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LIST OF ARTICLES

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Article Info

No.106 (Jan - Mar 2013) p35
Datasheet
-

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Abstract


Datasheet

- Physical properties of crude palm oil - Other relevant physical properties - Apparent densities for refinded, bleached and deodorised palm oil



Keyword(s): CRUDE PALM OIL; RBD PALM OIL; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

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Article Info

No.106 (Jan - Mar 2013) p27-30
Palm Oil Processing in Brazil: How It is Managed?
Ma Ah Ngan

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Abstract


Palm Oil Processing in Brazil: How It is Managed?

This is an interesting article about the way palm oil processing was carried out in Brazil. Malaysian millers will certainly gain some insight by reading this article. This article is a summary of the findings of a team of research officers from the then Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (PORIM) who visited a palm oil mill in Brazil in August 1997 to study their method of palm oil milling. It was compiled by Dr Ma Ah Ngan who was part of the team and was published in 1977. Mr Hararld Brunckhorst, Managing Director of AGROPALMA S/A, arranged the visit. The mill, Agropalma S/A, located at Belem, Brazil was a 100% Brazilian own corporation. It owned some 45 000 ha of land but only allowed to plant 16 000 ha with oil palm, 2000 ha for infrastructure, which includes two palm oil mills, laboratories, offices, a school and health-assistance units, while the rest are preserved as forest under the strict Brazilian law.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL PROCESSING -Brazil; STERILIZATION; PALM OIL - Quality; OER

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Article Info

No.106 (Jan - Mar 2013) p16-19
Self-dependent Mini Mills
Andrew Yap Kian Chung* and N Ravi Menon*

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Abstract


Self-dependent Mini Mills

All the mills in Malaysia were set up to serve plantations that are fairly large and can produce sufficient crop for a mill capable of processing at least 20 t hr-1. This processing capacity would produce sufficient fuel for generating the required heat and power for the mill and as such may be termed an optimum sized self-supporting palm oil mill. Unfortunately, these mills used boilers and steam turbines that were custom-made to operate with minimum efficiency to address the issue of costly biomass disposal by burning it as a fuel in boilers. These boilers also doubled up as incinerators to burn away the surplus biomass. Unfortunately, nothing was done to find out the capacity of the smallest self-supporting mill. A new focus would invariably uncover new research areas where emphasis will be focused on maximum fuel efficiency and minimum waste. This article explores all the areas that would contribute in one way or other towards the development of the smallest self-supporting mini mill that can serve small plantations operating in isolation.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILLS; MINI MILLS; FUEL EFFICIENCY

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Article Info

No.105 (Oct - Dec 2012) p39
Datasheet - Approximate mass balance in a 10 t hr-1 fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processing mill
-

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Abstract


Datasheet - Approximate mass balance in a 10 t hr-1 fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processing mill

DATASHEET



Keyword(s): DATASHEET; FRESH FRUIT BUNCH (FFB); MASS BALANCE; ENGINEERING AND PROCESSING

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Article Info

No.105 (Oct - Dec 2012) p35-38
Significance of Oil Extraction Rate (OER) Efficiency in a Palm Oil Mill
N Ravi Menon

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Abstract


Significance of Oil Extraction Rate (OER) Efficiency in a Palm Oil Mill

The other day, a mill manager contacted us to say that his boss was always finding fault with him when the oil loss was on the high side. His boss, the General Manager, was a planter by profession but was vested with the mandate to monitor mill operations as well. As the General Manager was always finding fault with the mill manager and turned a deaf ear to his explanations, he was contemplating on resigning and taking up a job overseas. We told to him to hold on and find out a way to make him understand the factors involved. This could be a tough job as another factor called ego also played a vital role in this. If the General Manager said that the total mill process loss should have been below 1.5%, it should have been applicable in all the mills. He had a point there, but not a valid one as there were other factors he had overlooked.  As  this  issue  is  widespread  among the organisations, where the plantation managers take charge of the mills, we thought Perhaps we should make some clarifications for the planters to carefully consider the relevant reasoning behind the rational that oil losses are a function of the oil extraction ratio. Surprisingly,  even the mill engineers are not aware of this simple truth.  In order to justify this statement, some definitions would be of help.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL; OIL EXTRACTION RATE (OER); OIL EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY

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Article Info

No.105 (Oct - Dec 2012) p21-28, 33
Introduction to Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO)
N Ravi Menon

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Abstract


Introduction to Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO)

The following is the draft proposal of the forthcoming Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO) audit programme tailored for the mills. It has been presented to the industry for comments.



