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No.130 (Jan - Mar 2019) p40-44
Benefits of Using Near Infrared Analysis in Palm Oil Mills for Quality Control – An IOI Experience
Chu Ket Pin*; Natasha Koh Siew Hung*; Ooi Yee Khai** and Teo Wei Boon**

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Benefits of Using Near Infrared Analysis in Palm Oil Mills for Quality Control – An IOI Experience

The palm oil industry is an important pillar of the economy in some ASEAN countries, with huge acreage devoted to the planting of this high oil yielding crop. The total acreage under palm oil cultivation in 2017, has reached almost 5.77 million hectares, 11.90 million hectares and 0.75 million hectares in Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand respectively. There is a huge number of crude palm oil (CPO) extraction mills and refineries constructed to extract and refine the palm oil. It has been a constant drive for the industry to enhance the oil extraction process efficiency in the mills and refineries.



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No.130 (Jan - Mar 2019) p18-26
Screw Press Operation Optimisation for Oil and Kernel Recovery Enhancement
Yosri, M S*; Syahril Anuar, M R*; Nik Suhaimi, M H*; Muhammad Zaidy, A*; Mohammed Faisal, M Y* and Ahmad Jaril, A*

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Screw Press Operation Optimisation for Oil and Kernel Recovery Enhancement

Pressing operation is an interesting subject of discussion as it involves two crucial process losses parameters namely, oil loss and broken nuts. Though zero loss in palm oil milling is impossible, this does not mean that effort should not be given to find ways in reducing it even though the losses is already within specification. It must be noted that higher process losses will lead to higher operating cost and eventually be used as indicator that the processing is not being carried out efficiently. Digester operation, main screw speed, pressure cone setting and maintenance are among the crucial factors that affect the pressing operation. In addition to that, operator’s effort and his responsiveness on mash and crop condition are crucial for achieving good press operation. This article reviews few variables that affect the screw press operation performance.



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No.130 (Jan - Mar 2019) p13-17
MPOB Commitment Towards Clean Air Regulatory Compliance
Rohaya Mohamed Halim* and Astimar Abdul Aziz*

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MPOB Commitment Towards Clean Air Regulatory Compliance

The Department of Environment (DOE) has gazetted a new Environment Quality Act (Clean Air) Regulation on 4 June 2014 covering various sectors of industries. This new regulation has direct impact on palm oil mills, particularly under the clause which requires particulate matter (PM) emission level to be less than 150 mg m-3. While many mills are still struggling to meet the current emission level of 400 mg m-3 consistently, this new regulation becomes a great challenge to those mills processing biomass (100% fibre and shell) as boiler fuel instead of using non-renewable energy sources. The period for palm oil mills to comply with the new regulation mandate is approaching, which is 3 June 2019. However, air pollution control systems (APCS), such as wet scrubber, bag filter, electro static precipitator (ESP) and multi cyclone system (Vorsep), which claimed to be capable of treating the particulate emission have yet to be verified and those systems are very subjective to different palm oil mill processing. Starting from 2014, MPOB has been actively communicating and engaging with DOE in resolving all environmental issues which covered survey, technology verification and negotiation. In relation to clean air regulation, MPOB has negotiated with DOE in revising the regulations implementation. This article highlights the effort and commitment by MPOB towards clean air regulatory compliance.



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No. 129 (Oct - Dec 2018) p54
Datasheet
Ir Ravi Manon*

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Datasheet

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No. 129 (Oct - Dec 2018) p42-49
Review on Technologies Advancement for Particulate Emission Reduction in Palm Oil Mill
Yahaya Hawari*; Rohaya Mohamed Halim* and Astimar Abdul Aziz*

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Review on Technologies Advancement for Particulate Emission Reduction in Palm Oil Mill

The Malaysian palm oil industry is a large sector contributing to the economic growth of the country. As the world’s second largest palm oil producer with millions of hectares of plantations, approximately 20 million tonnes of crude palm oil (CPO) was produced in 2014 from 439 palm oil mills (MPOB, 2014). As a result, the palm oil industry is identified as a major contributor to water and air pollution. The sources of air pollution in the palm oil mills are mainly from boilers using fibres and shells as fuel, and incinerators burning empty fruit bunches (Abdullah et al., 2007).



