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LIST OF ARTICLES

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No.117 (Oct - Dec 2015) p19-22
Biotec Ferti-Irrigation System for Palm Oil Mills in Colombia
Edwin Lugo* and Hector Posso*

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Biotec Ferti-Irrigation System for Palm Oil Mills in Colombia

Palm oil mills extract palm oil from the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) for human consumption as well as for producing biodiesel. Since palm oil molecules are made up of only carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, the nutrients and minerals present in the crop will remain in the by-products generated by the palm oil mills. With a proper by-products management, the mill could reduce, if not avoid totally the application of chemical fertilisation of the palms for the increased profitability and the sustainable production of palm oil. The main by-products during the FFB processing operation are empty fruit bunches (EFB) (200-220 kg t-1 of fresh FFB), mesocarp fibre (130-140 kg t-1 FFB), shell (100-110 kg t-1 FFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME)(0.7-1 m3 t-1 FFB).

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No.117 (Oct - Dec 2015) p11-17
An Integrated Anaerobic-Aerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Achieve Zero Discharge
Loh Soh Kheang*, Mee Ee Lai*, Muzzammil Ngatiman*, Lim Weng Soon* and Choo Yuen May*

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An Integrated Anaerobic-Aerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Achieve Zero Discharge

Palm oil processing operation is invariably accompanied by the discharge of a substantial amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is recognised as an environmental pollutant by the Department of Environment (DOE). The conventional practice of anaerobic digestion and the recently developed tertiary treatment technologies (aerobic) of POME are able to meet the current regulatory effluent discharge requirement of biological oxygen demand (BOD) at below 100 mg litre-1. The Malaysian palm oil processing techniques has been undergoing evolutionary changes over the past few decades and is still progressing, thus assuring the nation of healthy competiveness of the palm products in the world edible oil market.

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No.116 (July - Sept 2015) p55
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No.116 (July - Sept 2015) p21-24
Evolution of Boilers in Palm Oil Mills
N Ravi Menon

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Evolution of Boilers in Palm Oil Mills

The Lancashire boiler (Figure 1) was popular in palm oil mills in the 1960s. This is a single fire tube boiler with the fumace at one end. The hot flue gases will heat the water surrounding the tube and come out of the tube and heat up the bank of super heater tubes before steaming on to the range. This boiler can take widely fluctuating steam loads as is the case in palm oil mills. The boiler is also very reliable and is rugged.

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No.116 (July - Sept 2015) p11-19
Thermodynamics Applied to Palm Oil Milling
N Ravi Menon

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Thermodynamics Applied to Palm Oil Milling

Most of the mill engineers, in particular the mechanical engineers, may be quite familiar with the engineering thermodynamics associated with the biomass fired boilers that they operate daily in a palm oil mill. The heat content in the biomass fuel expressed usually as the calorific value is transferred to the water in a boiler to generate the steam which in turn operates the steam turbine wheels when undergoing an approximate isentropic expansion. As the alternator is coupled to the turbine shaft through a gear box, it can generate electricity that is sufficient to operate all the mill machinery as well as the domestic supplies if worker’s quarters is located nearby.

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No.115 (Apr - June 2015) p53
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No.115 (Apr - June 2015) p19-22
Palm Oil Mill Innovation for Improved Efficiency, Based on Creativity and Profitability
Krishna Moorthy Palanisamy

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Palm Oil Mill Innovation for Improved Efficiency, Based on Creativity and Profitability

Can life for palm oil mill managers and engineers be (ever) made ‘easy’? Actually, yes with a solution that is both easy and simple. Just picture this managers and engineers focusing on mill processes and production matters rather than tending to persistent mill utility issues. This will lead to enriching their daily working life and enhancing the core business of their company.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILLS; OIL EXTRACTION RATE (OER) ; STERILISERS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No.115 (Apr - June 2015) p11-18
Diesel Power Plant
N Ravi Menon* and Hasliyanti Alias*

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Diesel Power Plant

Almost all palm oil mills have stand by diesel electricity generator sets (DGS). There are alternating views by mill managers on what criteria to adopt when choosing the capacities of these DGS. It is quite obvious that the mill managers did not spend enough time to analyse the requirements in more details when requesting for diesel sets for their mills. The selection of a steam power plant is relatively simple compared to DGS. Let us look at the mill requirements when the mill is not in operation. In the daytime, electricity is needed for the operation of office equipment, office and mill lighting. In the night time, the security lighting and domestic load will add on to the load. After midnight, the domestic load will drop until early morning.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILLS; DIESEL ELECTRICITY GENERATOR SETS (DGS) ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No.114 (Jan - Mar 2015) p49
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No.114 (Jan - Mar 2015) p19-26, 33-35
An Introduction to Water Footprints for Millers
N Ravi Menon

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An Introduction to Water Footprints for Millers

This article was extracted from a dialogue session between the public and Ruth Mathews and Arjen Y Hoekstra that appeared in the Wikipedia and summarised to disseminate the important message it contains to the millers. The views expressed in this article are mainly from Ruth Mathews, Executive Director and Arjen Y Hoekstra, Scientific Director of Water Footprint Network (WFN). As the original report is very lengthy, thus only selected sections were extracted for this article. The millers may have to contribute what they can to implement some of the suggestions given in this article. All of us are aware of the fact that many countries are facing water shortage but no one would have thought that Malaysia also would be one of them. People in Selangor faced the worst water shortage quite recently and that should not have happened in a country blessed with abundant rain water that recently caused the worst floods in the east coast, making thousands of people homeless.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILLS; WATER FOOTPRINTS (WF) ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
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This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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