Keyword(s): MALAYSIAN SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL (MSPO); MILLERS; INTERNAL AUDIT; SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

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Article Info

No.105 (Oct - Dec 2012) p9 - 16
Coalescing Clarifier for Crude Palm Oil Clarification
Mohamad Sulong; Ronnie C W Tan and Krisada Chavananand

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Abstract


Coalescing Clarifier for Crude Palm Oil Clarification

When oil passes through interspaces between the coalescence plate separator plate, it imparts shear forces to the small oil particles causing them to agglomerate, thereby preventing the formation of emulsion. As a result, the diameter of the oil particles become large and separation efficiency improves.



Keyword(s): CRUDE PALM OIL; CLARIFICATION; OIL SEPARATOR

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Article Info

No.104 (July - Sept 2012) p49
Datasheet : Standard milling product losses
-

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Abstract


Datasheet : Standard milling product losses

DATASHEET



Keyword(s): DATASHEET

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Article Info

No.104 (July - Sept 2012) p33-36; 41-42
Achieving a BOD below 20 mg litre-1 for POME: is it a myth or a reality?
TAN, Ronnie C.W.

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Abstract


Achieving a BOD below 20 mg litre-1 for POME: is it a myth or a reality?

There are a number of effluent treatment systems available now in the market claiming to give excellent results. This could be a valid claim because in most cases it would have performed satisfactorily with other types of effluents. But the problem often overlooked is the dissimilar characteristics of different types of effluents. Each treatment system has to be separately evolved and custom made to be effective. It could be a costly mistake if we blindly adopt a system with a proven track record of effluent treatment when dealing with another industry. One of the critical characteristics of palm oil mill effluent is its extraordinarily high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), that can be as high as 30 000 mg litre-1. Currently, most mills are struggling to keep it below the existing Department of Environment (DOE) limit of 100 mg litres-1. Soon this will have to be lowered to 20 mg litres-1 to keep pace with the rest of the world. Recently, a new method called the biological chemical mechanical and membrane (BCMM) technology has been tried out under R&D in MPOB Palm Oil Mill Technology Centre (August 2010 – February 2011) and in FELDA's Kilang Sawit Neram (January – August 2012), that seemed to deliver consistent results under the normal mill operating conditions.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) ; BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) ; BIOLOGICAL CHEMICAL MECHANICAL and MEMBRANE (BCMM) ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.104 (July - Sept 2012) p21-31
The present status and potentials of biogas production and utilisation for palm oil mills-based residues
TONG, S.L. ; LEE, A.L.

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Abstract


The present status and potentials of biogas production and utilisation for palm oil mills-based residues

The rapid growth of biogas plants in Malaysian palm oil mills in recent times can be attributed to the keen interest of the industry to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from palm oil production, coupled with the potential benefits which can be realised by capturing and utilising the large quantities of biogas to produce renewable energy. During the initial development in the last five to six years, we have observed the applications of the various anaerobic digester technologies for biogas recovery mainly from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment systems, where to date, close to 10% of the palm oil mills have installed some forms of biogas-capture systems. Exponential growth is expected with this trend extending to cover all of the approximately 1000 mills in the ASEAN region. With the expansion of the biogas industry, the potential of the next generation biogas production using alternate sources can be expected. Palm oil mill residues, like POME slurry, solid palm waste materials (empty fruit bunches and oil palm by-products can become alternative or supplementary feedstock materials, to give much higher biogas yields than that from POME. Accompanying this development, various methods of utilisation of the biogas generated has been realised, but it was limited mainly to on-site applications in accordance with site specific factors. These include applications for thermal energy recovery in the different types of boiler systems and for power generation via gas engines for on-site use or connection to the grid. However, the challenges still remained for development of off-site utilisation for the biogas recovered. Prospective applications after upgrading of the biogas (biogas refining), such as compressed natural gas (CNG) equivalent (transport fuel), feeding to natural gas (NG) pipeline and bottling, and transportation for offsite industrial use, also can be foreseen.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) ; GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) ; BIOGAS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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