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Article Info

No.104 (July - Sept 2012) p9-12
Innovation potentials in palm oil mill design
MENON, N. Ravi

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Abstract


Innovation potentials in palm oil mill design

Horizontal sterilisers are in dire need for improvement. There is great potential for university students to explore the field of sterilisation. It has been found that the sterilisation process practiced by the industry is not founded on sound process technology. There is ample room therefore for improvement not only in the field of sterilisation, but in many other areas of processing as well. In this article, we would focus on sterilisation, the least understood process operation.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILL ; STERILISATION ; INNOVATIONS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.103 (Apr - Jun 2012) p49
Datasheet : Four year vital palm oil industry statistics
-

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Abstract


Datasheet : Four year vital palm oil industry statistics

DATASHEET



Keyword(s): DATASHEET

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Article Info

No.103 (Apr - Jun 2012) p33-34, 39-47
Improving mill oil extraction rate under the Malaysian National Key Economic Area
ADZMI Hassan ; NOR HAYATI Muhammad ; ZULKIFLI Ab Rahman ; ROHAYA Mohamed Halim ; HASLIYANTI Alias ; MAZLINA Sabtu

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Abstract


Improving mill oil extraction rate under the Malaysian National Key Economic Area

Increasing oil extraction rate (OER) to 23% by 2020 is the aim of the fourth Entry Point Project (EPP) under the palm oil National Key Economic Area (NKEA). The national OER over the years have not made significant improvements due to the inconsistent quality of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) supplied to the mills coupled with inefficient machinery installed in some old mills that had expanded but not their machinery resulting in high oil losses during operation. Several strategies were designed to ensure that the objective of NKEA is achievable. Now close monitoring of FFB quality is being implemented by adopting one mill one enforcement officer policy. As for the oil loss, strict protocol on managing oil loss at mill should be the basis for gauging oil loss. The strategies put forward by the NKEA Laboratory is a testimony to a joint understanding between the policy-maker (government) and the industry.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILLS ; PALM OIL-Processing & milling ; FFB ; EXTRACTION RATE ; NKEA ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.103 (Apr - Jun 2012) p21-31
Removal of abrasive materials from FFB before milling
LEE Hock Leong

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Abstract


Removal of abrasive materials from FFB before milling

Fresh fruit bunches (FFB) delivered to mills in Malaysia contain a high volume of trash that accompany the loose fruits when scooping loose fruits from the field using hand or tractor shovels. In the early days of the industry when loose fruits were handpicked, the problem of FFB contamination by trash was virtually non-existent. The acute labour shortage coupled with high labour cost has generated the present problem of high trash content in FFB. The sand, the main component of trash causes serious erosion on process machinery. In addition, the wasted iron is also picked up by the palm oil, which in turn become contaminated by the iron it picks up resulting in oxidation of the palm oil. In order to address this serious problem, many methods were tried out by the industry but none offered a satisfactory solution. This article presents a simple and effective method of selective elimination of trash in FFB based on 12 trials conducted in a mill in August and September 2011. The volume of sand and stones removed was observed to exceed those observed in the conventional system. The implication of the study reveals that further system extension and development can bring about even better trash removal efficiency.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILLS ; PALM OIL-Processing & milling ; FFB ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.103 (Apr - Jun 2012) p9-13
Palm biomass fuel utilisation in palm oil mills
ANDREW YAP Kian Chung ; MENON, N. Ravi

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Abstract


Palm biomass fuel utilisation in palm oil mills

Since the beginning of the industry, Malaysian palm oil mills have been utilising part of the palm biomass as an energy source for mill operation. The main constituent of the biomass used for power generation in the mill comprised part of the mesocarp fibre and most of the dry palm kernel shell called the fuel mix, at a ratio of about 60% to 40%. The entire empty fruit bunches, the remaining mesocarp fibre and most of the palm kernel shell - mainly the wet palm kernel shell were disposed of or incinerated. The objectives of this study are to compare the CO2 emission during biomass fuel combustion with diesoline combustion. The equivalent mass of diesoline was estimated using its calorific values as a basis for computing the enthalpy content of the respective fuels. Analytical results confirmed that the greenhouse gases emission (GHG) from the combustion of the ‘biomass mixture’ in a boiler is about 2.7 times that of the GHG emission from diesel combustion, when producing the same amount of electrical energy. Although green energy has its merits in helping us to preserve the fossil fuels for the use of future generations its use for power generation as a substitute for fossil comes with a price, viz: the additional GHG released to the atmosphere compared to fossil fuels. The mills use about 15% of the total fibre and 22% of the total shell produced to generate sufficient energy for processing fresh fruit bunches. The fast depleting fossil fuel reserves of the world and the environmentalist’s concern for clean energy has now brought the global attention to the surplus biomass in the mill. This has also encouraged the government to implement suitable policies to promote renewable energy generation in Malaysia.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILLS ; BIOMASS ; CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.102 (Jan - Mar 2012) p31
Datasheet : Energy potential in empty fruit bunches
-

