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No. 122 (Jan - Mar 2017) p29-30, 37-41
Waste Minimisation for Palm Oil Mills: A Case Study
Ropandi Mamat*; Astimar Abdul Aziz* and Rohaya Mohamed Halim*

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Waste Minimisation for Palm Oil Mills: A Case Study

The Malaysian palm oil industry has been growing steadily during the past few decades establishing a prominent place in the economy of the nation. In 2014, the land under oil palm cultivation was about 5.39 million hectares in Malaysia with 443 palm oil mills in operation (MPOB Statistics, 2015). The production of crude palm oil (CPO) was 19.96 million tonnes in 2015, contributing to more than 33.15% of the world production of palm oil. However, the production of palm oil also generated a large amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME) at the average production rate of 0.67 t-1 FFB processed. Based on the crude palm oil production in 2015, the volume of POME generated was about 99.51 million tonnes. The POME originated from three sources; 1) steriliser condensate, 2) separator sludge or sludge centrifuge, and 3) hydro cyclone wastewater or clay bath used for cracked mixture separation (kernel separation).



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No. 122 (Jan - Mar 2017) p11-24
Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell using a Novel 5-Stage Winnowing Column System
Rohaya Mohamed Halim*; Ridzuan Ramli*; Che Rahmat Che Mat*; Choo Yuen May*; Nasrin Abu Bakar*; Nu’man Abdul Hadi* and N Ravi Menon*

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Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell using a Novel 5-Stage Winnowing Column System

Palm fruit of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) contains mesocarp and palm kernel, the latter contributing 45-48 wt% of the total fruit. The kernel contains ca. 45%-50% kernel oil, which is rich in lauric acid C12 (45%-52%), myristic acid C14 (15%-17%) and oleic acid C18:1 (13%-19%). Palm kernel oil is widely used in food applications, including the production of margarine, confectionary fat, shortening and vegetable ghee. Furthermore, research and development have made it possible for the palm kernel oil to be used in non-food lipid sources for the production of bioresin, lubricants, chelating agents for metal extraction and other important chemicals.



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No. 121 (Oct - Dec 2016) p55
Datasheet - Material Balance for Processing 100 t Fresh Fruit Bunches
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Datasheet - Material Balance for Processing 100 t Fresh Fruit Bunches

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No. 121 (Oct - Dec 2016) p23-27
Benefits of Using Fourier-Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) Spectroscopy for the Palm Oil Industry
Sirinnapa (Mui) Saranwong* and Dagmar Behmer*

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Benefits of Using Fourier-Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) Spectroscopy for the Palm Oil Industry

In the palm oil industry, various methods used for the control of product quality are of interest. The palm kernels sold to the kernel crushing factory should strictly adhere to the sales specifications of kernel mentioned in the sales agreement that stipulates the minimum allowable contamination of dirt and moisture in the kernel consignment. After crushing the kernel to extract the kernel oil, the residue called expeller is analysed for the residual oil and contaminant content. The percentage residual oil content in the expeller will give the extraction  fficiency of the kernel extraction plant. The production kernel oil also undergoes analyses as it also has to meet the sales specifications on quality. Similar analysis is also conducted by the kernel oil efinery when it receives the kernel oil from the kernel crushers. Currently, all the important tests to monitor product quality in the palm oil mills, refineries, kernel crushing plants and kernel oil refineries are carried out using lengthy procedures. This can be a set-back for timely quality control of the products as the time lag could cause the production of off-quality products for long periods. Until recently there were no instruments that could analyse the quality parameters that are critical in a continuous production line.



