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No. 129 (Oct - Dec 2018) p54
Datasheet
Ir Ravi Manon*

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No. 129 (Oct - Dec 2018) p42-49
Review on Technologies Advancement for Particulate Emission Reduction in Palm Oil Mill
Yahaya Hawari*; Rohaya Mohamed Halim* and Astimar Abdul Aziz*

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Review on Technologies Advancement for Particulate Emission Reduction in Palm Oil Mill

The Malaysian palm oil industry is a large sector contributing to the economic growth of the country. As the world’s second largest palm oil producer with millions of hectares of plantations, approximately 20 million tonnes of crude palm oil (CPO) was produced in 2014 from 439 palm oil mills (MPOB, 2014). As a result, the palm oil industry is identified as a major contributor to water and air pollution. The sources of air pollution in the palm oil mills are mainly from boilers using fibres and shells as fuel, and incinerators burning empty fruit bunches (Abdullah et al., 2007).



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No. 129 (Oct - Dec 2018) p27-40
Physico-chemical Treatment of Oil Palm Biomass into Applicable Feedstock
Fatiha Ismail*; Noorshamsiana Abdul Wahab*; Nur Eliyanti Ali Othman* and Astimar Abdul Aziz*

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Physico-chemical Treatment of Oil Palm Biomass into Applicable Feedstock

The depletion of fossil fuels and natural raw materials has encouraged the search for new resource materials for the production of bio-based materials (Alekhina et al., 2014). Oil palm biomass (OPB) is classified as lignocellulosic residues comprised mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in their cell walls (Raveendran et al., 1995). This lignocellulosic material can be converted into valuable feedstock for the production of biosugar, biocompost, biochemical and bioethanol. Due to the lignocellulosic nature of OPB, countless research and development activities were undertaken by various agencies in order to improve the transformation of OPB into more valuable substrate for producing a variety of chemicals that will have huge potential in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The chemical constituents in OPB varied considerably due to their diverse origins and types (Chew and Bhatia, 2008). The chemical composition of different OPB is shown in Table 1.



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No. 129 (Oct - Dec 2018) p11-17
Content and Quality Characteristics of Oil Obtained Under Different Treatment at Various Palm Fruits Ripeness
Nurul Hasimah Kasmin*, **; Azwan Mat Lazim* and Roila Awang**

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Content and Quality Characteristics of Oil Obtained Under Different Treatment at Various Palm Fruits Ripeness

This study evaluates the chemical changes that occur as oil palm fruits ripen in the bunch in terms of changes in oil content, chemical composition of fatty acid (FA), free fatty acid (FFA), deterioration of bleachability index (DOBI) and carotenes content. Oil was extracted from fruits with different ripeness, using different extraction techniques. It was found that oil content infruit increased over the ripening period, reaching the maximum oil content of 34.7% in ripe fruit which can be related to the optimal time for fruit harvesting based on colour. Results showed that the main changes in FA occurred in terms of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids content. Meanwhile, FFA, DOBI and carotenes content increased as oil palm fruits ripen and the value remained nearly constant.



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No. 128 (Jul - Sept 2018) p51-57
Crude Palm Oil De-Chlorination
Andrew Yap Kian Chung*

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Crude Palm Oil De-Chlorination

High concentrations of 3-monochloro- 1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) were found in refined, bleached and deodorised (RBD) palm oil recently, implying that the level in edible oil consumption will exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.8 μg kg-1 body weight as determined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2016). A study showed that the reaction prerequisites for ester formation are the presence of fatty acids and ionic-bound chlorine. Although fatty acids neutralisation is an effective oil purification method, various technologies have been introduced to address the de-chlorination issue in crude palm oil so that the MCPD ester content in palm oil meets the European and the American market requirements which are currently below 2 mg kg-1, and a further reduction to 0.5 ppm has been proposed.



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No. 128 (Jul - Sept 2018) p40-45
Engine Testing using B10 Diesel: A case study by Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL)
Nursyairah Jalil*; Harrison Lau Lik Nang*; Rusnani Abdul Majid*; Ropandi Mamat*; Daryl Jay Thardeus*; Yung Chee Liang*; Wan Hasamudin Wan Hassan*; Yahaya Hawari*; Noraida Omar*; Astimar Abd Aziz* and Muhammad Alif Muhamad Noor**

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Engine Testing using B10 Diesel: A case study by Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL)

The Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL), an agency under the Ministry of Federal Territories has been involved in the National Biodiesel Programme since February 2009. The first collaboration on biodiesel fuel between the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) and DBKL was to use B5 diesel for the whole DBKL diesel fleet. B5 is a blend of 5% palm biodiesel with 95% petroleum diesel. The successful implementation of the B5 project with DBKL has supported the government to implement B5 program nationwide in phases for transportation and other subsidised sectors beginning in 2011. To further increase the biodiesel blending ratio in diesel, the government had then upgraded B5 to B7 programme since January 2015. So far, no technical complaints were received.



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No. 128 (Jul - Sept 2018) p27-32
Microalgae Cultivation In Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)
Nur Azreena Idris*; Soh Kheang Loh* and Harrison Lik Nang Lau*

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Microalgae Cultivation In Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

Developing alternative fuels is an essential step towards solving fossil fuels issues such as fuel cost and pollution. Microalgae can be a promising feedstock for alternative fuel as it is fast growing and easily cultivated. Exploring wastewater such as palm oil mill effluent (POME) for feasible microalgae cultivation is essential as POME is abundantly available from palm oil milling activities. The high content of nutrients in POME makes it a potential microalgae growth medium. This study demonstrated that a microalgae species, i.e. Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 can grow at a specific growth rate of 0.39 day-1 and produce 0.14 mg biomass litre day-1 in POME outdoor conditions. The extracted algal oil showed 48.9% saturated fatty acids and 51.1% unsaturated fatty acids equivalent to palm oil as a biodiesel feedstock.



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No. 128 (Jul - Sept 2018) p11-17
Physicochemical Properties of B10 Diesel
Chee Liang Yung* and Soh Kheang Loh*

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Physicochemical Properties of B10 Diesel

The concept of using vegetable oils as fuel dated back to 1895 when the first diesel engine powered by peanut oil was developed by Dr Rudolf Diesel (Sheaves, 2001). However, the use of vegetable oil as fuel became insignificant when crude oil was discovered a few years later. Biofuel from vegetable oils once again drew world’s attention due to the energy crisis in the 1970s. With increasing concern on environment, rising oil price and rapid technological advancement, biofuel in the form of biodiesel has emerged as an important alternative fuel at present.



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No. 127 (Apr - Jun 2018) p56
Datasheet
Ir Ravi Menon*

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No. 127 (Apr - Jun 2018) p51-53
Static Walking Steriliser-Future Sterilisers
Ng Keng Phoy*

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Static Walking Steriliser-Future Sterilisers

The most common fresh fruit bunch (FFB) sterilisation system used in a palm oil mill is still the conventional horizontal type. In this system, a few cages are filled with (FFB) and pushed into each steriliser which is actually unfired pressure vessels. Steam at 3 barg is admitted to the FFB laden cages for a period of 90 minutes. The first 10 min were for de-aeration during which the air contained in the steriliser chamber is driven out during the scheduled three blow-off cycles.



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