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No.53 (Dec 2010) p4-6
Towards REDD+
JUANITA Lourdes Nathan; NORAZURA AILA Mohd Hassim ; CHAN Kook Weng

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Introduction


Towards REDD+

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation or REDD is an initiative formulated to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from deforestation and forest degradation. REDD was originally proposed in 2005 to the 11th Conference of Parties (COP-11) by the governments of Papua New Guinea and Costa Rica through the Coalition of Rainforest Nations to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). This was in response to the exponential increase of deforestation worldwide and the lack of coverage by the Kyoto Protocol policy that excluded deforestation and degradation.

Keyword(s): DEFORESTATION ; BIODIVERSITY ; ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.53 (Dec 2010) p1-3
Palm Biodiesel: Development and Current Status
HARRISON LAU Lik Nang; CHOO Yuen May ; LIM Weng Soon

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Introduction


Palm Biodiesel: Development and Current Status

Biodiesel is one of the liquid biofuels that has been successfully evaluated as diesel substitute and gained worldwide acceptance (Choo et al., 2005). Today, many countries have mandated or given incentives for the use of biodiesel, whether derived from palm, soyabean, rapeseed or other feedstock in their diesel fuel. The leading countries in producing and promoting the use of biodiesel through mandates and incentives are the European Union and the United States. Other countries in Southeast Asia such as Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines have also introduced the use of biodiesel in recent years. The major reasons for the use of biodiesel in these countries are to enhance energy security by reducing dependency on fossil fuel import, to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to support the agricultural sector which supplies the biodiesel feedstock. At the current moment, most of the engine manufacturers and original equipment manufacturers (OEM) of fuel injectors have provided warranty to use biodiesel subject to a maximum blending ratio of 5% based on volume. The blending ratio may be increasing from time to time as seen in the European Union (EU) diesel specifications (EN 590:2009+A1:2010) where the maximum limit of biodiesel of 7% has been allowed. Other issues such as sustainability of biodiesel production and potential GHG emissions saving of using biodiesel are being discussed globally.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; BIODIESEL ; RENEWABLE ENERGY ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.53 (Dec 2010) p15-18
Implementation of MS ISO/ IEC 17025 at Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Food Safety Group, MPOB
TUAN MOHD FAUZAN Tuan Omar; AINIE Kuntom ; ROSNANI Osman ; NORIZAH Halim ; YEOH Chee Beng

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Introduction


Implementation of MS ISO/ IEC 17025 at Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Food Safety Group, MPOB

ISO/IEC 17025 Standard is a general requirement for competence of testing and calibration laboratories. It is accepted and applied globally as a quality standard by any testing and calibration laboratories to ensure their tests and results are internationally recognized. This international standard includes two major components which comprise a management system and a technical system that are crucial in running the operations in a laboratory. If one of the components is lacking it will affect the quality of results in the laboratory. The ISO/IEC 17025 requirement has been designed to incorporate all requirements of ISO 9001 that are relevant to the scope of testing and services. Therefore, testing and calibration laboratories that comply with ISO/IEC 17025 requirements will also operate in accordance with ISO 9001.

Keyword(s): MS ISO / IEC 17025 ; FOOD SAFETY ; PESTICIDE RESIDUE ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.52 (June 2010) p18-21
Dietary Fats and Inflamation: Some Recent Developments
TENG Kim-Tiu; VOON Phooi-Tee ; NESARETNAM, Kalanithi

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Introduction


Dietary Fats and Inflamation: Some Recent Developments

In the past six decades, a number of epidemiological studies have shown a clear association between certain dietary fatty acids and the risk of cardiovascular disease. A 2% increase in energy intake from partially hydrogenated fats or trans fatty acids is associated with a 23% increase in the incidence of cardiovascular heart disease. Replacement of saturated or cis unsaturated fatty acids with trans fatty acids has been shown to raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, reduce high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations, and increase the total:HDL cholesterol ratio (Mensink et al., 2003; Mozaffarian et al., 2004). High blood levels of trans fatty acids have also been shown to have a more pronounced adverse effect on the lipid profile and other cardiovascular disease risk markers, and are more strongly associated with the incidence of cardiovascular heart disease than saturated fatty acids (SFA) (Willett, 2006; Mozaffarian and Clarke, 2009).

