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LIST OF ARTICLES

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No.55 (Dec 2011) p8-11, 16-19
Africa: Opportunities and Challenges
JOHARI Minal; MOHD MOKMIN Bahari

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Introduction


Africa: Opportunities and Challenges

Poverty. Drought. Backwardness. Despotic. Civil wars. Those are some of the words that are associated with the African continent. Most of the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) are located in Africa. The Gross National Income (GNI) of many of the African countries is among the lowest in the world. The per capita GNI of Burundi for example was USD 400 in 2010 (World Bank). For many of the African countries, things are changing for the better in the last few years. China’s need for raw materials, natural resources and energy has brought in billions of dollars of investments in Africa, which the continent badly needs to improve infrastructure, provide jobs and stimulate economic development. By 2015, China’s investments in Africa will reach USD 50 billion and the bilateral trade between China and Africa will reach USD 300 billion, double the figure for 2010 (The Asset Magazine, 2011). There are many criticisms over China’s dealings in Africa but the fact remains that China has brought prosperity and developments into many African countries. Discoveries of oil and gas in the continent have also contributed to the robust economic growths in recent years. World Bank predicted that the GDP growths for Sub-Saharan Africa in 2011 and 2012 will be 5.3% and 5.8% respectively (The Economist, 2011).

Keyword(s): OIL & FATS INDUSTRY-Africa ; OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES ; PRODUCTION FORECAST ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.55 (Dec 2011) p1-7
Africa: Oils and Fats Scenario
JOHARI Minal; MOHD MOKMIN Bahari

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Introduction


Africa: Oils and Fats Scenario

Agriculture is an integral part of the African economy. For example, in South Africa, the most developed African country, besides the presence of huge mining and industrial sectors in the country, the agricultural sector plays an important role in the economy. The agricultural sector contributes up to 8% of the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) of South Africa, which is a net exporter of agricultural products. The many agricultural cooperatives suggest the importance of this sector towards the socio-economic development in the country (About South Africa, 2001). In many African states, agriculture is the backbone of the economy employing about 60% of African workers. Three-fifths of African farmers are poor subsistence farmers (Wikipedia, 2001).

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Africa ; FORECAST ; MARKET DEVELOPMENT ; STATISTICS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.54 (June 2011) p24-29
Palm Oil Supply and Disappearance: A Quarterly Review
AHMAD BORHAN Ahmad Nordin; NORRAFIDAH Mohamad

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Introduction


Palm Oil Supply and Disappearance: A Quarterly Review

The palm oil industry has been a significant driver to the Malaysian economic development and has established itself in the international oils and fats business. Export earnings from oil palm products reached RM 59.77 billion in 2010, an increase of 20.4% from RM 49.66 billion recorded in the previous year.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; EXPORTS ; PRODUCTION FORECAST ; PRODUCTION STATISTICS ; MARKET DEVELOPMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.54 (June 2011) p19-23
Water Footprint for the Oil Palm Industry
SUBRAMANIAM, Vijaya; HALIMAH Muhammad ; ZULKIFLI Hashim ; CHOO Yuen May

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Introduction


Water Footprint for the Oil Palm Industry

Currently carbon footprint is such a catchphrase in the world that it has become a must for responsible producers to quantify their carbon footprint or also known as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The European Union (EU) directive has imposed a non-tariff barrier on the imports of palm biodiesel based on GHG emissions calculations. If the exporters do not meet the minimum GHG savings when compared to fossil fuel, their exports will not qualify for the incentives making the feedstock higher in price. This has brought a big impact to the oil palm industry on the market access of palm biodiesel to EU. Just as how carbon footprint or GHG emissions are playing such an important role in the oil palm industry, the next thing the world is moving into is water footprint. For example the study by Gerbens et al. (2009) came to conclusions that jatropha is not a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production due to its high water footprint. This study compared the water footprint between soya, rapeseed and jatropha, and the recommendation was that soya is the best crop for biodiesel just based on the water footprint. This kind of studies shows the trend of how water footprint is slowly being used as an indication for choosing a feedstock, just as how carbon footprint is being used now.

Keyword(s): OIL PALM INDUSTRY ; CARBON EMISSIONS ; CARBON FOOTPRINT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.54 (June 2011 ) p14-17
Saturated Fats and Health: Current Thinking
BALASUNDRAM, Nagendran; TENG Kim-Tiu

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Introduction


Saturated Fats and Health: Current Thinking

The saturated fats issue is not a new challenge to palm oil, as it was some three decades ago that the matter was first raised. The anti-tropical oil campaign, which labelled palm oil as saturated artery-clogging fat was first raised in the 1980s in the United States. As a response to this allegation, the then Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (PORIM) had embarked on several nutrition studies which had revealed that palm oil did not elicit elevated coronary heart disease (CHD)-risk responses, but rather it was the trans fatty acids resulting from partial hydrogenation of soft oils that were deleterious to health. Nevertheless, the current dietary recommendations for reducing dietary saturated fats have had some implications on palm oil applications in some sectors, and as such on palm oil trade. As food manufacturers continue to look for lower saturated fat alternatives to palm oil, the share of palm oil in food products continues to decline. For example, total imports of oils and fats into the United Kingdom had decreased about 16.8%, from 1.67 million tonnes in 2005 to 1.39 million tonnes in 2010, while imports of palm oil had declined even further by 37.6%, from 0.939 million tonnes to 0.602 million tonnes. Besides, the percentage share of palm oil in the total oils and fats imports basket also declined, from 56.2% in 2005 to 43.3% in 2010. During this period, a significant increase was seen in the imports of sunflower oil, which had increased from 0.126 million tonnes to 0.275 million tonnes. The share of sunflower oil in the imports basket had also increased from 7.5% to 14.8%.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; SATURATED FATS ; HELATH ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.54 (June 2011) p8-13, 18
The Potential of Oil Palm in the Global Carbon Cycle
KHO Lip Khoon *; COBB, Alex ** ; MOHD HANIFF Harun *