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No. 129 (Oct - Dec 2018) p27-40
Physico-chemical Treatment of Oil Palm Biomass into Applicable Feedstock
Fatiha Ismail*; Noorshamsiana Abdul Wahab*; Nur Eliyanti Ali Othman* and Astimar Abdul Aziz*

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Physico-chemical Treatment of Oil Palm Biomass into Applicable Feedstock

The depletion of fossil fuels and natural raw materials has encouraged the search for new resource materials for the production of bio-based materials (Alekhina et al., 2014). Oil palm biomass (OPB) is classified as lignocellulosic residues comprised mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in their cell walls (Raveendran et al., 1995). This lignocellulosic material can be converted into valuable feedstock for the production of biosugar, biocompost, biochemical and bioethanol. Due to the lignocellulosic nature of OPB, countless research and development activities were undertaken by various agencies in order to improve the transformation of OPB into more valuable substrate for producing a variety of chemicals that will have huge potential in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The chemical constituents in OPB varied considerably due to their diverse origins and types (Chew and Bhatia, 2008). The chemical composition of different OPB is shown in Table 1.



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No. 129 (Oct - Dec 2018) p11-17
Content and Quality Characteristics of Oil Obtained Under Different Treatment at Various Palm Fruits Ripeness
Nurul Hasimah Kasmin*, **; Azwan Mat Lazim* and Roila Awang**

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Content and Quality Characteristics of Oil Obtained Under Different Treatment at Various Palm Fruits Ripeness

This study evaluates the chemical changes that occur as oil palm fruits ripen in the bunch in terms of changes in oil content, chemical composition of fatty acid (FA), free fatty acid (FFA), deterioration of bleachability index (DOBI) and carotenes content. Oil was extracted from fruits with different ripeness, using different extraction techniques. It was found that oil content infruit increased over the ripening period, reaching the maximum oil content of 34.7% in ripe fruit which can be related to the optimal time for fruit harvesting based on colour. Results showed that the main changes in FA occurred in terms of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids content. Meanwhile, FFA, DOBI and carotenes content increased as oil palm fruits ripen and the value remained nearly constant.



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No. 128 (Jul - Sept 2018) p51-57
Crude Palm Oil De-Chlorination
Andrew Yap Kian Chung*

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Crude Palm Oil De-Chlorination

High concentrations of 3-monochloro- 1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) were found in refined, bleached and deodorised (RBD) palm oil recently, implying that the level in edible oil consumption will exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.8 μg kg-1 body weight as determined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2016). A study showed that the reaction prerequisites for ester formation are the presence of fatty acids and ionic-bound chlorine. Although fatty acids neutralisation is an effective oil purification method, various technologies have been introduced to address the de-chlorination issue in crude palm oil so that the MCPD ester content in palm oil meets the European and the American market requirements which are currently below 2 mg kg-1, and a further reduction to 0.5 ppm has been proposed.



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No. 128 (Jul - Sept 2018) p40-45
Engine Testing using B10 Diesel: A case study by Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL)
Nursyairah Jalil*; Harrison Lau Lik Nang*; Rusnani Abdul Majid*; Ropandi Mamat*; Daryl Jay Thardeus*; Yung Chee Liang*; Wan Hasamudin Wan Hassan*; Yahaya Hawari*; Noraida Omar*; Astimar Abd Aziz* and Muhammad Alif Muhamad Noor**

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Engine Testing using B10 Diesel: A case study by Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL)

The Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL), an agency under the Ministry of Federal Territories has been involved in the National Biodiesel Programme since February 2009. The first collaboration on biodiesel fuel between the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) and DBKL was to use B5 diesel for the whole DBKL diesel fleet. B5 is a blend of 5% palm biodiesel with 95% petroleum diesel. The successful implementation of the B5 project with DBKL has supported the government to implement B5 program nationwide in phases for transportation and other subsidised sectors beginning in 2011. To further increase the biodiesel blending ratio in diesel, the government had then upgraded B5 to B7 programme since January 2015. So far, no technical complaints were received.



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No. 128 (Jul - Sept 2018) p27-32
Microalgae Cultivation In Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)
Nur Azreena Idris*; Soh Kheang Loh* and Harrison Lik Nang Lau*

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Microalgae Cultivation In Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

Developing alternative fuels is an essential step towards solving fossil fuels issues such as fuel cost and pollution. Microalgae can be a promising feedstock for alternative fuel as it is fast growing and easily cultivated. Exploring wastewater such as palm oil mill effluent (POME) for feasible microalgae cultivation is essential as POME is abundantly available from palm oil milling activities. The high content of nutrients in POME makes it a potential microalgae growth medium. This study demonstrated that a microalgae species, i.e. Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 can grow at a specific growth rate of 0.39 day-1 and produce 0.14 mg biomass litre day-1 in POME outdoor conditions. The extracted algal oil showed 48.9% saturated fatty acids and 51.1% unsaturated fatty acids equivalent to palm oil as a biodiesel feedstock.



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