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Article Info

No.49 (Dec 2008) p22-25
Utilization of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) in Aquaculture
* MA Yinhui; * GOH Eng Meng ; ** CHEN Xiguang ; ** MA Fangkui

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Introduction


Utilization of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) in Aquaculture

China’s feed industry has developed rapidly during the last few years with the demand increasing every year. The demand for fishmeal, the main source of animal protein, is increasing and the supply will not be able to meet the demand in the future. The search for new feed sources becomes important in view of the diminishing resources and concerns over environment protection. Feed manufacturers are also looking at ways to reduce the cost of feed production. Vegetable proteins that are economical and readily available will be used for replacing fishmeal. These include soyabean and corn meals. Palm kernel cake (PKC) may be considered as an energy feedstuff because of its high oil content. Currently, the world production of fishmeal, which is the main source of protein and makes up 30%-50% in most commercial feed formulations, is unable to meet the demand. Thus, PKC can be used for replacing partially soyabean meal, corn flour, bran or fishmeal in feed (Ng, 2004).

Keyword(s): PALM KERNEL CAKE (PKC) ; FFEDS ; AQUACULTURE ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.49 (Dec 2008) p14-21
Palm Oil Research and Technical Service Institute of The Malaysia Palm Oil Board (Portsim)
GOH Eng Meng

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Introduction


Palm Oil Research and Technical Service Institute of The Malaysia Palm Oil Board (Portsim)

China is the largest importer of Malaysian palm oil for the last seven consecutive years. As the largest importer, it is important to Malaysia that China continues to import and use palm oil. One of the ways to ensure that China continues to import Malaysian palm oil is to establish closer ties with the Chinese palm oil users and customers. The establishment of the Palm Oil Research and Technical Service Institute of MPOB (PORTSIM) in 2005 in China is to enhance the Malaysian palm oil presence in China and to establish closer ties with the oils and fats industry in the country (Figures 1 and 2). The establishment of PORTSIM will help to expand the application of palm oil, and hence, further increase the imports of Malaysian palm oil products into China. PORTSIM’s presence in China will also put Malaysia in a better position to effectively disseminate palm oil information and provide technical advisory services to the Chinese customers.

Keyword(s): PORTSIM ; RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.49 (Dec 2008) p7-16
Special Palm-Based Fat Spread for Bakery Frozen Dough
* GE Ruihong; * GOH Eng Meng ; * LIU Calli ; ** MA Chuanguo ; ** WANG Dezhi

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Introduction


Special Palm-Based Fat Spread for Bakery Frozen Dough

Frozen dough, as a new ingredient for the production of bread, has been developed along with other innovations in the baking industry. Due to its convenience, affordability and consistently high quality, frozen dough has rapidly become popular in the world since the 1950s. Nowadays, frozen dough occupies a substantial proportion of the food market, including supermarkets, restaurants, institutions and the catering business. The bread bakery industry is increasingly using frozen dough, especially in line with the development of bread store chains. Bread baked from frozen dough is gaining popularity in USA and Japan, with market shares of 80% and 50%, respectively, of the local bread markets. In China, the bakery industry has expanded rapidly in recent years with an annual throughput of 1.6 million tonnes of bakery products in 2006, although its development is still in its infancy. In view of this, the market for frozen dough in China has an excellent growth potential with the mushrooming of bread store chains in the country. Currently, many large Chinese bread store chains are using frozen dough for their bakery products. Oils and fats are important ingredients of frozen bread dough and they have profound effects on the product quality and storage stability. Currently, hydrogenated oil, normal shortening and margarine are usually used in frozen bread dough in China. The objectives of this study were to prepare a special palm-based fat spread for frozen bread dough and to evaluate its performance.

Keyword(s): OIL AND FATS ; BREAD MAKING ; DOUGH ; SPREADS ; FROZEN FOODS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.49 (Dec 2008) p1-7
A Potential Source of Vitamin E Extracted From Palm Oil for Aquaculture Feeds
NG Wing Keong; WANG Yan ; YUEN Kah Hay

