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No 33
2007 Survey on Quality Parameters and Properties of Palm and Palm Kernel Fatty Acid Distillates from Local Refineries
Bonnie Tay Yen Ping; Tang thin Sue & Mohtar Yusof
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Abstract


The first survey on palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) from local refineries was carried out in 1983. In 1999, a similar survey was conducted and palm kernel fatty acid distillate (PKFAD) were included in the study. There has been a nine-year lapse since the last survey, and this article intends to update the information pertaining to the quality and the composition of the distillates. Results from this update for PFAD, indicated that the quality in terms of iodine value, conventional mass per volume, titre, trace metal contents, saponification value and compositional data (e.g. free fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter), have remained almost unchanged over the years. However, partial glycerides were found to be two times higher than that in the last survey, but with less consistent quantities and the same increase was also observed in the contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols. In the case of PKFAD, while most of the quality remained almost unchanged, there was, however, an obvious drop in the iodine value and free fatty acid content compared to the previous surveys.

Keyword(s): palm fatty acid distillate, palm kernel fatty acid distillate, quality parameters


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No 31
Modelling Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Oil Palm Cultivation and Land-use Change in Malaysia
Ian E Henson
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Abstract


This report is an updated and expanded study of one undertaken previously (Henson,2004). It assesses carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and the resultant carbon balance, associated with oil palm cultivation and related land-use change (LUC) in Malaysia. The updates include the application of new modelling routines, inclusion of additional factors, and expansion of the time frame. A generic computer model OPCABSIM (Oil Palm Carbon Budget Simulator) has been developed for processing all data and providing options for making the assessments. The boundaries of the study are defined as starting at land clearance and field planting of oil palm and extending to the processing and disposal of mill products and by-products. Refining of palm oil and production of oleochemicals are not dealt with, although a brief treatment of biodiesel is included. The previous aspects of the study have been expanded to include emission of GHGs additional to CO2. The period covered is 1981 to 2005, although for some aspects, results for earlier years can be generated where input data are available. Data are, in most cases, processed and presented on a regional basis with individual outputs for Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. As well as giving balances and balance components covering total outputs, results are also presented per tonne of palm oil produced and per hectare. The model facilitates rapid evaluation of the effect of various alternative assumptions on the overall carbon balance and GHG emissions, allowing differing LUC scenarios to be examined, sensitivity analysis to be performed, and major uncertainties to be identified. Results and conclusions are compared with those of the previous study and recent, related investigations.

Keyword(s): OIL PALM-Cultivation ; CROP PRODUCTIVITY ; CARBON EXCHANGE ; FFB YIELDS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No 30
Modelling Oil Palm Nutrient Demand, Nutrient Turnover and Nutrient Balance
Ian E Henson & Chang KC
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Abstract


OPRODSIM (Oil Palm Production Simulator) is a source-based model that simulates fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield based on the assimilate remaining after the requirements of vegetative growth have been met. In its initial form, the model assumes that nutrient supply is non-limiting.

In this report, the ‘demands’ for the major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) needed to achieve ‘satisfactory’ yields of oil palm are considered, and equations to calculate these are incorporated in an updated version of the model. A nutrient balance is developed that takes account of nutrient uptake and storage in permanent biomass, nutrient export in FFB, nutrient turnover within the plantation, nutrient inputs by rain, legume covers and mill by-products, and nutrient losses by leaching and other processes. Some uncertainties are identified such as the fate of nutrients in cut frond bases and decaying male inflorescences.

Nutrient budgets are presented and the results are compared with those from field experiments.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; OIL PALM-Cultivation ; NUTRIENT BALANCE ; SOIL NUTRIENTS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No 29
Modelling The Impact of Some Oil Palm Crop Management Options
Ian E Henson
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Abstract


