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LIST OF ARTICLES

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No. 125 (Oct - Dec 2017) p21-25
National Biodiesel Implementation in Malaysia: An Update
Nursyairah Jalil*; Harrison Lau Lik Nang; Soh Kheang Loh; Rusnani Abdul Majid; Daryl Jay Thardeus; Yung Chee Liang; Ropandi Mamat; Wan Hasamudin Wan Hassan; Puah Chiew Wei; Yahaya Hawari; Noraida Omar; Astimar Abd Aziz and Lim Weng Soon

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National Biodiesel Implementation in Malaysia: An Update

Biodiesel is considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels for the transportation sector, replacing conventional diesel fuels. The use of biodiesel is aimed at addressing concerns over dependency on fossil fuel linked to global warming/climate change caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the transportation sector.



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No. 125 (Oct - Dec 2017) p11-13
Proven Mill Innovations - 1: Boiler Draught Control System Improvement
Gopinathan Krishnan

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Proven Mill Innovations - 1: Boiler Draught Control System Improvement

The conventional boiler combustion draught system provides the mass of air for burning the fuel. It is a balanced draught design which comprises a forced draught (FD) fan pushing the combustion air under the grate and induced draught (ID) fan drawing the flue gas away from the combustion chamber. The over-fire system consists of a secondary air (SA) fan to induce turbulence for optimising the combustion and fuel feeder (FF) to force the fuel into the furnace through the feeder chutes and spread evenly on the grate.



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No.124 (Jul-Sept 2017) p57
Datasheet
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Datasheet

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No.124 (Jul-Sept 2017) p35-40
Novel Bioflocculant from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) and its Potential Application
Nurul Adela Bukhari*; Nasrin Abu Bakar* and Loh Soh Kheang*

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Novel Bioflocculant from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) and its Potential Application

High valued biochemicals can be harnessed from palm oil mill effluent (POME) via microbial process apart from bioenergy e.g. methane or hydrogen. The potential pollution source of POME can be transformed into business opportunities by recovering and utilising the readily available nutrients for microbial fermentation into various bio-products. This bioconversion pathway makes use of the nutrient rich organic residues in POME as a substrate for specific microorganisms to consume and grow while concurrently produce biomass and some of the targeted bio-products. 



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No.124 (Jul-Sept 2017) p21-24
Exploring the Potential of POME Scale Deposits as an Alternative Source of Phosphorous Mineral and a Mean to Save the Environment
Muzzammil, N*; Mohammed Saedi, J**; Mohd Rushdi, A B; Vijaya, S* and Loh, S K*

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Exploring the Potential of POME Scale Deposits as an Alternative Source of Phosphorous Mineral and a Mean to Save the Environment

Palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment, like many other wastewater facilities, is prone to formation of scale in its pipelines, tanks, diffusers or any other components exposed to it. The scale could also start depositing in early stages in pipes associated with retention ponds of the facility. Over a period of time, some crystals or scale could grow within the pipes and thus affect the performance of the facility. In this case, an experienced operator would notice the diminishing diameter of the diameter of the pipes due to hardened crystals attached at its inner wall, thus reducing the effective flow rate of the pipe in the facility. When the flow rate decreases, the tendencies are: (1) increased risk of clogging, (2) reduced time for filling the related tanks or clarifier and (3) an increased hydraulic retention time (HRT) affecting the whole efficiency of the treatment system. In a worst-case scenario, the operator would have to replace the clogged components which is definitely are time-consuming and costly involving even major shutdown of the facility.



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No.124 (Jul-Sept 2017) p11-15
Mitigation for 3-MCPD Esters at Palm Oil Mills
Nuzul Amri Ibrahim* and N Ravi Menon*

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Mitigation for 3-MCPD Esters at Palm Oil Mills

This article was specially prepared by MPOB scientists to communicate the concern on food safety associated with the 3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) esters contamination of  defined palm oil to palm oil millers. Although the contamination is hardly seen in crude palm oil (CPO), its significant presence in refined palm oil is a cause for concern not only for the refinery but also for palm oil mills. This is because the chloride that is reported to be responsible for the formation of the contaminant 3-MPCD esters in the refined palm oil appears to be a strong contender and one of its sources can be traced to the process water used in the mills. Acidity has also been proven as a precursor for the formation of the esters where higher level of the esters was formed
in acidic condition.



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No. 123 (Apr - Jun 2017) p63
Datasheet - Components of Bunch with Different Fruit Sizes
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Datasheet - Components of Bunch with Different Fruit Sizes

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No. 123 (Apr - Jun 2017) p27-30
Bio-based 1,3-propanediol Production from Crude Glycerol
Stasha Eleanor Rosland Abel* and Soh Kheang Loh*

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Bio-based 1,3-propanediol Production from Crude Glycerol

Biodiesel, an environmental-friendly and renewable fuel has gained market share and popularity as an alternative to fossil fuel. The utilisation of glycerol for the synthesis of value-added  chemicals is a topic of great industrial interest because the rapid growth of the biodiesel industry has thus generated an excess of waste glycerol. This occurrence is unavoidable due to its  restricted application owing to the presence of impurities. Its natural disposal in the environment is prohibited but at the same time it is costly to store and process this into its pure form. The triglyceride backbone of glycerol can serve as a natural metabolite for biological functions in many cells and has potential to be degraded into high value-added smaller molecules. We found a newly isolated 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) producer from palm oil mill effluent (POME) which was capable of fermenting crude glycerol into 1,3-PD (5.28 g litre-1) along with by-products, butanol (0.34 g litre-1) and acetone (0.31 g litre-1) after 48 hr of incubation at 30°C in medium enriched with crude glycerol at 150 rpm. The strain, namely Kluyvera cryocrescens has the potential to be used in the bioprocess of interest in the future. 



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No. 123 (Apr - Jun 2017) p21-26
Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Biomass to Multiple Fuels and Products: Experiences of MPOB
Mohamad Azri Sukiran*; Soh Kheang Loh* and Nasrin Abu Bakar*

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Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Biomass to Multiple Fuels and Products: Experiences of MPOB

Energy has always played an important role, be it for survival or the continued development of mankind. Biomass has long been utilised in supplying energy since the beginning of civilisation and still so in prospering the economies of developing countries. It has received renewed attention recently mainly as a consequence of high and volatile oil prices and climate change caused by increased fossil fuel consumption. The focus now is on producing biomass energy as an alternative renewable energy source using matured and readily applicable conversion technologies. Oil palm biomass from the Malaysian palm oil industry poses great potential for energy application, which is abundantly available from the palm oil milling activities (e.g. empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fibres) and oil palm pruning/replanting activities from the plantations (e.g. oil palm frond (OPF) and oil palm trunk (OPT)). Thus, oil palm biomass is advantageous to be converted into useful and profitable bioproducts (e.g. fuel, chemical and material).



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No. 123 (Apr - Jun 2017) p11-17
Possible Changes in Milling Technology
N Ravi Menon

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Possible Changes in Milling Technology

This article is an updated version of an article that was published in Palm Oil Engineering Bulletin issue No. 49 and probably could motivate the millers to think about changes would be welcomed to the industry. We will start with the digester as sterilisers, that seem to have been under the lime light for some time now.



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