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LIST OF ARTICLES

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Article Info

No. 57 (Dec 2012) p11-13,18-20
Analytical Methods for the Determination of 3-MCPD Esters in Oils/Fats
Raznim Arni Abd Razak*; Ainie Kuntom* and Rabeah Hussein*

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Introduction


Analytical Methods for the Determination of 3-MCPD Esters in Oils/Fats

The 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) occurs in fats and oils in free and esterified forms (with fatty acids); with a major part being bound in the form of diesters. Free 3-MCPD was first identified in acid-hydrolysed vegetable protein and soya sauce (Velisek et al., 1978), and provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 μg 3-MCPD kg-1 body weight was set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Twenty years later, a group of researchers from the Czech Republic reported on the occurrence of 3-MCPD esters in fried food (Svejkovska et al., 2004) and in vegetable oils (Zelinkova et al., 2006).



Keyword(s): 3-MCPD ESTERS; TRANSESTERIFICATION; ANALYTICAL METHODS


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Article Info

No. 57 (Dec 2012) p7-10
3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol Esters in Refined Edible Oils and Fats
Ainie Kuntom; Nagendran Balasundram and Siew Wai Lin

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Introduction


3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol Esters in Refined Edible Oils and Fats

The 3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) esters belong to the family of chloropropanols and are categorised as process-induced contaminants. In refined oils and fats the chloropropanols are in the ester form. Esters of chloropropanols contain fatty acids in position 1 or 2 or both as monoester or diester. Research on 3-MCPD ester has been going on since 1978 (Velisek et al., 1978) and the focus has been on acid hydrolysed vegetable proteins (acid –HVP). In 1980, Velisek et al. were the first to report on the presence of chloroesters in hydrolysed vegetable protein. Davidek et al. (1980) observed the presence of significant amounts of mono- and diesters with fatty acids in foods. Since then extensive studies have been carried out to identify food ingredients and food products that contain 3-MCPD and its esters. Further studies have been conducted on the occurrence, formation pathways, toxicological aspect and probable mitigation steps to reduce the formation of 3-MCPD and the esters.



Keyword(s): 3-MCPD ESTERS; CHLOROPROPANOLS; CONTAMINANTS


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Article Info

No. 57 (Dec 2012) p1-6
Possible Factors that Cause the Formation of 3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) Esters
Nuzul Amri Ibrahim; Muhamad Roddy Ramli and Siew Wai Lin

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Introduction


Possible Factors that Cause the Formation of 3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) Esters

The 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters have been detected in thermally treated foodstuff such as breadcrumbs and crusts (Doležal et al., 2009), coffee (Doležal et al., 2005), baked cereal products (Hamlet and Sadd 2004) and doughnuts and french-fries (Svejkovska et al., 2004). These esters are part of a larger group of chloropropanediols (CPD). Surprisingly, the compound has also been detected in infant and baby food (Zelinkova et al., 2009) which triggered the demand for investigation by the general public since the compound is suspected to be a non-genotoxic carcinogen (JECFA, 2002).



Keyword(s): 3-MCPD ESTERS; REFINED PALM OIL; CHLOROPROPANEDIOLS


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Article Info

No.56 (June 2012) p33-37
Palm Oil Supply and Disappearance: A Quarterly Review
AHMAD BORHAN Ahmad Nordin; NORRAFIDAH Mohamad Rapiee

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Introduction


Palm Oil Supply and Disappearance: A Quarterly Review

The palm oil industry has continued to be a significant driver of the Malaysian economy and has established as one of major players in the international oils and fats business. Export earnings from oil palm products recorded RM 80.4 billion in 2011, a substantial increase of 34.4% from RM 59.8 billion in the previous year due to better prices of palm products. The supply and demand of Malaysian palm oil products in 2011 had gone under tremendous pressure such as weather uncertainties, rising crude oil price that has led to high input prices, stiff competition from Indonesian palm oil due to restructuring of palm oil export tax, non-trade barrier in the form of environmental issues, global and regional economic situations among other reasons.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL; SUPPLY; DEMAND; OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia


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Article Info

No.56 (June 2012) p28-32
Legislations Enforced on the Oils and Fats Industry in China
WONG Soo Khwan; OOI Cheng Keat ; JI Min

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Introduction


Legislations Enforced on the Oils and Fats Industry in China

China’s food industry seems to have taken a blow by the recent spate of tainted food incidents, putting the national food safety system in jeopardy. This has led to the tightening of the imported foods quality monitoring system by the Chinese authorities. Malaysian palm oil producers have been keeping a watchful eye on the development of legislations imposed on the trade and food safety measures on oils and fats industry. It is the aim of this paper to give a brief account on the legal system, the authorities involved and the machinery related to the food safety, food security, and trade policy of the country. Conventionally, cereal, oilseeds and vegetable oils including palm oil are the integral part of the food complex in the Chinese government’s purview. These are essential goods that are included in the consumer price index measurements, hence, sensitive to government control.

