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LIST OF ARTICLES

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Article Info

No.105 (Oct - Dec 2012) p35-38
Significance of Oil Extraction Rate (OER) Efficiency in a Palm Oil Mill
N Ravi Menon

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Abstract


Significance of Oil Extraction Rate (OER) Efficiency in a Palm Oil Mill

The other day, a mill manager contacted us to say that his boss was always finding fault with him when the oil loss was on the high side. His boss, the General Manager, was a planter by profession but was vested with the mandate to monitor mill operations as well. As the General Manager was always finding fault with the mill manager and turned a deaf ear to his explanations, he was contemplating on resigning and taking up a job overseas. We told to him to hold on and find out a way to make him understand the factors involved. This could be a tough job as another factor called ego also played a vital role in this. If the General Manager said that the total mill process loss should have been below 1.5%, it should have been applicable in all the mills. He had a point there, but not a valid one as there were other factors he had overlooked.  As  this  issue  is  widespread  among the organisations, where the plantation managers take charge of the mills, we thought Perhaps we should make some clarifications for the planters to carefully consider the relevant reasoning behind the rational that oil losses are a function of the oil extraction ratio. Surprisingly,  even the mill engineers are not aware of this simple truth.  In order to justify this statement, some definitions would be of help.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL; OIL EXTRACTION RATE (OER); OIL EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY

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No.105 (Oct - Dec 2012) p21-28, 33
Introduction to Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO)
N Ravi Menon

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Abstract


Introduction to Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO)

The following is the draft proposal of the forthcoming Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO) audit programme tailored for the mills. It has been presented to the industry for comments.



Keyword(s): MALAYSIAN SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL (MSPO); MILLERS; INTERNAL AUDIT; SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

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Article Info

No.105 (Oct - Dec 2012) p9 - 16
Coalescing Clarifier for Crude Palm Oil Clarification
Mohamad Sulong; Ronnie C W Tan and Krisada Chavananand

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Abstract


Coalescing Clarifier for Crude Palm Oil Clarification

When oil passes through interspaces between the coalescence plate separator plate, it imparts shear forces to the small oil particles causing them to agglomerate, thereby preventing the formation of emulsion. As a result, the diameter of the oil particles become large and separation efficiency improves.



Keyword(s): CRUDE PALM OIL; CLARIFICATION; OIL SEPARATOR

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Article Info

No.104 (July - Sept 2012) p49
Datasheet : Standard milling product losses
-

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Abstract


Datasheet : Standard milling product losses

DATASHEET



Keyword(s): DATASHEET

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Article Info

No.104 (July - Sept 2012) p33-36; 41-42
Achieving a BOD below 20 mg litre-1 for POME: is it a myth or a reality?
TAN, Ronnie C.W.

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Abstract


Achieving a BOD below 20 mg litre-1 for POME: is it a myth or a reality?

There are a number of effluent treatment systems available now in the market claiming to give excellent results. This could be a valid claim because in most cases it would have performed satisfactorily with other types of effluents. But the problem often overlooked is the dissimilar characteristics of different types of effluents. Each treatment system has to be separately evolved and custom made to be effective. It could be a costly mistake if we blindly adopt a system with a proven track record of effluent treatment when dealing with another industry. One of the critical characteristics of palm oil mill effluent is its extraordinarily high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), that can be as high as 30 000 mg litre-1. Currently, most mills are struggling to keep it below the existing Department of Environment (DOE) limit of 100 mg litres-1. Soon this will have to be lowered to 20 mg litres-1 to keep pace with the rest of the world. Recently, a new method called the biological chemical mechanical and membrane (BCMM) technology has been tried out under R&D in MPOB Palm Oil Mill Technology Centre (August 2010 – February 2011) and in FELDA's Kilang Sawit Neram (January – August 2012), that seemed to deliver consistent results under the normal mill operating conditions.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) ; BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) ; BIOLOGICAL CHEMICAL MECHANICAL and MEMBRANE (BCMM) ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.104 (July - Sept 2012) p21-31
The present status and potentials of biogas production and utilisation for palm oil mills-based residues
TONG, S.L. ; LEE, A.L.