One use of crop growth simulation models is to aid formulation of crop management decisions. The mechanistic model, OPRODSIM (Oil Palm Production Simulator), includes several options to explore the possible outcomes of such decisions. These are: i) time of year of planting, ii) initial planting density, iii) methods of underplanting, iv) ablation, v) frond pruning, vi) stand thinning, vii) irrigation and viii) varying crop cycle length (palm age at replanting). The model also facilitates a simple assessment of crop loss due to certain pests and diseases. The consequences of planting time depend on site rainfall pattern, but date of planting was found to have surprisingly little effect on annual yield at a dry site averaged over 10 or more years. However, simulating the long-term effects of initial growth check s resulting from poor planting conditions proved difficult, and this aspect of the model is in need of improving. The model was able to simulate several observed effects of planting density, such as the relatively small response of vegetative, compared with bunch, production and the existence of an optimum leaf area index (LAI) and total biomass for yield. There were, however, considerable differences between these relations when comparing the two methods of simulating vegetative biomass production (VBP) and it was concluded that use of the standard method (which derives VBP from LAI) is not appropriate for simulating extremes of planting density. Various effects of under-planting were reproduced satisfactorily and the yield gains and losses resulting from different under-planting treatments accorded well with experimental data. Simulation of ablation (inflorescence disbudding) resulted in a stimulation of vegetative growth during the disbudding period followed by a small increase in yield in the year after ablation ceased, similar to field observations. However, the longerterm effects on cumulative yield were not reproduced. With respect to frond pruning, the model allows considerable manipulation of frond number over and above that resulting from routine pruning carried out during bunch harvesting. As in practice, excessive pruning was detrimental to yield. However, the model generally predicted lower yield from over-pruned palms than observed in trials. Several reasons for this discrepancy are discussed and one means of partially correcting it was tested. The pruning option was also used, with modifications, to simulate the effects of defoliation by insect pests. Thinning of the stand, either as a planned event following high density planting, or as an ad hoc response to yield depression due to over-vigorous vegetative growth, or as a consequence of palm loss due to disease, was also evaluated. However, the effects on yield of different planting arrangements which result from thinning, and the irregular stands resulting from disease attacks, need to be better understood and modelled. The irrigation option, available with simulation of soil water balance, was upgraded to include two methods for varying irrigation frequency and amount. The simulated yield responses to irrigation were in several respects similar to those observed, though some of the modeled results are still in need of testing in the field. Finally, the model was used to compare the effects of planting cycle length on cumulative yield and thus, to estimate an optimum age for re-planting. This was found to depend both on stand vigour (as reflected by frond size) and planting density. Thus far, the analyses consider yield alone. However, extension of the model 6;s capabilities to include cost assessments of the various strategies is envisaged.

Keyword(s): OIL PALM-Cultivation ; OIL PALM-Yields ; PLANTATION MANAGEMENT ; PLANTING DENSITY ; ABLATION ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No 28
Modelling The Impact of Climatic and Climate-Related Factors on Oil Palm Growth and Productivity
Ian E Henson
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Accounting for the effects of climate is an important aspect of crop simulation modelling. Climatic factors such as radiation, temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind have both direct and indirect effects on crop growth. The main indirect effects occur through changes in soil water supply and evaporative demand. In the oil palm productivity model OPRODSIM (Oil Palm Production Simulator), an attempt is made to simulate the effects of these factors on oil palm growth and yield, using the best available information. The model uses independent climate data sets, specific to major Malaysian oil palm environments. Currently, four representative climatic conditions are provided, with a further option for the user to employ his own data set if available. The model can be used to evaluate each climatic element individually or in combination with others. It includes a standard soil water balance routine that calculates soil water deficit and evapotranspiration. Potential evapotranspiration and atmospheric vapour pressure deficit, if not provided as inputs, are also calculated. The information is used to assess probable effects on both vegetative and reproductive growth of oil palm. Options to change rainfall and explore the effects of the water holding capacity of the soil are included. The model also considers the consequences for yield of climate modifying factors such as haze, El Niño and global warming.