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Introduction


A Potential Source of Vitamin E Extracted From Palm Oil for Aquaculture Feeds

The aquaculture industry is currently the fastest growing food production sector in the world. World aquaculture produces about 60 million tones of seafood worth more than USD 70 billion annually (FAO, 2006). Farmed fish accounts for about 50% of all consumed fish in the world, and this percentage is expected to continue to increase due to dwindling catches from capture fisheries. In recent years, technological advances in the aquafeed manufacturing industry have made possible the incorporation of high levels of dietary oils in fish feeds to produce energy-dense diets. Improvements in growth and feed utilization efficiency have been reported in fish due to the protein-sparing effect of dietary lipids. However, feeding high levels of dietary fish oils, which contain a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which are highly susceptible to oxidation, can lead to increase oxidative stress for the fish that can result in pathological conditions (Sakai et al., 1998) and deterioration of fillet quality (Scaife et al., 2000). Farmed fish quality deteriorates rapidly after slaughtering and this affects the shelf-life, storage properties and quality of seafood and surimi-based products. Increases in the lipid content of commercial fish feeds are usually not followed by appropriate antioxidant supplementation in order to maintain normal antioxidant status which further exacerbates the deleterious effects of lipid peroxidation, especially in cellular biomembranes which contain high amounts of PUFA.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; VITAMIN E ; AQUACULTURE ; POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (PUFA) ; FISH FEEDS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.48 (June 2008) p26-30
Prices of selected Oils and Fats and the Prospects of Palm Oil Price in 2008
RAMLI Abdullah

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Introduction


Prices of selected Oils and Fats and the Prospects of Palm Oil Price in 2008

The oils and fats sector has been bullish for the past few years. The sector enjoyed continuous surging prices since 2006 until the middle of 2008. Analysts related this scenario to the movements of fossil fuel price in the world market which recorded a similar trend. The surge in fossil fuel prices is mainly due to the political instability of most oil-producing countries, concerns about the environment, as well as long-term threats from depleting petroleum reserves. As a result, prices of petroleum as well as oils and fats were seen to be up-trended while showing a high correlation during the period. Palm oil price, for example, has been swaying to the tune of the petroleum price. The analysts hypothesized that the price of petroleum has become a new contributing factor affecting the prices of oils and fats. However, the scenario prior to 2006 was quite different as there was a mixture of relationships between prices of petroleum and those of oils and fats, and they moved quite independently. They showed negative correlation in some periods while being positively associated in others. Besides this new petroleum price factor, the role of stocks in influencing prices of oils and fats has gradually become less important, especially for palm oil. In the past, high stocks often caused the price of palm oil to decline and vice versa. However, the situation is different at present as the price and stock of palm oil together had increased or decreased during the same time. It is difficult to predict how long this relationship will stay, as it defies the traditional theoretical economic relationship.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; FORECAST ; STATISTICS ; MARKET DEVELOPMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.48 (June 2008) p14-19
Significance of the SN-2 Hypothesis
VOON Phooi Tee; NESARETNAM, Kalanithi

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Introduction


Significance of the SN-2 Hypothesis

The body uses fats for long-term energy storage because they provide about six times as much energy as an equal weight of stored, hydrated glycogen (McMurray, 2000). Many different fats and oils exist as sources of triacylglycerols in the human diet. These oils originate from fruits (palm oil and olive oil) or from seeds (corn oil, rapeseed oil and soyabean oil). Animal and fish fats are other examples of fats. Animal fats like butter and lard are solid at room temperature while vegetable oils like corn, soyabean and peanut oils are liquid. However, their structures are closely related. Fats and oils are made up of a mixture of triacylglycerols (TAG), which in turn consist of a glycerol backbone to which three fatty acids are esterified. The distribution of the fatty acids on the glycerol backbone of the TAG which is referred to as the stereospecific number, (sn) -1, -2 and -3, plays a significant role as a marker of its composition and properties (Goh, 2006). Figure 1 shows the schematic structure of the TAG where three fatty acids are bonded to a glycerol backbone.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALMITIC ACID ; FATTY ACIDS ; OILS & FATS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.48 (June 2008) p13, 20-25
Palm-based Trans-free Whipped Topping as an Alternative to Dairy Cream
WAN ROSNANI Awg Isa; NOR AINI Idris ; NOOR LIDA HABI Mat Dian

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Introduction


Palm-based Trans-free Whipped Topping as an Alternative to Dairy Cream

Vegetable fat-based whipped toppings is used as a replacement for whipped dairy cream are commonly called whipped toppings, non-dairy cream, imitation cream and vegetable cream (Neil and Hogg, 2003). Whipped cream is an aerated food emulsion which is normally produced from milk fat. It has a white opaque appearance and low density due to the high inclusion of gas bubbles in the system. The emulsion droplets usually contain partially crystallized fats (Aken, 2001). Whipped toppings have become popular both for commercial and consumer use on puddings, sodas, cakes, ice cream, fruit and pastries such as cream pie bases. Consumers and manufacturers have certain expectations for the quality of whipped toppings with regard to taste, shelf-life and whipping characteristics, such as speed of whipping, overrun and stability (Shamsi et al., 2002).