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Abstract


The present status and potentials of biogas production and utilisation for palm oil mills-based residues

The rapid growth of biogas plants in Malaysian palm oil mills in recent times can be attributed to the keen interest of the industry to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from palm oil production, coupled with the potential benefits which can be realised by capturing and utilising the large quantities of biogas to produce renewable energy. During the initial development in the last five to six years, we have observed the applications of the various anaerobic digester technologies for biogas recovery mainly from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment systems, where to date, close to 10% of the palm oil mills have installed some forms of biogas-capture systems. Exponential growth is expected with this trend extending to cover all of the approximately 1000 mills in the ASEAN region. With the expansion of the biogas industry, the potential of the next generation biogas production using alternate sources can be expected. Palm oil mill residues, like POME slurry, solid palm waste materials (empty fruit bunches and oil palm by-products can become alternative or supplementary feedstock materials, to give much higher biogas yields than that from POME. Accompanying this development, various methods of utilisation of the biogas generated has been realised, but it was limited mainly to on-site applications in accordance with site specific factors. These include applications for thermal energy recovery in the different types of boiler systems and for power generation via gas engines for on-site use or connection to the grid. However, the challenges still remained for development of off-site utilisation for the biogas recovered. Prospective applications after upgrading of the biogas (biogas refining), such as compressed natural gas (CNG) equivalent (transport fuel), feeding to natural gas (NG) pipeline and bottling, and transportation for offsite industrial use, also can be foreseen.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) ; GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) ; BIOGAS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.104 (July - Sept 2012) p9-12
Innovation potentials in palm oil mill design
MENON, N. Ravi

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Abstract


Innovation potentials in palm oil mill design

Horizontal sterilisers are in dire need for improvement. There is great potential for university students to explore the field of sterilisation. It has been found that the sterilisation process practiced by the industry is not founded on sound process technology. There is ample room therefore for improvement not only in the field of sterilisation, but in many other areas of processing as well. In this article, we would focus on sterilisation, the least understood process operation.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILL ; STERILISATION ; INNOVATIONS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.103 (Apr - Jun 2012) p49
Datasheet : Four year vital palm oil industry statistics
-

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Abstract


Datasheet : Four year vital palm oil industry statistics

DATASHEET



Keyword(s): DATASHEET

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Article Info

No.103 (Apr - Jun 2012) p33-34, 39-47
Improving mill oil extraction rate under the Malaysian National Key Economic Area
ADZMI Hassan ; NOR HAYATI Muhammad ; ZULKIFLI Ab Rahman ; ROHAYA Mohamed Halim ; HASLIYANTI Alias ; MAZLINA Sabtu

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Abstract


Improving mill oil extraction rate under the Malaysian National Key Economic Area

Increasing oil extraction rate (OER) to 23% by 2020 is the aim of the fourth Entry Point Project (EPP) under the palm oil National Key Economic Area (NKEA). The national OER over the years have not made significant improvements due to the inconsistent quality of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) supplied to the mills coupled with inefficient machinery installed in some old mills that had expanded but not their machinery resulting in high oil losses during operation. Several strategies were designed to ensure that the objective of NKEA is achievable. Now close monitoring of FFB quality is being implemented by adopting one mill one enforcement officer policy. As for the oil loss, strict protocol on managing oil loss at mill should be the basis for gauging oil loss. The strategies put forward by the NKEA Laboratory is a testimony to a joint understanding between the policy-maker (government) and the industry.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILLS ; PALM OIL-Processing & milling ; FFB ; EXTRACTION RATE ; NKEA ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.103 (Apr - Jun 2012) p21-31
Removal of abrasive materials from FFB before milling
LEE Hock Leong

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Abstract


Removal of abrasive materials from FFB before milling

Fresh fruit bunches (FFB) delivered to mills in Malaysia contain a high volume of trash that accompany the loose fruits when scooping loose fruits from the field using hand or tractor shovels. In the early days of the industry when loose fruits were handpicked, the problem of FFB contamination by trash was virtually non-existent. The acute labour shortage coupled with high labour cost has generated the present problem of high trash content in FFB. The sand, the main component of trash causes serious erosion on process machinery. In addition, the wasted iron is also picked up by the palm oil, which in turn become contaminated by the iron it picks up resulting in oxidation of the palm oil. In order to address this serious problem, many methods were tried out by the industry but none offered a satisfactory solution. This article presents a simple and effective method of selective elimination of trash in FFB based on 12 trials conducted in a mill in August and September 2011. The volume of sand and stones removed was observed to exceed those observed in the conventional system. The implication of the study reveals that further system extension and development can bring about even better trash removal efficiency.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILLS ; PALM OIL-Processing & milling ; FFB ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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