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No. 121 (Oct - Dec 2016) p55
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No. 121 (Oct - Dec 2016) p23-27
Benefits of Using Fourier-Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) Spectroscopy for the Palm Oil Industry
Sirinnapa (Mui) Saranwong* and Dagmar Behmer*

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Benefits of Using Fourier-Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) Spectroscopy for the Palm Oil Industry

In the palm oil industry, various methods used for the control of product quality are of interest. The palm kernels sold to the kernel crushing factory should strictly adhere to the sales specifications of kernel mentioned in the sales agreement that stipulates the minimum allowable contamination of dirt and moisture in the kernel consignment. After crushing the kernel to extract the kernel oil, the residue called expeller is analysed for the residual oil and contaminant content. The percentage residual oil content in the expeller will give the extraction  fficiency of the kernel extraction plant. The production kernel oil also undergoes analyses as it also has to meet the sales specifications on quality. Similar analysis is also conducted by the kernel oil efinery when it receives the kernel oil from the kernel crushers. Currently, all the important tests to monitor product quality in the palm oil mills, refineries, kernel crushing plants and kernel oil refineries are carried out using lengthy procedures. This can be a set-back for timely quality control of the products as the time lag could cause the production of off-quality products for long periods. Until recently there were no instruments that could analyse the quality parameters that are critical in a continuous production line.



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No. 121 (Oct - Dec 2016) p17-20
The Importance of Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) for the Oil Palm Industry
Haryati Zainal*, Vijaya Subramaniam*, Zulkifli Hashim*, Loh Soh Kheang* and Ahmad Kushairi Din*

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The Importance of Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) for the Oil Palm Industry

Oil palm is a valuable economic crop. Its cultivation and processing provide employment to local community (Budidarsono et al., 2012; Norwana et al., 2011) and allow them to participate in the cash economy (Oxford Busninees Group, 2011). This often results in the improvement of the local infrastructure and basic social welfare services such as schools and health facilities. In some areas, the cultivation of oil palm has replaced traditional agricultural practices mainly due to the higher earning potential offered by oil palm cultivation. However, over the years the oil palm industry has been highly criticised for causing several environmental sustainability issues such as climate change, land use change,cultivation on peat, watercourse pollution, etc. MPOB has embarked on a series of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies covering the whole supply chain from cradle to grave since 2003. The whole study for the supply chain was completed in 2009 which was reviewed and endorsed by an external panel of experts. However, these LCA studies were purely environmental LCA (E-LCA) and did not touch on the other two aspects of sustainability which are the social and economy aspects. The oil palm industry is always scrutinised on its sustainability performance and so it is of utmost important to also gauge the social issues concerning the industry.



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No. 121 (Oct - Dec 2016) p11-13
Everyman’s Guide to Good Boiler Combustion
John de Kock

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Everyman’s Guide to Good Boiler Combustion

The oil palm mill boiler has been a source of both pride and disgust in the history of the palm oil industry in Malaysia. Pride is usually restricted to the first two years of a new boiler, then slowly turning to dissent as the chimney smoke change to black colour and maintenance issues start to creep in.



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No. 120 (Jul - Sept 2016) p51
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No. 120 (Jul - Sept 2016) p23-26
Co-firing of Biogas in Palm Oil Mill Biomass Boilers
Nasrin Abu Bakar*; Lim Weng Soon*; Mohamad Azri Sukiran*; Loh Soh Kheang* and Nurul Adela Bukhari*

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Co-firing of Biogas in Palm Oil Mill Biomass Boilers

Biogas is a gaseous by-product generated from anaerobic digestion (AD) of palm oil mill effluent (POME). As a renewable energy resource, one of the commercial uses of biogas in the Malaysian palm oil industry is as a supplementary fuel in biomass boilers. This approach adopts a co-firing concept, offers an immediate and low-cost investment option for a direct and clean conversion of biogas to steam and electricity via an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant available at palm oil mills (Nasrin et al. 2014 and Loh et al., 2014). Biogas is added as a partial substitute fuel in oil palm biomass boilers.



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No. 120 (Jul - Sept 2016) p17-21
Maximising Biomass and Biogas Renewable Energy Utilisation in Keck Seng’s Integrated Palm Oil Mill and Downstream Industry Complex
Tong, S L*’; Chua, T N ** and Chua, N S**

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Maximising Biomass and Biogas Renewable Energy Utilisation in Keck Seng’s Integrated Palm Oil Mill and Downstream Industry Complex

Keck Seng (Malaysia) Berhad, (KS) operates an integrated palm oil mill complex located in Masai, Johor. The complex consists of a palm oil mill, kernel crushing plant, palm oil refinery and other plants for downstream activities since early 1970s. The company has a farsighted vision to maximise the use of inhouse renewable energy (RE) sources, so that a large part of the very high energy demand by the whole complex can be met in a most cost-effective and environmentally sustainable manner.



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No. 120 (Jul - Sept 2016) p11-14
MPOB-BEE High Efficient Methane Fermentation System for Electricity Generation
Loh Soh Kheang*; Lynda Dazhi Lian** and Mohamad Azri Sukiran*

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MPOB-BEE High Efficient Methane Fermentation System for Electricity Generation

Biogas Environmental Engineering Sdn Bhd (BEE) is a company engaged and specialised in research, engineering design, construction and management of methane renewable energy development and environmental protection. The company’s core business is utilisation of anaerobic digestion technology to process industrial organic waste water from food and beverage industries, concentrated animal farm operations and palm oil mills.



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No. 119 (Apr - Jun 2016) p59
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No. 119 (Apr - Jun 2016) p19-26
Rapid Composting of Oil Palm Biomass by using Aerobic Thermophilic Composter
Nahrul Hayawin, Z*; Astimar, A A*; Ropandi, M*; Nor Faizah, J* and Hamid, F A*

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Rapid Composting of Oil Palm Biomass by using Aerobic Thermophilic Composter

evelopment of a suitable technology for rapid composting of oil palm biomass, especially the abundant empty fruit bunch (EFB) from palm oil mills is very crucial for the industry in order to make composting viable and effective for easy evacuation. Many parameters are involved for the success of rapid composting, and one of the real challenge is to ensure the sustainability of the indigenous composting micro-organisms. In order to pursue this research within the narrow spectrum of limited supporting facilities composting time and quality of compost formed from EFB, palm oil mill effluent (POME) and decanter cake had to be subjected to a thorough investigation using a large scale aerobic thermophilic composter. The compost mixtures were conducted in a 1.7 m x 1.6 m x 3.3 m stainless steel aerobic thermophilic composting reactor. The raw composting mixture having a wet weight of 80 kg per batch were placed in the reactor. Results indicated that the composting period of EFB with decanter cake can be shortened to three weeks. The mean temperature profile of Run I was marginally higher than Run II (with POME) by 3ºC- 7ºC but the moisture content showed marked increase ranging between 17%-50%. The C:N ratio of the final compost the Run was 12.09 within a period of three weeks. Therefore, our results suggest that it would be possible to accelerate the compost production using aerobic thermophilic composter for the oil palm industry as a sustainable option for managing the oil palm biomass without requiring an additional maturation stage.



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