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LIST OF ARTICLES

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Article Info

No.98 (Jan - Mar 2011) p37-45
Mongana basics: part 24 - general conclusions
MENON, N. Ravi

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Abstract


Mongana basics: part 24 - general conclusions

This article reviews the results of four years of research which can be considered as extremely satisfactory. Areas reviewed as below: - Oil received at the factory - Sterilization - Extraction - Clarification of crude oil - Quality of oil - Processing of nuts - Utilisation of stalks



Keyword(s): PALM OIL-Processing & milling ; PALM OIL MILLS ; WASTE MANAGEMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No.98 (Jan - Mar 2011) p25-26, 31-33
Future milling concepts or idiosyncrasies? Part I
MENON, N. Ravi

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Abstract


Future milling concepts or idiosyncrasies? Part I

The contents of this article are intended to offer to the industry discussions of some imaginary mill design concepts that should not be taken too seriously as they are far from perfect. It may even be qualified to be termed idiosyncrasy but even then it will still serve the purpose of tickling the intelligence of our mill engineers who are no doubt quite innovative. This is only a simple offshoot from the mind of a palm oil mill engineer based on his years of experience in the industry reinforced by his research exposure in the Malaysian Palm Oil Board, a combination very few people will have the opportunity to be blessed with. When writing this article, I tried my best to totally remove all the knowledge I have on existing methods of milling operation to prevent my current thinking from being skewed towards it. Perhaps this exercise itself may merit the credentials of a research work. In order to simplify this exercise, the system boundary and mill compound fencing shall be the same so that activities outside the mill like plantation operation and effluent treatment may be excluded.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL-Processing & milling ; PALM OIL MILLS ; CONCEPTS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.98 (Jan - Mar 2011) p13-19
Risk and crisis management
ANDREW YAP Kian Chung

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Abstract


Risk and crisis management

Palm oil is a prime industry in Malaysia. In the year 2010, 17.56 million tonnes of crude palm oil were produced from 4.69 millions hectares of oil palm planted area in Malaysia. Export earnings of oil palm products were worth RM49.6 billion. Thus, risk and crisis management are vital to minimise the loss affecting society, community, environment, water and the organisation in the event of an unexpected catastrophe.



Keyword(s): RISK MANAGEMENT ; CRISIS MANAGEMENT ; STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

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Article Info

No.97 (Oct - Dec 2010) p63
Datasheet : Composition of palm fruit refuse
-

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Abstract


Datasheet : Composition of palm fruit refuse

DATASHEET



Keyword(s): DATASHEET

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Article Info

No.97 (Oct - Dec 2010) p51-62
Mongana basics: part 23- study of fuel and valorization of the waste products
MENON, N. Ravi

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Abstract


Mongana basics: part 23- study of fuel and valorization of the waste products

The Waste Product the Palm Oil Mill - The approximate percentage composition of bunches processed in palm oil mills is given in Table 1. The amount of waste products is therefore dependent upon the type of bunch. Moreover, the extraction process affects the amount of non-oily solids and fibre which can be recovered or used. In the wet process, two-thirds of the fibre is washed away in water; in the continuous pressing process, one-third of it finds its way into the crude oil. Finally, in the centrifugal extraction technique or by manual press method, only very little of the fibre are removed.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILLS ; PALM OIL-Processing & milling ; WASTE MANAGEMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.97 (Oct - Dec 2010) p47-49
Milling laws
MENON, N. Ravi

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Abstract


Milling laws

During process operation there are many basic principles which should be adhered to in order to operate the mill efficiently. Do you know that a large volume of oil is lost in the sludge water simply because the oil filled cells were not ruptured to release oil? The oil extraction rate (OER) of the mill can be raised quite easily if only certain simple procedures are followed. They are now documented under the code of practice (CoP). They are given in Figure 1 in a consecutive order so that it is easy to comprehend the correct flow from upstream to downstream. There are seven of them. Millers have to depend only on one upstream activity, i.e. good estate practice.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL INDUSTRY ; PALM OIL-Processing & milling ; LAW ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No.97 (Oct - Dec 2010) p29-46
FFB decoring technology revolutionizes palm oil milling process
LOH Tong Weng ; LOH Thim Tham

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Abstract


FFB decoring technology revolutionizes palm oil milling process

The decoring technology (patented by Loh, T W) revolutionizes the decades’ old palm oil milling process by utilizing spikelets/loose fruits rather than fresh fruit bunch (FFB) as feed stock in the cooking/sterilization process. The decoring machine and bucket decoring conveyor remove the core of the FFB thus producing a mixture of loose fruits, spikelets, stalk fibre, debris of organic matters and loose sand, etc. The spikelets are mildly cooked continuously for separation of the loose fruits from the stalk. Clean loose fruits are then sterilized in a continuous sterilizer using steam of about 0.68 barg (10 psig.) in less than 18 min. Empty fruit bunch (EFB) and sterilizer condensate are eliminated. The sterilized fruits are then fed into conventional digesters. The digested fruit mash is first washed by very hot water to get rid of much oil and sludge therein. The nuts are removed before the nut-free fibre is fed into a screw press. By so doing, additional oil can be recovered thus boosting oil extraction rate (OER). Elimination of EFB and sterilizer condensate also would increase OER for the industry and it is a significant monetary return for the country. The decoring technology also ffers many other advantages and benefits such as saving more than 25% in capital cost in mill construction, lower operation and maintenance costs, lower power and steam consumption, and lower wastewater discharge. The oil-free stalk fibre and spikelets together with the excess press fibre are good source of organic materials for making compost, pulp and paper.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL MILLS ; PALM OIL-Processing & milling ; FFB ; DECORING ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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No.97 (Oct - Dec 2010) p13-28
Fuel and combustion theory for palm oil industries
ANDREW YAP Kian Chung

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Abstract


Fuel and combustion theory for palm oil industries

Fuel is vital in palm oil industries to produce steam for electric power generating and heating purposes. Biomass and biogas have been widely utilized in palm oil mills as fuel for renewable energy whereas downstream industries still heavily depend on the fossil fuel as the boiler fuel. Complete combustion is hardly achievable even with excess of air which also causes drop in gross thermal efficiency. The phenomenon of combustion shows that volatile fuel such as methane captured from anaerobic pond is more flammable than solid fuel such as press fibre and shell.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL INDUSTRY ; BIOFUELS ; RENEWABLE ENERGY ; COMBUSTION REACTION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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Article Info

No.96 (July - Sept 2010) p43
Datasheet : ISO metric screw threads BS 3643
-

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Abstract


Datasheet : ISO metric screw threads BS 3643

DATASHEET



Keyword(s): DATASHEET

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Article Info

No.96 (July - Sept 2010) p33-43
Mongana basics: part 22 - separation of the cracked mixture
MENON, N. Ravi

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Abstract


Mongana basics: part 22 - separation of the cracked mixture

In order to avoid the use of a mud bath, the following processes were studied: (a) pneumatic separation; (b)separation by hydrocyclone; and c) miscellaneous methods of separation.



Keyword(s): PALM OIL- Processing & milling ; PALM OIL MILLS ; POME ; NUT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS

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