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No. 120 (Jul - Sept 2016) p51
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No. 120 (Jul - Sept 2016) p23-26
Co-firing of Biogas in Palm Oil Mill Biomass Boilers
Nasrin Abu Bakar*; Lim Weng Soon*; Mohamad Azri Sukiran*; Loh Soh Kheang* and Nurul Adela Bukhari*

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Co-firing of Biogas in Palm Oil Mill Biomass Boilers

Biogas is a gaseous by-product generated from anaerobic digestion (AD) of palm oil mill effluent (POME). As a renewable energy resource, one of the commercial uses of biogas in the Malaysian palm oil industry is as a supplementary fuel in biomass boilers. This approach adopts a co-firing concept, offers an immediate and low-cost investment option for a direct and clean conversion of biogas to steam and electricity via an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant available at palm oil mills (Nasrin et al. 2014 and Loh et al., 2014). Biogas is added as a partial substitute fuel in oil palm biomass boilers.



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No. 120 (Jul - Sept 2016) p17-21
Maximising Biomass and Biogas Renewable Energy Utilisation in Keck Seng’s Integrated Palm Oil Mill and Downstream Industry Complex
Tong, S L*’; Chua, T N ** and Chua, N S**

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Maximising Biomass and Biogas Renewable Energy Utilisation in Keck Seng’s Integrated Palm Oil Mill and Downstream Industry Complex

Keck Seng (Malaysia) Berhad, (KS) operates an integrated palm oil mill complex located in Masai, Johor. The complex consists of a palm oil mill, kernel crushing plant, palm oil refinery and other plants for downstream activities since early 1970s. The company has a farsighted vision to maximise the use of inhouse renewable energy (RE) sources, so that a large part of the very high energy demand by the whole complex can be met in a most cost-effective and environmentally sustainable manner.



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No. 120 (Jul - Sept 2016) p11-14
MPOB-BEE High Efficient Methane Fermentation System for Electricity Generation
Loh Soh Kheang*; Lynda Dazhi Lian** and Mohamad Azri Sukiran*

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MPOB-BEE High Efficient Methane Fermentation System for Electricity Generation

Biogas Environmental Engineering Sdn Bhd (BEE) is a company engaged and specialised in research, engineering design, construction and management of methane renewable energy development and environmental protection. The company’s core business is utilisation of anaerobic digestion technology to process industrial organic waste water from food and beverage industries, concentrated animal farm operations and palm oil mills.



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No. 119 (Apr - Jun 2016) p59
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No. 119 (Apr - Jun 2016) p19-26
Rapid Composting of Oil Palm Biomass by using Aerobic Thermophilic Composter
Nahrul Hayawin, Z*; Astimar, A A*; Ropandi, M*; Nor Faizah, J* and Hamid, F A*

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Rapid Composting of Oil Palm Biomass by using Aerobic Thermophilic Composter

evelopment of a suitable technology for rapid composting of oil palm biomass, especially the abundant empty fruit bunch (EFB) from palm oil mills is very crucial for the industry in order to make composting viable and effective for easy evacuation. Many parameters are involved for the success of rapid composting, and one of the real challenge is to ensure the sustainability of the indigenous composting micro-organisms. In order to pursue this research within the narrow spectrum of limited supporting facilities composting time and quality of compost formed from EFB, palm oil mill effluent (POME) and decanter cake had to be subjected to a thorough investigation using a large scale aerobic thermophilic composter. The compost mixtures were conducted in a 1.7 m x 1.6 m x 3.3 m stainless steel aerobic thermophilic composting reactor. The raw composting mixture having a wet weight of 80 kg per batch were placed in the reactor. Results indicated that the composting period of EFB with decanter cake can be shortened to three weeks. The mean temperature profile of Run I was marginally higher than Run II (with POME) by 3ºC- 7ºC but the moisture content showed marked increase ranging between 17%-50%. The C:N ratio of the final compost the Run was 12.09 within a period of three weeks. Therefore, our results suggest that it would be possible to accelerate the compost production using aerobic thermophilic composter for the oil palm industry as a sustainable option for managing the oil palm biomass without requiring an additional maturation stage.



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No. 119 (Apr - Jun 2016) p11-16
Development of Technologies for the Carbonisation of Palm Kernel Shells
Astimar, A A*; Ropandi, M M*; Nahrul Hayawin, Z*; Fazliana, A W* and Norfaizah, J*

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Development of Technologies for the Carbonisation of Palm Kernel Shells

ctivated carbon (AC) is widely used as an adsorbent in the treatment of liquids and gases. Many industries such as pharmaceutical, gold mining, petroleum, nuclear, water treatment, food and beverages frequently use activated carbon in their processing units. For the oil palm mills, the AC can be used as material for the polishing of palm oil mill effluent (POME), especially now with the introduction of more stringent regulations that demands the BOD level of less than 20 ppm on the final POME discharged into the water courses. The important stages in the manufacture of activated carbon are the carbonisation (production of charcoal) and its activation (production of activated carbon). Most of the AC industry in Malaysia are using charcoal made from coconut shell, and the charcoal is obtained from local suppliers or imported. It is only a handful which are involved in the production of AC from oil palm biomass (specifically palm kernel shells), due to shortage of charcoal supply and the claims of the low quality of charcoal. The crucial processing stage in the production of AC is the carbonisation process, and MPOB has developed four carbonisation systems, namely; i) Hollow Plinth Brick System, ii) Closed Dome System, iii) Continuous System and iv) Microwave System. Each of these system have its own specialty features. In order to achieve sustainable production of charcoal, selection of an environmental friendly and economically viable process is crucial. With the increasing demand of charcoal for new applications, especially in the bio-energy and soil remediation agent for agricultural sectors, this carbonisation sector would eventually take it to a bright future as it could end up in the future as a reliable source of income for the millers.



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No. 118 (Jan - Mar 2016) p48
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No. 118 (Jan - Mar 2016) p21-24
Technology Improvement in Sterilisation
Quah Ban Lee

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Technology Improvement in Sterilisation

Mill processing concepts to improve the oil yield as well as its quality have always been the prime objective of the millers as most of the changes focused on an increase in profit. The present focus seems to be shifting away from the profit oriented culture to one of environment protection.



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No. 118 (Jan - Mar 2016) p11-19
Heat Pipe Technology for Economiser and Air Preheater
Harry Chua

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Heat Pipe Technology for Economiser and Air Preheater

Heat recovery can take many different forms. In general terms, it can be classified as direct recovery, indirect recovery and secondary recovery. Direct recovery refers to the use of flue gas, which is a combination of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen generated by the combustion process in an incinerator or boiler, to preheat or dry products directly. Indirect recovery takes place when flue gas is used to preheat combustion air or fuel. Secondary recovery utilises the waste heat to preheat an external medium or to generate power.



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