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No. 121 (Oct - Dec 2016) p17-20
The Importance of Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) for the Oil Palm Industry
Haryati Zainal*, Vijaya Subramaniam*, Zulkifli Hashim*, Loh Soh Kheang* and Ahmad Kushairi Din*

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The Importance of Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) for the Oil Palm Industry

Oil palm is a valuable economic crop. Its cultivation and processing provide employment to local community (Budidarsono et al., 2012; Norwana et al., 2011) and allow them to participate in the cash economy (Oxford Busninees Group, 2011). This often results in the improvement of the local infrastructure and basic social welfare services such as schools and health facilities. In some areas, the cultivation of oil palm has replaced traditional agricultural practices mainly due to the higher earning potential offered by oil palm cultivation. However, over the years the oil palm industry has been highly criticised for causing several environmental sustainability issues such as climate change, land use change,cultivation on peat, watercourse pollution, etc. MPOB has embarked on a series of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies covering the whole supply chain from cradle to grave since 2003. The whole study for the supply chain was completed in 2009 which was reviewed and endorsed by an external panel of experts. However, these LCA studies were purely environmental LCA (E-LCA) and did not touch on the other two aspects of sustainability which are the social and economy aspects. The oil palm industry is always scrutinised on its sustainability performance and so it is of utmost important to also gauge the social issues concerning the industry.



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No. 121 (Oct - Dec 2016) p11-13
Everyman’s Guide to Good Boiler Combustion
John de Kock

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Everyman’s Guide to Good Boiler Combustion

The oil palm mill boiler has been a source of both pride and disgust in the history of the palm oil industry in Malaysia. Pride is usually restricted to the first two years of a new boiler, then slowly turning to dissent as the chimney smoke change to black colour and maintenance issues start to creep in.



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No. 120 (Jul - Sept 2016) p51
Datasheet - CHARACTERISTICS OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT
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Datasheet - CHARACTERISTICS OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT

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No. 120 (Jul - Sept 2016) p23-26
Co-firing of Biogas in Palm Oil Mill Biomass Boilers
Nasrin Abu Bakar*; Lim Weng Soon*; Mohamad Azri Sukiran*; Loh Soh Kheang* and Nurul Adela Bukhari*

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Co-firing of Biogas in Palm Oil Mill Biomass Boilers

Biogas is a gaseous by-product generated from anaerobic digestion (AD) of palm oil mill effluent (POME). As a renewable energy resource, one of the commercial uses of biogas in the Malaysian palm oil industry is as a supplementary fuel in biomass boilers. This approach adopts a co-firing concept, offers an immediate and low-cost investment option for a direct and clean conversion of biogas to steam and electricity via an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant available at palm oil mills (Nasrin et al. 2014 and Loh et al., 2014). Biogas is added as a partial substitute fuel in oil palm biomass boilers.



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No. 120 (Jul - Sept 2016) p17-21
Maximising Biomass and Biogas Renewable Energy Utilisation in Keck Seng’s Integrated Palm Oil Mill and Downstream Industry Complex
Tong, S L*’; Chua, T N ** and Chua, N S**

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Maximising Biomass and Biogas Renewable Energy Utilisation in Keck Seng’s Integrated Palm Oil Mill and Downstream Industry Complex

Keck Seng (Malaysia) Berhad, (KS) operates an integrated palm oil mill complex located in Masai, Johor. The complex consists of a palm oil mill, kernel crushing plant, palm oil refinery and other plants for downstream activities since early 1970s. The company has a farsighted vision to maximise the use of inhouse renewable energy (RE) sources, so that a large part of the very high energy demand by the whole complex can be met in a most cost-effective and environmentally sustainable manner.



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No. 120 (Jul - Sept 2016) p11-14
MPOB-BEE High Efficient Methane Fermentation System for Electricity Generation
Loh Soh Kheang*; Lynda Dazhi Lian** and Mohamad Azri Sukiran*

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MPOB-BEE High Efficient Methane Fermentation System for Electricity Generation

Biogas Environmental Engineering Sdn Bhd (BEE) is a company engaged and specialised in research, engineering design, construction and management of methane renewable energy development and environmental protection. The company’s core business is utilisation of anaerobic digestion technology to process industrial organic waste water from food and beverage industries, concentrated animal farm operations and palm oil mills.



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