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; DIETARY ; LVEGETABLE OILS ; NUTRITIONAL VALUES ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.52 (June 2010) p31-36
Carotech Berhad - Specialized in Producing Many Palm-based Nutraceutical Products
MOHAMED RAZALI Mahidin

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Introduction


Carotech Berhad - Specialized in Producing Many Palm-based Nutraceutical Products

In the early years of commercial production, the crude palm oil was processed into refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (PO). The light colour of the oil met the consumers’ expectation based on the traditional appearance of the classic cooking oils like soya, sunflower and groundnut oils. The refining process produced palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) which was then sold as a by-product of low value. With changing consumer demand, the RBDPO was processed further by fractionating into liquid palm olein (RBDPL) and solid fraction palm stearin (RBDPS). As with PFAD, the by-product RBDPS also had very low commercial value. However, scientists have known for a long time that there was value in the carotenoids, which were the parts that gave the golden colour to the crude palm oil. Although most of these carotenoids were destroyed in the course of refining, some remained as tocopherols and tocotrienols in the RBD, as well as in the PFAD where it was discovered that the concentration was even higher. The Palm Oil Research Institute (later known as the Malaysian Palm Oil Board or MPOB) has followed up with many scientific studies to recover these constituents of PO in order to get their full value. These studies have produced satisfactory results which were carried further to a stage where the products such as palm phyto-ingredients could be developed for commercialization by companies. Carotech Berhad is one such company.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; REFINED, BLEACHED, DEODORIZED (RBD) ; PALM FATTY ACID DISTILLATE (PFAD) ; CAROTECH BERHAD ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.52 (June 2010) p25-30
An Overview of the Prices of Selected Oils and Fats in 2010
RAMLI Abdullah

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Introduction


An Overview of the Prices of Selected Oils and Fats in 2010

The oils and fats sector has always exhibited a very common feature of volatility. This is true of the palm products for which the upswing and downswing of their prices imply that there are different factors affecting them at different times of the year. In 2009, speculations on the low production of palm oil in the early part of the year partly affected palm oil prices until the middle of the year. Other factors included the developments in the palm oil stock and soyabean oil price in the international market. Another influencing factor was the development of crude petroleum oil price. In 2010, speculations on the El Niño will probably be the main factor affecting production and indirectly affecting prices. This article discusses the development of palm oil prices in 2009 which appear to be good for the palm oil industry, and the prospects in 2010 for which prices are forecasted to be in the range of RM 2500- RM 2800.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; FORECAST ; STATISTICS ; MARKET DEVELOPMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.52 (June 2010) p10-17, 22-24
Comprehensive Quantification of Palm Vitamin E by Normal Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography
ONG, S. *; XU, C.H. * ; YAP, W.N. * ; FACHEN, A. ; LACUESTA, V. * ; ZAIDEN, N. * ; ZHANG, X.W. ** ; SHIBA, S + ; YAP, Y.L. *

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Introduction


Comprehensive Quantification of Palm Vitamin E by Normal Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

