and International Level

Inter-laboratory comparison is one of the quality control procedures recommended by the Laboratory Accreditation Scheme of Malaysia (SAMM) MS ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (Clause 5.9.1) to monitor the validity of tests offered as services to clients. It provides one of the most expedient means of assessing the bias of one laboratory’s testing relative to other laboratories in the industry (Kishore Nadkarni et al., 2004). In fact, a combination of the data derived from statistical quality control and from the proficiency testing programs can satisfy the relatively new requirements for determining the measurement uncertainties.

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No.61 (December 2014) p14-20
The Potential of Tocotrienols in Cancer Immunotherapy and Wound Healing
Sitti Rahma Abdul Hafid * and Zaizuhana Shahrim*

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Introduction


The Potential of Tocotrienols in Cancer Immunotherapy and Wound Healing

Tocotrienol is a natural form of vitamin E found abundantly in palm oil (Nesaretnam et al., 1998). Palm tocotrienol extracted from palm oil contains approximately 70% of the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and 30% of tocopherol (Gapor, 1995; Choo et al., 1997; Nesaretnam et al., 2000). Tocotrienols can also be found in cereal grains such as wheat, barley and rice bran. This analogue of vitamin E possesses many health-enhancing effects and has been the focus of increasing research interest as a unique nutritional compound. Scientific evidence has shown that in addition to being powerful biological antioxidants tocotrienols may reduce cholesterol levels in people with hypercholesterolemia, and may slow down the progression of atherosclerosis (Gapor, 1995; Choo et al., 1997; Nesaretnam et al., 2000). Tocotrienols have been proven to have anti-cancer effects, and are useful as an adjuvant for enhancing an anti-tumour immune response in cancer immunotherapy (Abdul Hafid et al., 2010; 2013). Other than that, tocotrienols have also been reported to have potential as woundhealing agents (Musalmah et al., 2002; 2005). Both of these properties are discussed in this article.

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No.61 (December 2014) p12-13, 21-25
Real-time Monitoring of the Crystallisation of Palm Oil and its Products by Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM)
Elina Hishamuddin

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Introduction


Real-time Monitoring of the Crystallisation of Palm Oil and its Products by Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM)

The importance of dry fractionation as one of the most widely practiced modification processes for palm oil and its products cannot be denied. For decades, the versatility of palm oil has been expanded and enhanced using this technique which is fully reversible, inexpensive and environmentalfriendly. Palm oil not only can be fractionated using a single step, but can also undergo a multi-step fractionation process to produce a variety of sub-products bearing improved physical and chemical characteristics that differ greatly from the mother oil. This procedure generates an abundance of raw material which finds usage in food applications such as cooking and salad oils, margarines, spreads, confectionery fats, ice cream, emulsifiers and vanaspati, among others (Deffense, 2008).

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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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