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LIST OF ARTICLES

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Article Info

No.50 (June 2009) p9-11
Palm Phytonutrients: Opportunity Beyond Palm Biodiesel
HARRISON LAU Lik Nang; CHOO Yuen May ; NG Mei Han ; PUAH Chiew Wei ; YAHAYA Hawari ; MA Ah Ngan

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Introduction


Palm Phytonutrients: Opportunity Beyond Palm Biodiesel

The increasing global awareness of the rapid depletion of the non-renewable fuel and energy resources as well as the environmental concern of the world have resulted in the search for sustainable alternative fuels. One of the most promising alternative fuels is the vegetable oils and their ester derivatives or commonly known as biodiesel. Oil palm, the golden crop of Malaysia which yields an average of 3.5-5.0 t of palm oil per hectare per year, is regarded as the most cost-effective compared to any other oil crops. Thus, it offers a potential environmental-friendly and renewable alternative fuel source. In this respect, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) has embarked on an extensive research and development of palm oil methyl esters (palm biodiesel) and its products. Since the 1980s, MPOB has been in the forefront of research and development of palm biodiesel and has successfully developed several processes for converting crude palm oil (CPO) and its products into methyl esters for applications as biodiesel as well as feedstock for the oleochemicals.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PHYTONUTRIENTS ; BIODIESEL ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.50 (June 2009) p5-8
From Biowaste to Bioproducts: Phenolic Antioxidants from Oil Palm Waste
SAMBANTHAMURTHI, Ravigadevi; SUNDRAM, Kalyana ; TAN Yew Ai

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Introduction


From Biowaste to Bioproducts: Phenolic Antioxidants from Oil Palm Waste

The oil palm is one of the richest sources of fat-soluble antioxidants such as carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols. While much attention has been focussed on these fat-soluble components, little emphasis has been given to the water-soluble components, most of which are discarded during the extraction of palm oil. In 2008, the Malaysian palm oil industry generated about 42 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), a liquid by-product. POME, which is mainly derived from the sterilizer condensate and centrifugal desludging of the raw palm oil from the screw-presses, is currently considered an industrial waste and it requires extensive treatment before discharge. Otherwise, it can pose a potential environmental hazard. Malaysia enforces stringent regulatory environmental standards, the challenge of converting such agricultural waste to high value products has remained elusive until now.

Keyword(s): POME ; ANTIOXIDANTS ; OIL PALM BIOMASS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.50 (June 2009) p1-4
Value Addition from Crude Palm Oil – Integrated Production of Palm Biodiesel, Phytonutrients and Other Value-added Products
CHOO Yuen May; HARRISON LAU Lik Nang ; YUNG Chee Liang ; NG Mei Han ; PUAH Chiew Wei ; RUSNANI Abd Majid ; MA AH Ngan ; YAHAYA Hawari ; ANDREW Yap Kian Chung

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Introduction


Value Addition from Crude Palm Oil – Integrated Production of Palm Biodiesel, Phytonutrients and Other Value-added Products

Since the 1980s, MPOB (then PORIM) has been in the forefront of R&D in palm biodiesel and its downstream product applications. The MPOB palm biodiesel technology has since been successfully tested on a pilot scale and commercialized by transfer of technology. To date, 18 palm biodiesel plants have been built in Malaysia and eight are currently in operation. With the declaration of the National Biofuel Policy in March 2006, the Malaysian Government has announced that starting from February 2009, the usage of a mandatory B5 biodiesel blend (5% palm biodiesel and 95% petroleum diesel) by all sectors in selected government agencies will take effect. This will be followed by nationwide implementation by 2010. The implementation of the mandatory blending of B5 biodiesel has called for a higher supply of palm biodiesel.

Keyword(s): CRUDE PALM OIL ; BIODIESEL ; PHYTONUTRIENTS ; COMMERCIALIZATION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.49 (Dec 2008) p26-30
Prices of selected Oils and Fats in 2006 to 2008 and Process of Palm Oil Price in 2009
RAMLI Abdullah

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Introduction


Prices of selected Oils and Fats in 2006 to 2008 and Process of Palm Oil Price in 2009

