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LIST OF ARTICLES

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Article Info

No.108 (July - Sept 2013) p21-24, 31-34
Process Review: Part 1
N Ravi Menon

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Abstract


Process Review: Part 1

Introduction: The Mongana Report can be called the treasure house of knowledge that has not been challenged by anyone yet. Most of the best milling we practice have principles descended down from the research finding of the Mongana Report or the Stork Review. This article is an abridged version of the Mongana Report plus some input from the Stork Review. The readers are urged to read the full report to gain more insight in this interesting topic. If a palm oil mill engineer wants to be an expert in milling, get hold of the Mongana Report as well as Stork Review and keep reading a number of times if needed to grasp the knowledge that is presented there. In this series of articles, we shall carry out a critical review of the processes. This is particularly needed now especially when the industry is pressurised to go modern. If modernisation is carried out without a good grasp of the fundamentals, money will be wasted on projects that will not work as the fundamentals will be missing. So articles of this nature could help innovation oriented engineers who may unknowingly plunge into expensive ventures that may end up as failures. Process Review is intended to encourage the millers to review, in depth, all our milling processes so that they may stumble upon new ways of processing. For doing that we may have to probe into some pages in history.



Keyword(s): MONGANA REPORT, ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS, OIL EXTRACTION, ENGINEERING AND PROCESSING

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Article Info

No.108 (July - Sept 2013) p11-16
Palm Oil Mill OER and Total Oil Losses
Othman Walat and Ng Say Bock

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Abstract


Palm Oil Mill OER and Total Oil Losses

The use of oil extraction rate (OER)as a tool to measure performance has created a lot of problems for the estates and mills. This is because OER on its own does not tell us where the problem is. Whenever OER is low, the estates point their fingers at the mills and vice versa. In reality, OER is in ‘no man’s land’ and both parties do not want to be held responsible for something that is not within their control. Such ‘finger-pointing’ will continue as long as OER is looked at in isolation without making any cross reference to oil losses. This article proposes the incorporation of ‘oil losses’ into the OER equation to complement the existing method of assessing estate and mill performances. Once the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are weighed in, the mill must be held responsible for all oil losses within the perimeters of the mill. The estate, on the other hand,takes ownership of ‘total oil’, which is ‘OER plus oil losses’. For the system to work, ‘all areas’ of oil losses must be quantified and subjected to regular independent checks. The focus is on oil as the same can be drawn up for kernels.



Keyword(s): -

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Article Info

No. 107 (Apr - June 2013) p35-36
Datasheet : Palm Oil Mill Carbon Dioxide Production Rate: Ready Reckoner, Chart and Equation
N Ravi Menon

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Abstract


Datasheet : Palm Oil Mill Carbon Dioxide Production Rate: Ready Reckoner, Chart and Equation

-



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Article Info

No. 107 (Apr - June 2013) p31-32
Boiler Maintenance Check List
Yeo Chai Seng

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Abstract


Boiler Maintenance Check List

-



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Article Info

No. 107 (Apr - June 2013) p29-30
Steam as a Greenhouse Gas
N Ravi Menon

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Abstract


Steam as a Greenhouse Gas

It cannot be denied that steam or cloud is a greenhouse gas (GHG). The formation of cloud and its eventual condensation is a natural process that is beneficial to humanity as it is responsible for the rain which we get. We certainly do not want to touch on that as it is beyond our capacity to interfere with nature.



