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LIST OF ARTICLES

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No.109 (Oct - Dec 2013) p39
Datasheet : Composition of a Good Quality Tenera Fruit Bunch
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Abstract


Datasheet : Composition of a Good Quality Tenera Fruit Bunch

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Keyword(s): TENERA, BUNCH COMPONENTS, DATASHEET

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No.109 (Oct - Dec 2013) p31 - 35
Process Review: Part 2
N Ravi Menon*

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Abstract


Process Review: Part 2

Introduction: This is the second review of the Mongana Report. It is rather unfortunate that a repetition of the Mongana trials were not attempted by any organization to match the great contributions of the team of scientists who spent four years under the Cooperative Board financed by the Institute for the Advancement of Scientific Research in Industry and Agriculture (IRSIA). The research work touched on every aspect of palm oil milling process. Probably the major palm oil producers should set up a joint international oil palm research university located either in Malaysia or Indonesia to further advance the milling process that seem to be getting insufficient attention compared to downstream activities. It can be financed by all the palm oil producing nations. It will be interesting to review the comments made by the Board in the preface of the Mongana Report: ‘The Board of the Cooperative Society thought that the collation in one single text of the conclusions available from the four years of research would be of value to members. The Board also thanks the members of the research committee and their collaborators of the Mongana pilot plant and of the Brussels laboratory. Their dedication and hard work have made it possible to produce practical results of immense value’. The assignment was completed by 31 December 1955. It is worthwhile to repeat the trials using modern technology. If that is not forthcoming then the best alternative would be to document the additions or improvements.



Keyword(s): MONGANA REPORT, STERILISATION, OIL LOSS, ENGINEERING AND PROCESSING

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No.109 (Oct - Dec 2013) p13 - 23
Fermentation Pathway for Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Andrew Yap Kian Chung* and Fatah Yah Abdul Manaf*

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Fermentation Pathway for Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Palm oil mills generate about 3 t of effluent for every tonne of crude palm oil (CPO) produced or about 0.6 t of palm oil mill effluent (POME) for every tonne of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processed. This effluent has to be treated to reduce its biological oxygen demand (BOD) before being discharged into the water course. Effluent pond digestion method is the most common treatment practice in almost all mills where the POME is digested by the microorganisms producing unpleasant odour, methane and other greenhouse gases. The objective of this study is to review the important metabolic pathways of microorganisms in order to predict the POME degradation under anaerobic and aerobic conditions.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME), WASTE MANAGEMENT, POME DEGRADATION

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No.108 (July - Sept 2013) p37
Datasheet - FERTILISER CONTENT OF PALM OIL MILL WASTE PRODUCTS
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Datasheet - FERTILISER CONTENT OF PALM OIL MILL WASTE PRODUCTS

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Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILL WASTE, FERTILISER, USES AND BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION

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No.108 (July - Sept 2013) p21-24, 31-34
Process Review: Part 1
N Ravi Menon

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Process Review: Part 1

Introduction: The Mongana Report can be called the treasure house of knowledge that has not been challenged by anyone yet. Most of the best milling we practice have principles descended down from the research finding of the Mongana Report or the Stork Review. This article is an abridged version of the Mongana Report plus some input from the Stork Review. The readers are urged to read the full report to gain more insight in this interesting topic. If a palm oil mill engineer wants to be an expert in milling, get hold of the Mongana Report as well as Stork Review and keep reading a number of times if needed to grasp the knowledge that is presented there. In this series of articles, we shall carry out a critical review of the processes. This is particularly needed now especially when the industry is pressurised to go modern. If modernisation is carried out without a good grasp of the fundamentals, money will be wasted on projects that will not work as the fundamentals will be missing. So articles of this nature could help innovation oriented engineers who may unknowingly plunge into expensive ventures that may end up as failures. Process Review is intended to encourage the millers to review, in depth, all our milling processes so that they may stumble upon new ways of processing. For doing that we may have to probe into some pages in history.



Keyword(s): MONGANA REPORT, ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS, OIL EXTRACTION, ENGINEERING AND PROCESSING

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No.108 (July - Sept 2013) p11-16
Palm Oil Mill OER and Total Oil Losses
Othman Walat and Ng Say Bock

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Palm Oil Mill OER and Total Oil Losses

The use of oil extraction rate (OER)as a tool to measure performance has created a lot of problems for the estates and mills. This is because OER on its own does not tell us where the problem is. Whenever OER is low, the estates point their fingers at the mills and vice versa. In reality, OER is in ‘no man’s land’ and both parties do not want to be held responsible for something that is not within their control. Such ‘finger-pointing’ will continue as long as OER is looked at in isolation without making any cross reference to oil losses. This article proposes the incorporation of ‘oil losses’ into the OER equation to complement the existing method of assessing estate and mill performances. Once the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are weighed in, the mill must be held responsible for all oil losses within the perimeters of the mill. The estate, on the other hand,takes ownership of ‘total oil’, which is ‘OER plus oil losses’. For the system to work, ‘all areas’ of oil losses must be quantified and subjected to regular independent checks. The focus is on oil as the same can be drawn up for kernels.



Keyword(s): -

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No. 107 (Apr - June 2013) p35-36
Datasheet : Palm Oil Mill Carbon Dioxide Production Rate: Ready Reckoner, Chart and Equation
N Ravi Menon

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Datasheet : Palm Oil Mill Carbon Dioxide Production Rate: Ready Reckoner, Chart and Equation

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No. 107 (Apr - June 2013) p31-32
Boiler Maintenance Check List
Yeo Chai Seng

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Boiler Maintenance Check List

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No. 107 (Apr - June 2013) p29-30
Steam as a Greenhouse Gas
N Ravi Menon

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Steam as a Greenhouse Gas

It cannot be denied that steam or cloud is a greenhouse gas (GHG). The formation of cloud and its eventual condensation is a natural process that is beneficial to humanity as it is responsible for the rain which we get. We certainly do not want to touch on that as it is beyond our capacity to interfere with nature.



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No. 107 (Apr - June 2013) p9-18
Measuring Woes Associated with MSPO Audit Compliance
N Ravi Menon

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Measuring Woes Associated with MSPO Audit Compliance

Measurements associated with palm oil extraction process are often categorised as some- thing difficult, if not impossible by some palm oil mill owners and its top management. They often underestimate the importance of accurate measurement of product losses in order to improve the over- all performance of the mill operation ultimately leading to improved productivity. As today’s technology has a lot to offer with the vast product line that is at our disposal to choose from, millers are in a better position than what it was a few decades ago. However, the new technologies for product quality and process efficiency do not seem to be penetrating the palm oil industry fast enough to match the rapid change that is taking place in other edible product processing plants. Any suggestions to improve the prevailing obsolete mill practices are often met with recalcitrant responses that appear to be based more for the sake of opposing rather than based on clear thinking. Even a simple suggestion to tighten the steam joints to prevent steam leakage, in essence a good milling practice, is misconstrued as imposing additional burden on the millers claiming that it will require the measurement of the leaking steam and that it is almost an impossible task. If there is steam blowing out from a lange joint, the natural thing any miller would do is to tighten the bolts on the lange coupling. There is no necessity to quantify the steam that has blown out. No miller would like to produce the steam and allow it to leak not because it will increase the greenhouse gas (GHG) and cost of production. The focal point is why produce something and waste it. In this article, an attempt is made to disseminate to the industry some of the com- mon-sense approaches to regulate wastage of resource materials. Some simple measuring techniques are also recommended for quantifying essential by-products and losses for improving the overall milling efficiency.



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