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LIST OF ARTICLES

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No. 118 (Jan - Mar 2016) p21-24
Technology Improvement in Sterilisation
Quah Ban Lee

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Technology Improvement in Sterilisation

Mill processing concepts to improve the oil yield as well as its quality have always been the prime objective of the millers as most of the changes focused on an increase in profit. The present focus seems to be shifting away from the profit oriented culture to one of environment protection.



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No. 118 (Jan - Mar 2016) p11-19
Heat Pipe Technology for Economiser and Air Preheater
Harry Chua

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Heat Pipe Technology for Economiser and Air Preheater

Heat recovery can take many different forms. In general terms, it can be classified as direct recovery, indirect recovery and secondary recovery. Direct recovery refers to the use of flue gas, which is a combination of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen generated by the combustion process in an incinerator or boiler, to preheat or dry products directly. Indirect recovery takes place when flue gas is used to preheat combustion air or fuel. Secondary recovery utilises the waste heat to preheat an external medium or to generate power.



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No.117 (Oct - Dec 2015) p63
Datasheet - TYPICAL SPECIFICATION OF REFINED KAOLIN (Peninsular Malaysia)
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Datasheet - TYPICAL SPECIFICATION OF REFINED KAOLIN (Peninsular Malaysia)

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No.117 (Oct - Dec 2015) p25-34
Zero Discharge using Flash Evaporation of POME at Atmospheric Conditions
Prashant Patel

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Zero Discharge using Flash Evaporation of POME at Atmospheric Conditions

One of the major unresolved issues faced by the palm oil mills is their inability to address concerns of the global community in finding a permanent solution to handle the large volumes palm oil mill effluent (POME) that the mills generate during the oil extraction process. Unlike most other oil processing industries, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the POME usually ranges from 25 000 to 28 000 mg litre-1. The relatively high volume of the POME which can vary from 65% of the fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processed in a well operated palm oil mill to even 100% of the FFB processed in some mills where its control is not given the priority it deserves. The conventional method of POME treatment practiced by most mills is based on natural degradation of the protein-rich wastewater using both anaerobic as well as aerobic bacteria in a number of large ponds. The bacteria are very active in the anaerobic digestion ponds as it generally brings down the BOD to about 5000 mg litre-1.

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No.117 (Oct - Dec 2015) p19-22
Biotec Ferti-Irrigation System for Palm Oil Mills in Colombia
Edwin Lugo* and Hector Posso*

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Biotec Ferti-Irrigation System for Palm Oil Mills in Colombia

Palm oil mills extract palm oil from the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) for human consumption as well as for producing biodiesel. Since palm oil molecules are made up of only carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, the nutrients and minerals present in the crop will remain in the by-products generated by the palm oil mills. With a proper by-products management, the mill could reduce, if not avoid totally the application of chemical fertilisation of the palms for the increased profitability and the sustainable production of palm oil. The main by-products during the FFB processing operation are empty fruit bunches (EFB) (200-220 kg t-1 of fresh FFB), mesocarp fibre (130-140 kg t-1 FFB), shell (100-110 kg t-1 FFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME)(0.7-1 m3 t-1 FFB).

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No.117 (Oct - Dec 2015) p11-17
An Integrated Anaerobic-Aerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Achieve Zero Discharge
Loh Soh Kheang*, Mee Ee Lai*, Muzzammil Ngatiman*, Lim Weng Soon* and Choo Yuen May*

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An Integrated Anaerobic-Aerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Achieve Zero Discharge

Palm oil processing operation is invariably accompanied by the discharge of a substantial amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is recognised as an environmental pollutant by the Department of Environment (DOE). The conventional practice of anaerobic digestion and the recently developed tertiary treatment technologies (aerobic) of POME are able to meet the current regulatory effluent discharge requirement of biological oxygen demand (BOD) at below 100 mg litre-1. The Malaysian palm oil processing techniques has been undergoing evolutionary changes over the past few decades and is still progressing, thus assuring the nation of healthy competiveness of the palm products in the world edible oil market.

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No.116 (July - Sept 2015) p55
Datasheet - GLIMPSES OF OIL PALM HISTORY 35 YEARS AGO
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Datasheet - GLIMPSES OF OIL PALM HISTORY 35 YEARS AGO

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No.116 (July - Sept 2015) p21-24
Evolution of Boilers in Palm Oil Mills
N Ravi Menon

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Evolution of Boilers in Palm Oil Mills

The Lancashire boiler (Figure 1) was popular in palm oil mills in the 1960s. This is a single fire tube boiler with the fumace at one end. The hot flue gases will heat the water surrounding the tube and come out of the tube and heat up the bank of super heater tubes before steaming on to the range. This boiler can take widely fluctuating steam loads as is the case in palm oil mills. The boiler is also very reliable and is rugged.

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No.116 (July - Sept 2015) p11-19
Thermodynamics Applied to Palm Oil Milling
N Ravi Menon

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Thermodynamics Applied to Palm Oil Milling

Most of the mill engineers, in particular the mechanical engineers, may be quite familiar with the engineering thermodynamics associated with the biomass fired boilers that they operate daily in a palm oil mill. The heat content in the biomass fuel expressed usually as the calorific value is transferred to the water in a boiler to generate the steam which in turn operates the steam turbine wheels when undergoing an approximate isentropic expansion. As the alternator is coupled to the turbine shaft through a gear box, it can generate electricity that is sufficient to operate all the mill machinery as well as the domestic supplies if worker’s quarters is located nearby.

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No.115 (Apr - June 2015) p53
Datasheet - APPROXIMATE DIESEL CONSUMPTION AT PARTIAL ENGINE LOADS
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Datasheet - APPROXIMATE DIESEL CONSUMPTION AT PARTIAL ENGINE LOADS

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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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