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Article Info

No. 107 (Apr - June 2013) p9-18
Measuring Woes Associated with MSPO Audit Compliance
N Ravi Menon

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Abstract


Measuring Woes Associated with MSPO Audit Compliance

Measurements associated with palm oil extraction process are often categorised as some- thing difficult, if not impossible by some palm oil mill owners and its top management. They often underestimate the importance of accurate measurement of product losses in order to improve the over- all performance of the mill operation ultimately leading to improved productivity. As today’s technology has a lot to offer with the vast product line that is at our disposal to choose from, millers are in a better position than what it was a few decades ago. However, the new technologies for product quality and process efficiency do not seem to be penetrating the palm oil industry fast enough to match the rapid change that is taking place in other edible product processing plants. Any suggestions to improve the prevailing obsolete mill practices are often met with recalcitrant responses that appear to be based more for the sake of opposing rather than based on clear thinking. Even a simple suggestion to tighten the steam joints to prevent steam leakage, in essence a good milling practice, is misconstrued as imposing additional burden on the millers claiming that it will require the measurement of the leaking steam and that it is almost an impossible task. If there is steam blowing out from a lange joint, the natural thing any miller would do is to tighten the bolts on the lange coupling. There is no necessity to quantify the steam that has blown out. No miller would like to produce the steam and allow it to leak not because it will increase the greenhouse gas (GHG) and cost of production. The focal point is why produce something and waste it. In this article, an attempt is made to disseminate to the industry some of the com- mon-sense approaches to regulate wastage of resource materials. Some simple measuring techniques are also recommended for quantifying essential by-products and losses for improving the overall milling efficiency.



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Article Info

No.106 (Jan - Mar 2013) p35
Datasheet
-

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Abstract


Datasheet

- Physical properties of crude palm oil - Other relevant physical properties - Apparent densities for refinded, bleached and deodorised palm oil



Keyword(s): CRUDE PALM OIL; RBD PALM OIL; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

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Article Info

No.106 (Jan - Mar 2013) p27-30
Palm Oil Processing in Brazil: How It is Managed?
Ma Ah Ngan

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Abstract


Palm Oil Processing in Brazil: How It is Managed?

This is an interesting article about the way palm oil processing was carried out in Brazil. Malaysian millers will certainly gain some insight by reading this article. This article is a summary of the findings of a team of research officers from the then Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (PORIM) who visited a palm oil mill in Brazil in August 1997 to study their method of palm oil milling. It was compiled by Dr Ma Ah Ngan who was part of the team and was published in 1977. Mr Hararld Brunckhorst, Managing Director of AGROPALMA S/A, arranged the visit. The mill, Agropalma S/A, located at Belem, Brazil was a 100% Brazilian own corporation. It owned some 45 000 ha of land but only allowed to plant 16 000 ha with oil palm, 2000 ha for infrastructure, which includes two palm oil mills, laboratories, offices, a school and health-assistance units, while the rest are preserved as forest under the strict Brazilian law.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL PROCESSING -Brazil; STERILIZATION; PALM OIL - Quality; OER

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Article Info

No.106 (Jan - Mar 2013) p16-19
Self-dependent Mini Mills
Andrew Yap Kian Chung* and N Ravi Menon*

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Abstract


Self-dependent Mini Mills

All the mills in Malaysia were set up to serve plantations that are fairly large and can produce sufficient crop for a mill capable of processing at least 20 t hr-1. This processing capacity would produce sufficient fuel for generating the required heat and power for the mill and as such may be termed an optimum sized self-supporting palm oil mill. Unfortunately, these mills used boilers and steam turbines that were custom-made to operate with minimum efficiency to address the issue of costly biomass disposal by burning it as a fuel in boilers. These boilers also doubled up as incinerators to burn away the surplus biomass. Unfortunately, nothing was done to find out the capacity of the smallest self-supporting mill. A new focus would invariably uncover new research areas where emphasis will be focused on maximum fuel efficiency and minimum waste. This article explores all the areas that would contribute in one way or other towards the development of the smallest self-supporting mini mill that can serve small plantations operating in isolation.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILLS; MINI MILLS; FUEL EFFICIENCY

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Article Info

No.105 (Oct - Dec 2012) p39
Datasheet - Approximate mass balance in a 10 t hr-1 fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processing mill
-

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Abstract


Datasheet - Approximate mass balance in a 10 t hr-1 fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processing mill

DATASHEET



Keyword(s): DATASHEET; FRESH FRUIT BUNCH (FFB); MASS BALANCE; ENGINEERING AND PROCESSING

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