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Introduction


The Potential of Oil Palm in the Global Carbon Cycle

Malaysia is one of the largest producers and exporters of palm oil in the world, accounting for 38% of the major producers and 46% of major exporters in 2009 (Oil World, 2010). The phenomenal growth of palm oil and palm oil products increased the total oil palm planted area in the country by 3.4% to 4.85 million hectares in 2010 (MPOB, 2010). Oil palm plantation covers one-tenth of the world’s permanent croplands (FAO, 2010), and will have a significant role in the global carbon balance. Depending on the environmental and physiological factors of specific sites, oil palm plantation may contribute to carbon uptake (see Henson, 1999 for review) or carbon emission (Melling, 2007a; Yule, 2010; Koh et al., 2011; Hergoualc’h and Verchot, 2011).

Keyword(s): OIL PALM & PAlM OIL INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; EXPORT TRADE ; OILS & FATS EXPORT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.54 (June 2011) p5-7
Malaysian Oil Palm Industry: Responding to the Sustainability Criteria of Greenhouse Gas Emission Savings under the European Union Renewable Energy Directive
PUAH Chiew Wei; BALASUNDRAM, Nagendran ; CHOO Yuen May ; LIM Weng Soon

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Introduction


Malaysian Oil Palm Industry: Responding to the Sustainability Criteria of Greenhouse Gas Emission Savings under the European Union Renewable Energy Directive

The Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources (Renewable Energy Directive – RED) entered into force on the 20th day following its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union (EU) on 5 June 2009. The Directiveimposed a mandatory target of a 20% share of energy from renewable sources in overall energy consumption and a mandatory 10% minimum target for the share of biofuels in transport to be achieved by all member states by 2020. The aim of the Directive is to promote the development of energy from renewable sources by providing a legal framework for the business community with the certainty to invest in the renewable energy sector to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. The effective date for commencement of implementation of RED by member states was on 5 December 2010.

Keyword(s): OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; SUSTAINABILITY ; GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.54 (June 2011) p1-4
Palm Oil in the EU – Current Issues and Prospects
BALASUNDRAM, Nagendran

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Introduction


Palm Oil in the EU – Current Issues and Prospects

The European Union (EU) which covers a land area of 4.32 million square kilometres comprises 27 member states with a total population of 501 million. With an annual per capita usage of over 41 kg, the EU is a leading user of oils and fats, with an annual consumption exceeding 30 million tonnes. The EU is a net importer of oils and fats, as its domestic production of about 22 million tonnes is insufficient to meet its annual consumption. Palm oil is among the major oils imported by the EU, making the region as a whole, the world’s second largest market for palm oil.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; OILS & FATS ; DEMAND ; SUPPLY ; FUTURE TRADING ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.53 (Dec 2010) p8-12
Blood Thinning Effects and Phytonutrients
MEGANATHAN, Puvaneswari; SELVADURAY, Kanga Rani ; NESARETNAM, Kalanithi

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Introduction


Blood Thinning Effects and Phytonutrients

The cardiovascular system also known as the circulation system, involves the heart and all the blood vessels. These blood vessels can be referred to as the transport system of our body. They transport nutrients, oxygen, vitamins and minerals to the entire body and remove the waste materials. Hence, any damage or injury to the blood vessels must be repaired immediately. A disruption in the blood flow will deprive our body especially the heart of all the necessary nutrition. When there is an injury, natural response will take place in order to prevent excessive blood loss by forming blood clots to seal the injury. The process responsible for this purpose is platelet aggregation which is the clumping of platelets to form a thrombus (clot). Platelets are tiny components in the blood but they play a vital role in forming clots. The clot consists of tiny threads that trap the red blood cells and prevent them from leaking. This will stop bleeding and reduce blood loss (Figure 1). Platelet aggregation is a normal process in the body. However, unnecessary formation of blood clots will block the blood vessels and cause cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke.

Keyword(s): PHYTONUTRIENTS ; TOCOTRIENOLS ; HELATH ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.53 (Dec 2010) p7, 13-14
Biodiversity in the Oil Palm Plantation
JUANITA Lourdes Nathan

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Introduction


Biodiversity in the Oil Palm Plantation

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment by United Nations (2005) defines biodiversity as the diversity among living organisms in terrestrial, marine other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part. The loss of biodiversity has garnered a significant amount of media and scientific attention both negative and positive in the past decade, with a focus on Southeast Asia and other tropical regions. One of the main reasons of this attention is due to the richer biodiversity in these areas compared to the temperate and arctic regions in the north or south of the equator. The number of species increases at the Mediterranean latitude as the altitude decreases and vice versa.

Keyword(s): BIODIVERSITY ; ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION ; ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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