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No.59 (December 2013) p1-8
The Malaysian Palm Oil Market in West Asia and Central Asia
Mohd Fairus Mohd Hidzir and Hisamuddin Mohamad Aspar

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Introduction


The Malaysian Palm Oil Market in West Asia and Central Asia

The West Asia consists of 17 countries surrounding the Arab Peninsula and can be grouped into Arab and non-Arab states. Arab countries can be divided into Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and non-GCC countries. The rich and more developed GCC countries consist of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The slightly poorer and less developed non-GCC countries consist of Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria and Yemen. Non-Arab countries consist of Afghanistan, Cyprus, Israel, Iran and Turkey. The Central Asia region consists of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. All these countries were former members of the Soviet Union. Hence, Russian influence remains dominant among these countries and most of them have bilateral agreements with Russia. Central Asia has been considered as a new market for Malaysian palm oil compared to the more developed and matured markets such as the West Asia. Although palm oil imports from Central Asia is relatively low compared to the West Asia it has the potential of increasing in the future.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL, WEST ASIA, CENTRAL ASIA, MARKET POTENTIAL, PALM PRODUCTS


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No.58 (June 2013) p20-25
Palm Oil Supply and Disappearance: A Quarterly Review
A Borhan A Nordin, Norhidayu Abdullah and Norrafidah M. Rapiee

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Introduction


Palm Oil Supply and Disappearance: A Quarterly Review

The palm oil industry has continued to be a significant contributor to the Malaysian economy and has been one of the major players in the global oils and fats market. Export earnings from oil palm products recorded RM 71.4 billion in 2012, a sizeable decrease of 11.2% from RM 80.4 billion in the previous year due to lower prices of palm products. The supply and demand of Malaysian palm oil products in 2012 had gone through various pressures in terms of weather uncertainties, stiff competition from Indonesian palm oil due to restructuring of the palm oil export tax, non-trade barriers in the form of environmental issues, global and regional economic situations, and a few others.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PRODUCTION STATISTICS ; MARKET DEVELOPMENT ; SUPPLY ; DEMAND ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.58 (June 2013) p12-16
Red Palm Oil for Combating Vitamin A Deficiency
K. Manorama

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Introduction


Red Palm Oil for Combating Vitamin A Deficiency

Deficiency of vitamin A has long been recognised as a serious and preventable nutritional disease. Various intervention strategies have been implemented to combat the problem. Massive dosing of the vitamin has the advantage of immediate implementation but suffers from the disadvantage in that it applies to the isolated nutrient and requires repetitive administration. Natural food sources of vitamin A regularly included in diets offer a more viable long-term solution. Value addition of palm oil for edible purposes results in several nutritionally rich products like edible grade red palm oil (RPO), deacidified, deodorised red palm olein, isolated carotenoids and refined, bleached and deodorised palm olein oil (RBD palm olein).



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; RED PALM OIL ; VITAMIN A ; NUTRITIONAL VALUES ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.58 (June 2013) p11, 17-19
Food Safety and Standards Regulations of India: Impact on Industry and the Way Ahead
Prabodh Halde and Chetana Bhandari

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Introduction


Food Safety and Standards Regulations of India: Impact on Industry and the Way Ahead

The Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act 2006 of India was formulated with a three-fold objective of framing an integrated food law, prioritizing consumer safety and harmonising food standards with international regulations. The Food Safety and Standards Act 2006 is a new legislation that integrates eight different existing food laws, and is a comprehensive enactment aimed at ensuring public health and safety. The implementation of this Act will be a major transformation that promises to bring about a paradigm shift in the food regulatory scenario of India. The Food Safety and Standards Rules and Regulations, 2011 (FSSAR), have been enacted on 5 August 2011. This analysis presents the highlights of the regulations and discusses the impact of the regulations on the palm oil industry.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM OIL INDUSTRY -India ; FOOD SAFETY ; FOOD LABELLING ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.58 (June 2013) p7-10
Overview of Oils and Fats in Bangladesh
Subashini Nadras

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Introduction


Overview of Oils and Fats in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is one of the world’s most densely populated countries, with its people crammed into a delta of rivers thate mpties into the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is a secular parliamentary republic. The country faces a number of challenges like poverty, over population and vulnerability to climate change but has made significant progress in increasing life expectancy, achieving gender priority in education, reduced population growth and improved maternal and child health. Bangladesh having about 160 million population is heavily dependent on import to meet up its annual requirement of about 1.5 million tonnes of oils and fats (Table 1).



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM OIL INDUSTRY -Bangladesh ; OILS AND FATS ; DEMAND ; SUPPLY ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.58 (June 2013) p1-6
Oils and Fats in India
Subashini Nandras

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Introduction


Oils and Fats in India

With the world’s second largest population of 1.25 billion and her oils and fats consumption estimated at 18.83 million tonnes in 2012, India is one of the world’s leading oils and fats economies. Based on Oil World Annual 2012, India was one of the largest producers of oilseeds in the world in 2011, both in terms of area and output. However, India was also the third leading importer of oils and fats in 2011. Oil World Statistics indicates that India had the world’s largest harvested area for oilseeds at 37.53 million hectares, but India’s oilseed yield remains extremely low at an average of 0.88 t ha-1, compared with the world average of 1.76 t ha-1. Therefore, India ranked fifth in terms of oilseed production (32.99 million tonnes) and eighth in terms of total oils and fats production (9.41 million tonnes).



Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM OIL INDUSTRY -India ; OILS AND FATS ; DEMAND ; SUPPLY ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No. 57 (Dec 2012) p21-27
The Possible Mitigation Procedures for the Reduction of the Formation of Chloropropanol Esters and Related Compounds
Siew Wai Lin*; Ainie Kuntom*; Nuzul Amri Ibrahim*; Muhamad Roddy Ramli* and Raznim Arni Abd Razak*

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Introduction


The Possible Mitigation Procedures for the Reduction of the Formation of Chloropropanol Esters and Related Compounds

Fatty acids esters of chloropropanols are food-processed contaminants formed as a result of high temperature reactions. They have been found in a wide variety of food products (Weishaar, 2011). In many of these foods, the free form of the ester is present as well. While the free form is a known carcinogen, the toxicological significance of the esters is still being evaluated. In 2006, Zelinkova et al. (2006) first reported high levels of 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPD esters) in some edible oils. Since then, many research publications and presentations in conferences have referred to the higher levels noted in refined oils, particularly palm oil (Weishaar and Perz, 2010; Kuhlmann, 2011).



Keyword(s): CARCINOGEN; FATTY ACID ESTERS; PALM OIL; 3-MCPD ESTERS


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No. 57 (Dec 2012) p14-17
3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) Esters in Edible Oils and in other Foods: Is There a Need for Concern?
Zaizuhana Shahrim*; Voon Phooi Tee*; Siew Wai Lin* and Kalanithi Nesaretnam*

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Introduction


3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) Esters in Edible Oils and in other Foods: Is There a Need for Concern?

In today’s global demand for healthy and safe foods, consumers are looking for foods without or with least contaminants. Foods produced from either small farms or large corporations are as much subjected to the same growing consumer demands for healthy, nutritious foods. Convenient foods have led to continuous improvement of existing food processing techniques, all designed to produce safe foods, while maintaining nutritional and sensory qualities. These developments require a more structured approach for the safety evaluation of foods and food ingredients. In the production of edible oils and fats from the crude oils, most oils are refined to remove free fatty acids, peroxides and other oxidative compounds which contribute to the aroma of the oil. These processing techniques have now been found to also result in processed-based contaminants, which are not present in the natural oils. Chloropropanols are groups of chemical contaminants that are formed in certain food ingredients during processing.



Keyword(s): FOOD SAFETY; CONTAMINANTS; FATTY ACIDS; OXIDATIVE COMPOUNDS; CHLOROPROPANOLS


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No. 57 (Dec 2012) p11-13,18-20
Analytical Methods for the Determination of 3-MCPD Esters in Oils/Fats
Raznim Arni Abd Razak*; Ainie Kuntom* and Rabeah Hussein*

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Introduction


Analytical Methods for the Determination of 3-MCPD Esters in Oils/Fats

The 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) occurs in fats and oils in free and esterified forms (with fatty acids); with a major part being bound in the form of diesters. Free 3-MCPD was first identified in acid-hydrolysed vegetable protein and soya sauce (Velisek et al., 1978), and provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 μg 3-MCPD kg-1 body weight was set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Twenty years later, a group of researchers from the Czech Republic reported on the occurrence of 3-MCPD esters in fried food (Svejkovska et al., 2004) and in vegetable oils (Zelinkova et al., 2006).



Keyword(s): 3-MCPD ESTERS; TRANSESTERIFICATION; ANALYTICAL METHODS


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Article Info

No. 57 (Dec 2012) p7-10
3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol Esters in Refined Edible Oils and Fats
Ainie Kuntom; Nagendran Balasundram and Siew Wai Lin

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Introduction


3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol Esters in Refined Edible Oils and Fats

The 3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) esters belong to the family of chloropropanols and are categorised as process-induced contaminants. In refined oils and fats the chloropropanols are in the ester form. Esters of chloropropanols contain fatty acids in position 1 or 2 or both as monoester or diester. Research on 3-MCPD ester has been going on since 1978 (Velisek et al., 1978) and the focus has been on acid hydrolysed vegetable proteins (acid –HVP). In 1980, Velisek et al. were the first to report on the presence of chloroesters in hydrolysed vegetable protein. Davidek et al. (1980) observed the presence of significant amounts of mono- and diesters with fatty acids in foods. Since then extensive studies have been carried out to identify food ingredients and food products that contain 3-MCPD and its esters. Further studies have been conducted on the occurrence, formation pathways, toxicological aspect and probable mitigation steps to reduce the formation of 3-MCPD and the esters.



Keyword(s): 3-MCPD ESTERS; CHLOROPROPANOLS; CONTAMINANTS


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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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