Keyword(s): OIL PALM-Cultivation ; OIL PALM-Climatology ; SOIL FERTILITY ; WATER SUPPLY ; NUTRIENTS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No 27
Modelling Carbon Sequestration and Emissions Related to Oil Palm Cultivation and Associated Land Use Change in Malaysia
Ian E Henson
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This report attempts perhaps the first comprehensive accounting of carbon sequestration and emission associated with the establishment and cultivation of oil palm in Malaysia and with the initial processing of its products. The study examines carbon exchanges over the final two decades of the last century, i.e. 1981 to 2000. Effects on carbon balance of land conversion associated with the expansion of oil palm planted area are included in the analysis. For determining the changes, use has been made of official statistics on areas and production, while modelling techniques have been employed to derive estimates of those variables for which direct information is lacking. Alternative scenarios are compared. Uncertainties in available data and assumptions used in the modelling are highlighted and areas requiring improved data access or collection are identified.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL & OIL PALM INDUSTRY-Malaysia ; OIL PALM-Cultivation ; CARBON EXCHANGE ; FFB YIELDS ; OIL PALM-Production ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No 26
Oil Palm Cloning : MPOB Protocol
Rohani Othman, Zamzuri Ishak, Ahmad Tarmizi Hashim
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Abstract


Cloning or vegetative propagation is advantageous in the multiplication of elite plants. Many plants are cloned via cuttings, bud grafting, marcotting, etc. However, there are plants that cannot be cloned using these methods.These plants do not produce axillary buds or suckers that can be used for cloning. The oil palm, coconut and some rattan species are examples of such plants. With the advancement of tissue culture, or in vitro method, however, it has been possible for such plants to be cloned. In the past, monocots have been categorized as recalcitrant to the tissue culture process. However, through dedicated research and perseverance, it is now possible to clone monocots suchas the date palm (Tisserat et al., 1979), coconut (Thanh-Tuyen and Apurillo, 1992), rattan (Aziah, 1989) and oil palm (Jones, 1974; RabÈchault and Martin, 1976; Paranjothy and Othman, 1982). The success in producing oil palm clones has spurred oil palm organizations to set up their own tissue culture laboratories. With an estimated 30% increase in yield by the clones compared to commercial seedlings (Hardon et al., 1987), this would be a lucrative investment.

Keyword(s): OIL PALM ; OIL PALM CLONES ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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Article Info

No 25
Crop Residue Management During Oil Palm Replanting
Khalid Haron, Zin Zawawi Zakaria, Ahmad Tarmizi Mohammed
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Abstract




Keyword(s): CROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENT ; OIL PALM REPLANTING ; OIL PALM SOILS ; PLANTING AND REPLANTING ; OIL PALM PESTS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No 24
Palm-Based Polyols And Polyurethanes
Salmiah Ahmad
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Abstract


In the year 2000, the world consumed about 8.65 million tonnes of polyurethanes (PU) comprising 4.64 million tonnes polyols and 3.81 million tonnes isocyanates. All these raw materials were petrochemical-based. Due to the fast depletion of petroleum, R&D to look into alternative sources for PU raw materials has been on-going. But to date, only the production of polyol based on renewable materials such as oils/fats and starch has been reported. A process to convert palm oil into polyols was developed by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) and InterMed Sdn. Bhd. The process was scaled up to 800 kg batch -1 and the palm-based polyols were used to produce a variety of PU products. Depending on the reagents and process conditions, palm-based polyols with viscosities ranging from 4000 cP to 35 000 cP, hydroxyl values ranging from 110 - 200 mg KOH g-1 , and molecular weights ranging from 4500 to 30 000 were produced. Some of these polyols were similar in properties to petroleum-based while others were very different. The polyols were used to prepare polyurethane foams (PUF) with only water as a blowing agent and their properties evaluated. Based on the special properties exhibited by palm-based PUF, certain niche applications were identified and these include flower foam, ceiling panel and roof insulation. The price of palm-based polyols and PUF are expected to increase with the price of palm oil; however, the price is expected to remain competitive to petroleum-based even when the price of palm oil is RM 2500 t-1 . The world market for PU is expected to grow at about 6% per year with the major growth expected to be in the Asia Pacific region. Thus, the commercialization of palm-based polyols is anticipated to be economically viable.

Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; POLYOLS ; POLYURETHANE ; FOAMS ; PRICES ; MARKET DEVELOPMENT ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS


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No 23
Characteristics of Palm Olein from Elaeis guineensis Palm Oil
Siew Wai Lin
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Abstract




Keyword(s): PALM OIL ; PALM OLEIN ; ELAEIS GUINEENSIS ; CHARACTERISTICS ; MPOB PUBLICATIONS ; TECHNICAL REPORTS


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© Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). All Rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

This online publication is electronically compiled by Palm Information Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
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