Prices of oils and fats have been fluctuating in the past, with ups and downs in the global market. Figure 1 shows that they had been accelerating upward since 2006 up until June 2008 after which they plummeted towards end of the year. The uptrend movements were closely affected by the petroleum price which had surged from USD 57.39 per barrel in January 2006 to USD 133.52 in July 2008 (Figure 2). The increase in the petroleum price had caused many countries to start using alternative fuels which may come from various feedstocks, such as rapeseed oil, soyabean oil or palm oil. This had created additional demands for these feedstocks which in turn raised their prices to an even higher level. However, from July 2008, price of crude oil recorded a downward trend to reach USD 39.71 per barrel in December 2008. In tandem with this, prices of vegetable oils and fats had also followed suit. Beside the petroleum factor, which consequently led to the usage of biodiesel, there may be other factors which have influenced palm oil price and they will be highlighted later in the article. This article will also take the opportunity to project the prospect of palm oil price in 2009.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; FORECAST ; STATISTICS ; MARKET DEVELOPMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.49 (Dec 2008) p22-25
Utilization of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) in Aquaculture
* MA Yinhui; * GOH Eng Meng ; ** CHEN Xiguang ; ** MA Fangkui

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Introduction


Utilization of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) in Aquaculture

China’s feed industry has developed rapidly during the last few years with the demand increasing every year. The demand for fishmeal, the main source of animal protein, is increasing and the supply will not be able to meet the demand in the future. The search for new feed sources becomes important in view of the diminishing resources and concerns over environment protection. Feed manufacturers are also looking at ways to reduce the cost of feed production. Vegetable proteins that are economical and readily available will be used for replacing fishmeal. These include soyabean and corn meals. Palm kernel cake (PKC) may be considered as an energy feedstuff because of its high oil content. Currently, the world production of fishmeal, which is the main source of protein and makes up 30%-50% in most commercial feed formulations, is unable to meet the demand. Thus, PKC can be used for replacing partially soyabean meal, corn flour, bran or fishmeal in feed (Ng, 2004).

Keyword(s): PALM KERNEL CAKE (PKC) ; FFEDS ; AQUACULTURE ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.49 (Dec 2008) p14-21
Palm Oil Research and Technical Service Institute of The Malaysia Palm Oil Board (Portsim)
GOH Eng Meng

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Introduction


Palm Oil Research and Technical Service Institute of The Malaysia Palm Oil Board (Portsim)

China is the largest importer of Malaysian palm oil for the last seven consecutive years. As the largest importer, it is important to Malaysia that China continues to import and use palm oil. One of the ways to ensure that China continues to import Malaysian palm oil is to establish closer ties with the Chinese palm oil users and customers. The establishment of the Palm Oil Research and Technical Service Institute of MPOB (PORTSIM) in 2005 in China is to enhance the Malaysian palm oil presence in China and to establish closer ties with the oils and fats industry in the country (Figures 1 and 2). The establishment of PORTSIM will help to expand the application of palm oil, and hence, further increase the imports of Malaysian palm oil products into China. PORTSIM’s presence in China will also put Malaysia in a better position to effectively disseminate palm oil information and provide technical advisory services to the Chinese customers.

Keyword(s): PORTSIM ; RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.49 (Dec 2008) p7-16
Special Palm-Based Fat Spread for Bakery Frozen Dough
* GE Ruihong; * GOH Eng Meng ; * LIU Calli ; ** MA Chuanguo ; ** WANG Dezhi

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Introduction


Special Palm-Based Fat Spread for Bakery Frozen Dough

Frozen dough, as a new ingredient for the production of bread, has been developed along with other innovations in the baking industry. Due to its convenience, affordability and consistently high quality, frozen dough has rapidly become popular in the world since the 1950s. Nowadays, frozen dough occupies a substantial proportion of the food market, including supermarkets, restaurants, institutions and the catering business. The bread bakery industry is increasingly using frozen dough, especially in line with the development of bread store chains. Bread baked from frozen dough is gaining popularity in USA and Japan, with market shares of 80% and 50%, respectively, of the local bread markets. In China, the bakery industry has expanded rapidly in recent years with an annual throughput of 1.6 million tonnes of bakery products in 2006, although its development is still in its infancy. In view of this, the market for frozen dough in China has an excellent growth potential with the mushrooming of bread store chains in the country. Currently, many large Chinese bread store chains are using frozen dough for their bakery products. Oils and fats are important ingredients of frozen bread dough and they have profound effects on the product quality and storage stability. Currently, hydrogenated oil, normal shortening and margarine are usually used in frozen bread dough in China. The objectives of this study were to prepare a special palm-based fat spread for frozen bread dough and to evaluate its performance.