Keyword(s): OILS AND FATS INDUSTRY-China ; FOOD LAWS AND LEGISLATIONS ; FOOD SAFETY ; FOOD INDUSTRY-China ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.56 (June 2012) p18-22
Olive Oil and Palm Oil: The Myths and the Facts
VOON Phooi Tee; TONY NG Kock Wai * ; VERNA LEE Kar Mun * ; NESARETNAM, Kalanithi

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Introduction


Olive Oil and Palm Oil: The Myths and the Facts

Many Greek young men have always wondered why longevity is a common phenomenon in their Greek village. Their parents had lived to a ripe old age and so did their grandparents. They were told that the phenomenon may be due to the Mediterranean diet. People living in the Mediterranean such as in Greece, Italy, and Crete have been consuming their traditional diets for generations. These traditional diets, collectively called the Mediterranean Diet, with its apparent health benefits have baffled both the scientist and the layman. What is so special about the Mediterranean diet? There is no single version of the Mediterranean diet, but common dietary features include plenty of fruits, vegetables, wheat, and the most common food ingredient in the Mediterranean cuisine - olive oil (Nestle, 1995). This edible oil comes in ‘virgin’ and ‘double virgin’ forms and has become a hit as salad dressing not only in the Mediterranean region, but also in several countries around the globe.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; OLIVE OIL ; ANTIOXIDANTS ; HEALTH AND NUTRITION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.56 (June 2012) p16-17,23-27
Commercialisation of PORTSIM Research Projects in China
OOI Cheng Keat

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Introduction


Commercialisation of PORTSIM Research Projects in China

The Palm Oil Research and Technical Service Institute of MPOB (PORTSIM) was established in 2005 in Shanghai, China to enhance Malaysian palm oil’s presence and establish closer ties with the oils and fats industry in China. The other objectives of PORTSIM are to expand the applications of palm oil in food and non-food products and to increase the imports of Malaysian palm oil products into China. In order to engage with the local companies to use more palm oil products, PORTSIM has established technical collaborations with Chinese universities, research institutes and enterprises. PORTSIM is also equipped with research and analytical facilities to conduct research projects. The three-party research collaboration involving PORTSIM, local companies and universities or research institutes ensures that newly developed products from the research projects are ready for commercialisation at the completion of the projects. Some of the completed and commercialised projects were: • vegetable lard for bakery products; • palm-based special oils for quick-frozen food and frozen bread dough; • frying oils for local fast food industry; and • Palm kernel cake (PKC) for cattle and aquaculture industry.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PORTSIM ; COMMERCIALISATION ; FOOD INDUSTRY-China ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.56 (June 2012 ) p10-15
Market Survey of Solid Fats Used in China
JI Min; WONG Soo Khwan ; OOI Cheng Keat

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Introduction


Market Survey of Solid Fats Used in China

Ever since the successful economic reform and implementation of open market policy in China, the food industry has developed tremendously into a sophisticated speciality fats market. Solid fats such as dough fat, margarine, shortening, palm stearin and animal fats have emerged as important ingredients in the food processing industry. Margarine processing technology was introduced into China in the early 1980s and by 1984, the manufacturing capacity of margarine and shortening recorded was about 20 000 t yr-1. The built up capacity reached 150 000 t in 1996, and increased further to 300 000 t in 2001. The oils and fats industry went through changes after China gained WTO accession in late 2001. Foreign-funded enterprises entered China increasing the capacity of margarine, dough fat and shortening production and it has reached 1 million tonnes per year.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; FOOD INDUSTRY-China ; SOLID FATS CONTENT ; TRANS FATTY ACIDS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.56 (June 2012) p6-9
Development of Oleochemicals in China
OOI Cheng Keat; YOONG Jun Hao

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Introduction


Development of Oleochemicals in China

The oleochemical industry in China has grown rapidly in the last few years. The growth was attributed to the growing demand of the oleochemical derivatives by the many industries in China. The main driving force for this growth is the increase in disposable income of the population and the strong economic growth in China for the past two decades. Production of basic oleochemicals totaled more than 1.6 million tonnes in 2010 and imports from Malaysia was more than 300 000 t in 2011. The industry is moving from producing basic oleochemicals to producing derivatives that have broad usage, excellent product performance, value-added, safe for human use, environmentally compatible and biodegradable.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; OLEOCHEMICAL INDUSTRY-China ; OLEOCHEMICALS ; SOAP MANUFACTURE ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.56 (June 2012) p1-5
China: Oils and Fats Scenario
OOI Cheng Keat; YOONG Jun Hao

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Introduction


China: Oils and Fats Scenario

China is the world’s most populous country with a population of over 1.3 billion. China consumed more than 32 million tonnes of oils and fats but produced only 22.8 million tonnes of oils and fats. The huge differences between production and consumption can only be met by imports. The country is now one of the leading importers of oils and fats in the world market; amounting to about 15% of the total oils and fats traded in the world market in 2011 (Table 1). Palm oil is one of the major oils and fats imported by China, accounting for about 64% of all oils and fats imported by China in 2011.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-China ; FORECAST ; MARKET DEVELOPMENT ; STATISTICS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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