Keyword(s): DAIRY CREAM ; TRANS FATTY ACIDS ; PALM OI PRODUCTS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No.48 (June 2008) p6-12
Palm-Based Trans-free Roll-in Margarine
KANAGARATNAM, Sivaruby; MISKANDAR Mat Sahri ; NOR AINI Idris ; TANGAVELU, Thiagarajan ; MOHD JAAFFAR Ahmad

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Introduction


Palm-Based Trans-free Roll-in Margarine

Fats used for formulating shortening and margarine require a certain amount of solids. These solids are mainly obtained by the catalytic hydrogenation of liquid oils. However, hydrogenated fats are undesirable in food formulations as they contain trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acids (TFA) were reported to be a cholesterol-elevating agent, raising the low density lipoprotein (bad cholesterol) and lowering the high density lipoproteins (good cholesterol) in humans (Mensick and Katan, 1990; Judd et al., 1994). Epidemiological studies have suggested a link between the consumption of TFA and coronary heart disease risk (Hennekens and Willett, 1997). Palm-based oils and fats are considered to be a potential replacement for hydrogenated fats as they have natural solid components easily obtained by fractionation, and they do not contain TFA (Berger and Idris, 2005; List and King, 2006).

Keyword(s): OILS & FATS ; TRANS FATTY ACIDS ; PALM OIL SHORTENING ; MARGARINE ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.48 (June 2008) p1-6
OFTEC Pilot Plant and Laboratory Facilities
MISKANDAR Mat Sahri; NOOR LIDA HABI Mat Diah ; WAN ROSNANI Awg Isa ; SALMI YATI Samsudin ; NOR AINI Idris ; KARIMAH Ahmad

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Introduction


OFTEC Pilot Plant and Laboratory Facilities

The Oils and Fats Technology Centre (OFTEC) is a research centre under the Product Development and Advisory Services (PDAS) division. Its research and development activities focus on the application of palm oil in food products. It is equipped with adequate laboratory facilities for oils and fats analyses, and pilot plant facilities to support the role of the division as a front liner in the palm oil industry. OFTEC is currently involved in research programmes on trans-free formulations, frying, structured fat products, non-dairy milk, cheese analogue, palm-based chocolate and processing. Beside these, the group also actively provides services to researchers from other units in MPOB, universities and the oil palm industry. OFTEC has the following facilities that are available for use by the researchers and industry: • margarine and shortening pilot plant; • batch fryers; • batch-scale bread-making machine; • colloid mill for producing emulsion products; • laboratory-scale spray-drying unit for producing coconut milk (santan) powder and coffee whitener; • laboratory-scale production machine for chocolate and chocolate products; • laboratory-scale ice cream machine; • refining pilot plant; • chemical interesterification pilot plant; and • enzymatic interesterification reactors.

Keyword(s): OFTEC (OILS AND FATS TECHNOLOGY CENTRE ; OILS AND FATS ; RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No.47 (Dec 2007) p16-19
New evolution of Palm-based Standard Reference Materials
AZMIL HAIZAM Ahmad Tarmiza; SIEW Wai Lin ; AINIE Kuntom

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Introduction


New evolution of Palm-based Standard Reference Materials

Palm oil is one of the most important sources of revenue to Malaysia. Exports of palm oil from the country increased by 41.8% in 2007 compared to that of in 2006. Of this total amount, more than 70% of palm oil exports comprise mainly refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil, RBD palm olein and RBD palm stearin. As a leading country in the palm oil business, it is necessary for Malaysia to ensure that palm oil is of good quality. Therefore, harmonization of palm oil test methods is crucial to produce palm oil within the trade specifications. A comparison of the measurement results should be made against the certified values of standard reference materials to ensure the reliability and trueness of the methods used. However, the unavailability of standard reference materials from palm oil products prevents this from being practised. With the emphasis on quality aspects, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) has taken initiatives to develop Palm-based Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to cater for the needs of the industry in monitoring the quality of the palm oil produced. Several studies have commenced on the production of such SRMs.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM-BASED STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS (SRMs) ; MALAYSIAN PALM OIL BOARD (MPOB) ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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