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No. 128 (Jul - Sept 2018) p51-57
Crude Palm Oil De-Chlorination
Andrew Yap Kian Chung*

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Crude Palm Oil De-Chlorination

High concentrations of 3-monochloro- 1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) were found in refined, bleached and deodorised (RBD) palm oil recently, implying that the level in edible oil consumption will exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.8 μg kg-1 body weight as determined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2016). A study showed that the reaction prerequisites for ester formation are the presence of fatty acids and ionic-bound chlorine. Although fatty acids neutralisation is an effective oil purification method, various technologies have been introduced to address the de-chlorination issue in crude palm oil so that the MCPD ester content in palm oil meets the European and the American market requirements which are currently below 2 mg kg-1, and a further reduction to 0.5 ppm has been proposed.



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No. 128 (Jul - Sept 2018) p40-45
Engine Testing using B10 Diesel: A case study by Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL)
Nursyairah Jalil*; Harrison Lau Lik Nang*; Rusnani Abdul Majid*; Ropandi Mamat*; Daryl Jay Thardeus*; Yung Chee Liang*; Wan Hasamudin Wan Hassan*; Yahaya Hawari*; Noraida Omar*; Astimar Abd Aziz* and Muhammad Alif Muhamad Noor**

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Engine Testing using B10 Diesel: A case study by Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL)

The Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL), an agency under the Ministry of Federal Territories has been involved in the National Biodiesel Programme since February 2009. The first collaboration on biodiesel fuel between the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) and DBKL was to use B5 diesel for the whole DBKL diesel fleet. B5 is a blend of 5% palm biodiesel with 95% petroleum diesel. The successful implementation of the B5 project with DBKL has supported the government to implement B5 program nationwide in phases for transportation and other subsidised sectors beginning in 2011. To further increase the biodiesel blending ratio in diesel, the government had then upgraded B5 to B7 programme since January 2015. So far, no technical complaints were received.



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No. 128 (Jul - Sept 2018) p27-32
Microalgae Cultivation In Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)
Nur Azreena Idris*; Soh Kheang Loh* and Harrison Lik Nang Lau*

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Microalgae Cultivation In Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

Developing alternative fuels is an essential step towards solving fossil fuels issues such as fuel cost and pollution. Microalgae can be a promising feedstock for alternative fuel as it is fast growing and easily cultivated. Exploring wastewater such as palm oil mill effluent (POME) for feasible microalgae cultivation is essential as POME is abundantly available from palm oil milling activities. The high content of nutrients in POME makes it a potential microalgae growth medium. This study demonstrated that a microalgae species, i.e. Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 can grow at a specific growth rate of 0.39 day-1 and produce 0.14 mg biomass litre day-1 in POME outdoor conditions. The extracted algal oil showed 48.9% saturated fatty acids and 51.1% unsaturated fatty acids equivalent to palm oil as a biodiesel feedstock.



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No. 128 (Jul - Sept 2018) p11-17
Physicochemical Properties of B10 Diesel
Chee Liang Yung* and Soh Kheang Loh*

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Physicochemical Properties of B10 Diesel

The concept of using vegetable oils as fuel dated back to 1895 when the first diesel engine powered by peanut oil was developed by Dr Rudolf Diesel (Sheaves, 2001). However, the use of vegetable oil as fuel became insignificant when crude oil was discovered a few years later. Biofuel from vegetable oils once again drew world’s attention due to the energy crisis in the 1970s. With increasing concern on environment, rising oil price and rapid technological advancement, biofuel in the form of biodiesel has emerged as an important alternative fuel at present.



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No. 127 (Apr - Jun 2018) p56
Datasheet
Ir Ravi Menon*

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Datasheet

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No. 127 (Apr - Jun 2018) p51-53
Static Walking Steriliser-Future Sterilisers
Ng Keng Phoy*

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Static Walking Steriliser-Future Sterilisers

The most common fresh fruit bunch (FFB) sterilisation system used in a palm oil mill is still the conventional horizontal type. In this system, a few cages are filled with (FFB) and pushed into each steriliser which is actually unfired pressure vessels. Steam at 3 barg is admitted to the FFB laden cages for a period of 90 minutes. The first 10 min were for de-aeration during which the air contained in the steriliser chamber is driven out during the scheduled three blow-off cycles.