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Abstract


Datasheet : Energy potential in empty fruit bunches

DATASHEET



Keyword(s): DATASHEET

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Article Info

No.102 (Jan - Mar 2012) p19-23
Daring concepts: part 2 - alternative methods of CPO clarification
MENON, N. Ravi

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Abstract


Daring concepts: part 2 - alternative methods of CPO clarification

We must always ask the question: can the existing methods of oil extraction continue to remain stagnant say in 100 years’ time. If the answer is no, then this article will help to rejuvenate the mind to be pro-active and creative. This may sound ridiculous now but may improve the processing techniques currently being practiced in palm oil mills. We are all well-versed with the conventional system of crude palm oil(CPO) clarification comprising the desander, crude oil tank, crude oil pump, continuous static clarification tank, pure oil tank and the vacuum dryer. It is highly unlikely that in the year say 2112, 100 years from now, this method will still prevail without undergoing drastic changes in technology. Now to make an attempt to give an answer to the million ringgit question: what changes need some real dreaming and thinking? We hoped that millers will come up with some ideas but so far the response had been poor. No one is willing to think. Some are afraid of proposing fearing they may get ridiculed. This should not be the case as even intellectuals are known to have experimented with ideas which were fatuous and foolhardy. The following article is certainly not the expected next century technology. It is still within our present era. Crude oil separation can be split into a few phases.



Keyword(s): CPO (CRUDE PALM OIL) ; PALM OIL MILLS ; OIL EXTRACTION RATE ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.102 (Jan - Mar 2012) p9-13
Introduction of the theory of corrosion to millers
ANDREW YAP Kian Chung

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Abstract


Introduction of the theory of corrosion to millers

Rust is a common electrochemical corrosion problem regularly faced by the palm oil industry but most millers and refiners have shown only lukewarm interest in taking serious steps to control rust in the mill machinery especially the storage tanks. Metals act as catalysts in the oxidation reaction where palm free fatty acids react with the iron from the bare metal surfaces to produce oil soluble metallic soaps that will eventually result in pitting on the inner tank surfaces. This in turn leads in oil quality deterioration in a relatively short period of time. The most common and effective way to prevent corrosion is to isolate the metal surfaces from electrolyte by keeping the surface dry and by applying a protective film coating like epoxy coating, epoxy phenolic coating or linseed oil. Proprietary rust treatment formulae may provide appropriate solution but tend to be rather expensive due to the fact that such formulations often comprise inexpensive common chemicals. Commercial rust converters usually are waterbased primer which contain tannic acid or phosphoric acid and an organic polymer usually 2-butoxyethanol that can be applied directly to a rusty surface without bringing the surface down to bare metal. The use is not practical because the accurate thickness and composition of the rust film is impossible to determine. Generally, increased corrosion resistance can only be obtained at an increased cost.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILLS ; HANDLING & STORAGE ; TANK COATINGS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.101 (Oct - Dec 2011) p31
Datasheet : Conversion factors
-

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Abstract


Datasheet : Conversion factors

DATASHEET



Keyword(s): DATASHEET

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Article Info

No.101 (Oct - Dec 2011) p21-24
Daring milling concepts - part 1: measurement of oil in press liquor
MENON, N. Ravi

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Abstract


Daring milling concepts - part 1: measurement of oil in press liquor

This measurement has far reaching consequences if applied in the right places. With the advent of near infra red (NIR) analyser a whole world of opportunities are available to the industry which was not possible before. The NIR analyser has the capability to analyse about 100 analyses per minute and with the possibility of inter-phasing with computer the applications are limitless. MPOB has already successfully tested the analyser for accurate measurement of oil in crude and incorporated it in an automatic dilution control system with feedback loop to operate a pneumatically operated water injection valve. The capability of rapid analysis of the NIR analyser make it ideal for use in control systems with feedback control loop and servomechanisms. The performance of the system based on the graphical output of the percentage of oil in crude using computer interface appears to be quite satisfactory. This system may also be used in many applications where segregation of products with similar properties can be performed automatically.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILL ; PALM OIL MILL-Processing & milling ; OER ; NIR ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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