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No.124 (Jul-Sept 2017) p11-15
Mitigation for 3-MCPD Esters at Palm Oil Mills
Nuzul Amri Ibrahim* and N Ravi Menon*

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Mitigation for 3-MCPD Esters at Palm Oil Mills

This article was specially prepared by MPOB scientists to communicate the concern on food safety associated with the 3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) esters contamination of  defined palm oil to palm oil millers. Although the contamination is hardly seen in crude palm oil (CPO), its significant presence in refined palm oil is a cause for concern not only for the refinery but also for palm oil mills. This is because the chloride that is reported to be responsible for the formation of the contaminant 3-MPCD esters in the refined palm oil appears to be a strong contender and one of its sources can be traced to the process water used in the mills. Acidity has also been proven as a precursor for the formation of the esters where higher level of the esters was formed
in acidic condition.



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No. 123 (Apr - Jun 2017) p63
Datasheet - Components of Bunch with Different Fruit Sizes
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Datasheet - Components of Bunch with Different Fruit Sizes

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No. 123 (Apr - Jun 2017) p27-30
Bio-based 1,3-propanediol Production from Crude Glycerol
Stasha Eleanor Rosland Abel* and Soh Kheang Loh*

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Bio-based 1,3-propanediol Production from Crude Glycerol

Biodiesel, an environmental-friendly and renewable fuel has gained market share and popularity as an alternative to fossil fuel. The utilisation of glycerol for the synthesis of value-added  chemicals is a topic of great industrial interest because the rapid growth of the biodiesel industry has thus generated an excess of waste glycerol. This occurrence is unavoidable due to its  restricted application owing to the presence of impurities. Its natural disposal in the environment is prohibited but at the same time it is costly to store and process this into its pure form. The triglyceride backbone of glycerol can serve as a natural metabolite for biological functions in many cells and has potential to be degraded into high value-added smaller molecules. We found a newly isolated 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) producer from palm oil mill effluent (POME) which was capable of fermenting crude glycerol into 1,3-PD (5.28 g litre-1) along with by-products, butanol (0.34 g litre-1) and acetone (0.31 g litre-1) after 48 hr of incubation at 30°C in medium enriched with crude glycerol at 150 rpm. The strain, namely Kluyvera cryocrescens has the potential to be used in the bioprocess of interest in the future. 



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No. 123 (Apr - Jun 2017) p21-26
Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Biomass to Multiple Fuels and Products: Experiences of MPOB
Mohamad Azri Sukiran*; Soh Kheang Loh* and Nasrin Abu Bakar*

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Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Biomass to Multiple Fuels and Products: Experiences of MPOB

Energy has always played an important role, be it for survival or the continued development of mankind. Biomass has long been utilised in supplying energy since the beginning of civilisation and still so in prospering the economies of developing countries. It has received renewed attention recently mainly as a consequence of high and volatile oil prices and climate change caused by increased fossil fuel consumption. The focus now is on producing biomass energy as an alternative renewable energy source using matured and readily applicable conversion technologies. Oil palm biomass from the Malaysian palm oil industry poses great potential for energy application, which is abundantly available from the palm oil milling activities (e.g. empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fibres) and oil palm pruning/replanting activities from the plantations (e.g. oil palm frond (OPF) and oil palm trunk (OPT)). Thus, oil palm biomass is advantageous to be converted into useful and profitable bioproducts (e.g. fuel, chemical and material).



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No. 123 (Apr - Jun 2017) p11-17
Possible Changes in Milling Technology
N Ravi Menon

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Possible Changes in Milling Technology

This article is an updated version of an article that was published in Palm Oil Engineering Bulletin issue No. 49 and probably could motivate the millers to think about changes would be welcomed to the industry. We will start with the digester as sterilisers, that seem to have been under the lime light for some time now.



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No. 122 (Jan - Mar 2017) p63
Datasheet - Approximate Fuel Consumption - Diesel Genset
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Datasheet - Approximate Fuel Consumption - Diesel Genset

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No. 122 (Jan - Mar 2017) p43-45
Premium Oil Segregation using Near-Infrared (NIR) Online System
Fatah Yah Abd Manaf*; Andrew Yap Kian Chung* and Muhammad Zaid Yasir*

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Premium Oil Segregation using Near-Infrared (NIR) Online System

The importance of monitoring crude palm oil (CPO) quality cannot be overemphasised when we consider the fact that good-quality refined oils must be produced from high quality CPO. Commonly the quality of crude palm oil is determined by several parameters such as the deterioration of bleach ability index (DOBI), iodine value (IV), moisture content, free fatty acid (FFA) and carotene content. The FFA content in crude palm oil is the most important because it affects the market price. Arising from the high demand in the palm oil industry market nowadays, the trend to produce crude palm oil with low (<1.5%) FFA has increased among the millers as it commands a premium price being recognised as a high quality food grade product. Great effort has been put up to improve the quality of palm oil including the determination and reduction of free fatty acids in palm oil.



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No. 122 (Jan - Mar 2017) p29-30, 37-41
Waste Minimisation for Palm Oil Mills: A Case Study
Ropandi Mamat*; Astimar Abdul Aziz* and Rohaya Mohamed Halim*

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Waste Minimisation for Palm Oil Mills: A Case Study

The Malaysian palm oil industry has been growing steadily during the past few decades establishing a prominent place in the economy of the nation. In 2014, the land under oil palm cultivation was about 5.39 million hectares in Malaysia with 443 palm oil mills in operation (MPOB Statistics, 2015). The production of crude palm oil (CPO) was 19.96 million tonnes in 2015, contributing to more than 33.15% of the world production of palm oil. However, the production of palm oil also generated a large amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME) at the average production rate of 0.67 t-1 FFB processed. Based on the crude palm oil production in 2015, the volume of POME generated was about 99.51 million tonnes. The POME originated from three sources; 1) steriliser condensate, 2) separator sludge or sludge centrifuge, and 3) hydro cyclone wastewater or clay bath used for cracked mixture separation (kernel separation).



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No. 122 (Jan - Mar 2017) p11-24
Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell using a Novel 5-Stage Winnowing Column System
Rohaya Mohamed Halim*; Ridzuan Ramli*; Che Rahmat Che Mat*; Choo Yuen May*; Nasrin Abu Bakar*; Nu’man Abdul Hadi* and N Ravi Menon*

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Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell using a Novel 5-Stage Winnowing Column System

Palm fruit of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) contains mesocarp and palm kernel, the latter contributing 45-48 wt% of the total fruit. The kernel contains ca. 45%-50% kernel oil, which is rich in lauric acid C12 (45%-52%), myristic acid C14 (15%-17%) and oleic acid C18:1 (13%-19%). Palm kernel oil is widely used in food applications, including the production of margarine, confectionary fat, shortening and vegetable ghee. Furthermore, research and development have made it possible for the palm kernel oil to be used in non-food lipid sources for the production of bioresin, lubricants, chelating agents for metal extraction and other important chemicals.



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No. 121 (Oct - Dec 2016) p55
Datasheet - Material Balance for Processing 100 t Fresh Fruit Bunches
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Datasheet - Material Balance for Processing 100 t Fresh Fruit Bunches

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