Keyword(s): OIL AND FATS ; BREAD MAKING ; DOUGH ; SPREADS ; FROZEN FOODS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.49 (Dec 2008) p1-7
A Potential Source of Vitamin E Extracted From Palm Oil for Aquaculture Feeds
NG Wing Keong; WANG Yan ; YUEN Kah Hay

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Introduction


A Potential Source of Vitamin E Extracted From Palm Oil for Aquaculture Feeds

The aquaculture industry is currently the fastest growing food production sector in the world. World aquaculture produces about 60 million tones of seafood worth more than USD 70 billion annually (FAO, 2006). Farmed fish accounts for about 50% of all consumed fish in the world, and this percentage is expected to continue to increase due to dwindling catches from capture fisheries. In recent years, technological advances in the aquafeed manufacturing industry have made possible the incorporation of high levels of dietary oils in fish feeds to produce energy-dense diets. Improvements in growth and feed utilization efficiency have been reported in fish due to the protein-sparing effect of dietary lipids. However, feeding high levels of dietary fish oils, which contain a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which are highly susceptible to oxidation, can lead to increase oxidative stress for the fish that can result in pathological conditions (Sakai et al., 1998) and deterioration of fillet quality (Scaife et al., 2000). Farmed fish quality deteriorates rapidly after slaughtering and this affects the shelf-life, storage properties and quality of seafood and surimi-based products. Increases in the lipid content of commercial fish feeds are usually not followed by appropriate antioxidant supplementation in order to maintain normal antioxidant status which further exacerbates the deleterious effects of lipid peroxidation, especially in cellular biomembranes which contain high amounts of PUFA.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; VITAMIN E ; AQUACULTURE ; POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (PUFA) ; FISH FEEDS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.48 (June 2008) p26-30
Prices of selected Oils and Fats and the Prospects of Palm Oil Price in 2008
RAMLI Abdullah

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Introduction


Prices of selected Oils and Fats and the Prospects of Palm Oil Price in 2008

The oils and fats sector has been bullish for the past few years. The sector enjoyed continuous surging prices since 2006 until the middle of 2008. Analysts related this scenario to the movements of fossil fuel price in the world market which recorded a similar trend. The surge in fossil fuel prices is mainly due to the political instability of most oil-producing countries, concerns about the environment, as well as long-term threats from depleting petroleum reserves. As a result, prices of petroleum as well as oils and fats were seen to be up-trended while showing a high correlation during the period. Palm oil price, for example, has been swaying to the tune of the petroleum price. The analysts hypothesized that the price of petroleum has become a new contributing factor affecting the prices of oils and fats. However, the scenario prior to 2006 was quite different as there was a mixture of relationships between prices of petroleum and those of oils and fats, and they moved quite independently. They showed negative correlation in some periods while being positively associated in others. Besides this new petroleum price factor, the role of stocks in influencing prices of oils and fats has gradually become less important, especially for palm oil. In the past, high stocks often caused the price of palm oil to decline and vice versa. However, the situation is different at present as the price and stock of palm oil together had increased or decreased during the same time. It is difficult to predict how long this relationship will stay, as it defies the traditional theoretical economic relationship.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; FORECAST ; STATISTICS ; MARKET DEVELOPMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.48 (June 2008) p14-19
Significance of the SN-2 Hypothesis
VOON Phooi Tee; NESARETNAM, Kalanithi

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Introduction


Significance of the SN-2 Hypothesis

The body uses fats for long-term energy storage because they provide about six times as much energy as an equal weight of stored, hydrated glycogen (McMurray, 2000). Many different fats and oils exist as sources of triacylglycerols in the human diet. These oils originate from fruits (palm oil and olive oil) or from seeds (corn oil, rapeseed oil and soyabean oil). Animal and fish fats are other examples of fats. Animal fats like butter and lard are solid at room temperature while vegetable oils like corn, soyabean and peanut oils are liquid. However, their structures are closely related. Fats and oils are made up of a mixture of triacylglycerols (TAG), which in turn consist of a glycerol backbone to which three fatty acids are esterified. The distribution of the fatty acids on the glycerol backbone of the TAG which is referred to as the stereospecific number, (sn) -1, -2 and -3, plays a significant role as a marker of its composition and properties (Goh, 2006). Figure 1 shows the schematic structure of the TAG where three fatty acids are bonded to a glycerol backbone.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALMITIC ACID ; FATTY ACIDS ; OILS & FATS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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