In 1922, embryologist H M Evans discovered tocopherols (TP) which are needed for human reproduction (Evans and Bishop, 1922; Evans et al., 1974). More than 40 years later, the isolation of tocotrienol (T3) from latex was first reported by R A Morton (Danphy et al., 1965). To date, vitamin E consists of T3 and TP. Together with TP, T3 provides a significant source of antioxidant activity in all living cells. This common antioxidant attribute reflects the similarity in chemical structure between T3 and TP, which differ only in their structural side-chain (T3 contains farnesyl while TP has a saturated phytyl side-chain). The common hydrogen atom from the hydroxyl (OH) group on the chromanol ring acts by scavenging the chain-propagating peroxyl free radicals. Depending on the location of the methyl groups on their chromanol ring, T3 and TP can be distinguished as four isomeric forms: alpha (α), beta (β), gamma (γ), and delta (δ). As TP was discovered much earlier compared to T3, TP has been more widely applied in human nutrition.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; VITAMIN E ; LHLPC ; TOCOTRIENOL-RICH-FRACTIONS (TRF) ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.52 (June 2010) p5-9
Impact of Labelling on Palm Oil in the US Market
AHMAD BORHAN Ahmad Nordin; MOHD ARIF Simeh ; MOHAMED RAZALI Mahidin ; FAIZAH Mohd Shariff

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Introduction


Impact of Labelling on Palm Oil in the US Market

Palm oil has been used in food preparation for over 50 centuries in many parts of the world. Nowadays, it is accepted by consumers worldwide in many forms, such as cooking oil, margarine and shortening, and also is used extensively as an ingredient in fat blends and a vast array of food products. Food manufacturers prefer palm oil because it has unique quality, does not require hydrogenation process, and lengthens the shelflife of products. These advantages are difficult to imitate at the same cost with soft oils, which often have higher market prices and need additional processing such as hydrogenation for the same characteristics. USA is one of major soyabean oil producers and also produces other liquid oils, whereby the production share of the country accounts for 10% of the global production of oils and fats that totalled about 16.4 million tonnes in 2009. Food manufacturers solidified part of the oils by the process of hydrogenation, to produce solid fats as imitation of traditional butter and named it margarines. The process increases the melting point of fats and gives food a longer shelf-life, but little did that they realized that partial hydrogenation process produced undesirable trans fatty acids.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY ; PRODUCT LABELLING ; LABELLING-United States ; IMPACT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.52 (June 2010) p1-4
Palm Oil Market Share in the US
ROSIDAH Radzian

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Introduction


Palm Oil Market Share in the US

The visit of Ambassador Demetrios J Marantis, Deputy Trade Representative of the United States, to Malaysia in early March 2010 to discuss the trade related issues between the two nations denotes a significant starting point for the enhancement of trade relation between Malaysia and the USA. The visit of Datuk Seri Mohd Najib Tun Abd Razak, the Malaysian Prime Minister, to the USA from 9-16 April 2010 marked a new era on the bilateral relationship between Malaysia and the USA in many aspects. The revived relation between the new administrations of Malaysia and the USA can be very advantageous to trade on agro-based products particularly palm oil. Palm oil has played a significant role in the US market especially in the food sector. From the early 1980s, palm oil from Malaysia had struggled through many waves of resistance from the local producers, nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and came out well to claim its position as the most competitive and versatile food ingredient to replace trans fatty acid (TFA or trans fat) in food formulations.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; MARKET SHARES ; MARKET REVIEW-United States ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.51 (Dec 2009) p30-36
An Overview of the Prices of Selected Oils and Fats in 2009
RAMLI Abdullah

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Introduction


An Overview of the Prices of Selected Oils and Fats in 2009

The volatility of oils and fats prices is a significant feature of the oils and fats sector. With no exception for the prices of palm products, the upswing and downswing of their prices imply that there are different factors affecting the prices at different times of the year. In 2009, speculation over the low production of palm oil in the early part of the year partly affected palm oil prices until the middle of the year. The volume of palm oil stock and soyabean oil price in the international market also influenced the palm oil prices. In addition, the trend of crude oil price also had some effect. This article discusses the prospects of palm oil prices in 2009 which appear to be good towards the end of the year. Our analysis shows that palm oil price is likely to firm up at around RM 2300 – RM 2400 in 2009.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; FORECAST ; STATISTICS ; MARKET DEVLOPMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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