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No. 126 (Jan - Mar 2018) p38-44
Palm Oil Mill Odour Emission
Andrew Yap Kian Chung*

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Palm Oil Mill Odour Emission

Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) emits various odorous chemicals. Thus, Department of Environment under the jurisdiction of the Air Division has proposed odour limit of 12 000 OU m-3 for palm oil mills in the draft odour regulation recently. Three mills with differing effluent treatment systems were selected to carry out the odour study in order to validate the proposal. Field survey results showed that the odour emission sources in all mills exceeded the proposed odour limits However, in-field odour concentrations in treatment plant areas are well below the limit. Mill with digester tank has lowest in-field odour concentrations in treatment plant areas compared to mill with covered lagoon while open ponding has the highest readings.



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No. 126 (Jan - Mar 2018) p25-28, 33-36
Lignocellulose-derived Sugars from Oil Palm Biomass
Nurul Adela Bukhari*; Soh Kheang Loh*; Nasrin Abu Bakar* and Jamaliah Md Jahim**

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Lignocellulose-derived Sugars from Oil Palm Biomass

Lignocellulosic biomass is an interesting option as a source of fermentable sugars for the production of biofuels and biochemicals considering its abundant availability and low-cost compared to commercially available refined sugars. One such major lignocellulosic biomass available in Malaysia is empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is a by-product from the palm oil milling process. Besides, the oil palm plantations also generate a large amount of oil palm trunk (OPT) and oil palm frond (OPF) during replanting and pruning. The annual production of EFB, OPT and OPF is approximately 84.23 million tonne (dry basis) a year (Table 1) from 5.74 million hectare of oil palm planted area (MPOB, 2016). This huge amount (i.e. 7 million t of EFB, 21.4 million t of OPT and 55.8 million t of OPF) implies that oil palm biomass is a readily available feedstock to provide intermediate platforms (xylose, C5 and glucose, C6 sugars) for the production of biofuels and biochemicals.



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No. 126 (Jan - Mar 2018) p11-17
Development of Biogas Upgrading Plant for the Production of Bio-Compressed Natural Gas (Bio-CNG) in Palm Oil Mills
Nasrin Abu Bakar*; Soh Kheang Loh*; Astimar Abdul Aziz*; Mohamed Fazil Mohamad Saad**; Mohd Kamahl M Kamarudin**; Lew Yan Soon *** and Lim Daw Yuen***

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Development of Biogas Upgrading Plant for the Production of Bio-Compressed Natural Gas (Bio-CNG) in Palm Oil Mills

Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a high-strength organic wastewater generated from the extraction of crude palm oil (CPO) from fresh fruit bunches (FFB) in palm oil mills. The wastewater is treated conventionally via a series of ponding systems involving anaerobic and aerobic microbial processes. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most commonly used method by the palm oil industry to treat POME to an acceptable level as set by the local authority before finally discharge to a watercourse, or for land application. This treatment process generates and emits huge quantities of biogas uncontrollably to the atmosphere. At a production rate of 28 m3 biogas for every m3 of POME, it was estimated that 1562 million m3 of biogas was generated from 85.84 million t of FFB processed in 456 palm oil mills nationwide in 2016 (MPOB, 2017).



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No. 125 (Oct - Dec 2017) p55
Datasheet
N Ravi Menon

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No. 125 (Oct - Dec 2017) p37-42
The Use of Boiler Fly Ash for BOD, TSS and Colour Reduction of Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Rusnani Abd Majid* and Hisham Esa*

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The Use of Boiler Fly Ash for BOD, TSS and Colour Reduction of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Environmental quality, such as soil, water and air pollution is becoming a public concern in Malaysia as this can be expected when the country moves towards industrialisation. There are various types of * Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. E-mail: rusnani@mpob.gov.my industries that emit pollutants into the air as well as discharge wastewater or effluent into water course or land application. One of the main contributors of organic pollution is from the palm oil industry. With the increase in the number of palm oil mills in Malaysia with a total of 453 mills in 2016, the country’s economy has also increased significantly. At the same time, large volume of effluent and solid waste is also being generated.



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No. 125 (Oct - Dec 2017) p21-25
National Biodiesel Implementation in Malaysia: An Update
Nursyairah Jalil*; Harrison Lau Lik Nang; Soh Kheang Loh; Rusnani Abdul Majid; Daryl Jay Thardeus; Yung Chee Liang; Ropandi Mamat; Wan Hasamudin Wan Hassan; Puah Chiew Wei; Yahaya Hawari; Noraida Omar; Astimar Abd Aziz and Lim Weng Soon

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National Biodiesel Implementation in Malaysia: An Update

Biodiesel is considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels for the transportation sector, replacing conventional diesel fuels. The use of biodiesel is aimed at addressing concerns over dependency on fossil fuel linked to global warming/climate change caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the transportation sector.



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No. 125 (Oct - Dec 2017) p11-13
Proven Mill Innovations - 1: Boiler Draught Control System Improvement
Gopinathan Krishnan

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Proven Mill Innovations - 1: Boiler Draught Control System Improvement

The conventional boiler combustion draught system provides the mass of air for burning the fuel. It is a balanced draught design which comprises a forced draught (FD) fan pushing the combustion air under the grate and induced draught (ID) fan drawing the flue gas away from the combustion chamber. The over-fire system consists of a secondary air (SA) fan to induce turbulence for optimising the combustion and fuel feeder (FF) to force the fuel into the furnace through the feeder chutes and spread evenly on the grate.



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No.124 (Jul-Sept 2017) p57
Datasheet
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No.124 (Jul-Sept 2017) p35-40
Novel Bioflocculant from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) and its Potential Application
Nurul Adela Bukhari*; Nasrin Abu Bakar* and Loh Soh Kheang*

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Novel Bioflocculant from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) and its Potential Application

High valued biochemicals can be harnessed from palm oil mill effluent (POME) via microbial process apart from bioenergy e.g. methane or hydrogen. The potential pollution source of POME can be transformed into business opportunities by recovering and utilising the readily available nutrients for microbial fermentation into various bio-products. This bioconversion pathway makes use of the nutrient rich organic residues in POME as a substrate for specific microorganisms to consume and grow while concurrently produce biomass and some of the targeted bio-products. 



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No.124 (Jul-Sept 2017) p21-24
Exploring the Potential of POME Scale Deposits as an Alternative Source of Phosphorous Mineral and a Mean to Save the Environment
Muzzammil, N*; Mohammed Saedi, J**; Mohd Rushdi, A B; Vijaya, S* and Loh, S K*

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Exploring the Potential of POME Scale Deposits as an Alternative Source of Phosphorous Mineral and a Mean to Save the Environment

Palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment, like many other wastewater facilities, is prone to formation of scale in its pipelines, tanks, diffusers or any other components exposed to it. The scale could also start depositing in early stages in pipes associated with retention ponds of the facility. Over a period of time, some crystals or scale could grow within the pipes and thus affect the performance of the facility. In this case, an experienced operator would notice the diminishing diameter of the diameter of the pipes due to hardened crystals attached at its inner wall, thus reducing the effective flow rate of the pipe in the facility. When the flow rate decreases, the tendencies are: (1) increased risk of clogging, (2) reduced time for filling the related tanks or clarifier and (3) an increased hydraulic retention time (HRT) affecting the whole efficiency of the treatment system. In a worst-case scenario, the operator would have to replace the clogged components which is definitely are time-consuming and costly involving even major shutdown of the facility.



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