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No. 127 (Apr - Jun 2018) p38-44
Application of Regenerated Spent Bleaching Earth as Adsorbent for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Rusnani Abd Majid* and Che Rahmat Che Mat

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Application of Regenerated Spent Bleaching Earth as Adsorbent for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

The aim of the present study is to evaluate adsorption capacity of regenerated spent bleaching earth, to decolourise and reduce the biological oxygen demand (BOD) of final discharged of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Different types of spent bleaching earth were used in this study; regenerated using acid and heat treatment after de-oiling (RDSBEAH), spent bleaching earth (SBE), de-oiled spent bleaching earth (DSBE) and new bleaching earth (NBE). Prior to the study, samples were characterised for their surface area, pore volume and functional groups. RDSBE-AH was found to have the highest surface area and pore volume when compared to the other three types of clays with values of 122.3 m2 g-1 and 68 cm3 g-1, respectively. For the decolourisation of POME, RDSBE-AH exhibited higher efficiency than NBE. Higher BOD reduction efficiency was found for NBE as compared to RDSBE-AH. The results demonstrated that the regenerated SBE, activated using combined acid and heat treatments, capable to decolourise and reduce the BOD of the POME final discharge, to comply with the stringent new proposed limits by Department of Environment (DOE).



Keyword(s): adsorption; biological oxygen demand (BOD); decolourisation; palm oil mill effluent (POME); regenerated spent bleaching earth

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No. 127 (Apr - Jun 2018) p25-30, 35
Bio-based Products from Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Stasha Eleanor Rosland Abel*; Soh Kheang Loh and Nasrin Abu Bakar

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Bio-based Products from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

A surplus of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is generated annually. POME - a by-product from the palm oil milling process - is often regarded as a highly polluting wastewater although its high organic load can be economically beneficial. In average, about 0.67-1 t of POME is produced for every t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed. Despite the negative perception on POME, it has great potential to be reutilised as a renewable source for making into various value-added products e.g. citric acid, bioethanol, biohydrogen, bioplastic, among others, through biotechnological approaches. The advantages of bioprocessing of POME include a reduced production cost, environmental impact associated with palm oil processing and energy consumption. This paper reviews some of the recent biotechnological advances in waste (POME)-to-wealth (bioproducts) generation which then promote sustainable palm oil production.



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No. 127 (Apr - Jun 2018) p11-15
Determination of Levoglucosan Compounds in Pyrolysis Oil of Empty Fruit Bunches and its Potential Application
Mohamad Azri Sukiran*; Soh Kheang Loh* and Nasrin Abu Bakar*

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Determination of Levoglucosan Compounds in Pyrolysis Oil of Empty Fruit Bunches and its Potential Application

Generally, pyrolysis is one of the most promising technologies for biomass utilisation. It is essential in the first stage thermochemical conversion of biomass into bio-oil, bio-char and gases dependent on process conditions in complete absence of oxygen. Usually, pyrolysis occurs at moderate temperature (400°C to 700°C) with rapid heating (Abnisa et al., 2013). It is mainly used for optimising liquid products at high heating and heattransfer rates using finely ground biomass. Nitrogen (N2) - an inert gas - is commonly used to accelerate vapours sweeping from the hot zone (pyrolysis zone) through the cool zone (condenser). Condensation is an important step for liquid production during pyrolysis. Without this, only the biochar and gas products can be obtained from the process. Once the pyrolysis vapours are condensed, a dark brown liquid is formed, namely bio-oil or pyrolysis oil. The bio-oil yield can be up to 80% of the initial dry mass (Bridgwater and Peacocke, 2000).



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No. 126 (Jan - Mar 2018) p38-44
Palm Oil Mill Odour Emission
Andrew Yap Kian Chung*

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Palm Oil Mill Odour Emission

Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) emits various odorous chemicals. Thus, Department of Environment under the jurisdiction of the Air Division has proposed odour limit of 12 000 OU m-3 for palm oil mills in the draft odour regulation recently. Three mills with differing effluent treatment systems were selected to carry out the odour study in order to validate the proposal. Field survey results showed that the odour emission sources in all mills exceeded the proposed odour limits However, in-field odour concentrations in treatment plant areas are well below the limit. Mill with digester tank has lowest in-field odour concentrations in treatment plant areas compared to mill with covered lagoon while open ponding has the highest readings.



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